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Title: Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients

Abstract

Purpose: At present, proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for growing children is delivered to the whole vertebral body (WVB) to avoid asymmetric growth. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of delivering vertebral body sparing (VBS) versus WVB CSI with passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in growing children treated for medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Five plans were generated for medulloblastoma patients, who had been previously treated with CSI PS proton radiation therapy: (1) single posteroanterior (PA) PS field covering the WVB (PS-PA-WVB); (2) single PA PS field that included only the thecal sac in the target volume (PS-PA-VBS); (3) single PA IMPT field covering the WVB (IMPT-PA-WVB); (4) single PA IMPT field, target volume including thecal sac only (IMPT-PA-VBS); and (5) 2 posterior-oblique (−35°, +35°) IMPT fields, with the target volume including the thecal sac only (IMPT2F-VBS). For all cases, 23.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]) was prescribed to 95% of the spinal canal. The dose, linear energy transfer, and variable-RBE-weighted dose distributions were calculated for all plans using the tool for particle simulation, version 2, Monte Carlo system. Results: IMPT VBS techniques efficiently spared the anterior vertebral bodies (AVBs), even when accounting for potentialmore » higher variable RBE predicted by linear energy transfer distributions. Assuming an RBE of 1.1, the V10 Gy(RBE) decreased from 100% for the WVB techniques to 59.5% to 76.8% for the cervical, 29.9% to 34.6% for the thoracic, and 20.6% to 25.1% for the lumbar AVBs, and the V20 Gy(RBE) decreased from 99.0% to 17.8% to 20.0% for the cervical, 7.2% to 7.6% for the thoracic, and 4.0% to 4.6% for the lumbar AVBs when IMPT VBS techniques were applied. The corresponding percentages for the PS VBS technique were higher. Conclusions: Advanced proton techniques can sufficiently reduce the dose to the vertebral body and allow for vertebral column growth for children with central nervous system tumors requiring CSI. This was true even when considering variable RBE values. A clinical trial is planned for VBS to the thoracic and lumbosacral spine in growing children.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649905
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 98; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; CHILDREN; CLINICAL TRIALS; GY RANGE 10-100; IRRADIATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PALLADIUM; PATIENTS; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; RBE

Citation Formats

Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@mgh.harvard.edu, Seco, Joao, Eaton, Bree R., Simeone, F. Joseph, Kooy, Hanne, Yock, Torunn I., Tarbell, Nancy J., DeLaney, Thomas F., Adams, Judith, Paganetti, Harald, and MacDonald, Shannon M. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.01.226.
Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@mgh.harvard.edu, Seco, Joao, Eaton, Bree R., Simeone, F. Joseph, Kooy, Hanne, Yock, Torunn I., Tarbell, Nancy J., DeLaney, Thomas F., Adams, Judith, Paganetti, Harald, & MacDonald, Shannon M. Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.01.226.
Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@mgh.harvard.edu, Seco, Joao, Eaton, Bree R., Simeone, F. Joseph, Kooy, Hanne, Yock, Torunn I., Tarbell, Nancy J., DeLaney, Thomas F., Adams, Judith, Paganetti, Harald, and MacDonald, Shannon M. Mon . "Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.01.226.
@article{osti_22649905,
title = {Evaluating Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Relative to Passive Scattering Proton Therapy for Increased Vertebral Column Sparing in Craniospinal Irradiation in Growing Pediatric Patients},
author = {Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@mgh.harvard.edu and Seco, Joao and Eaton, Bree R. and Simeone, F. Joseph and Kooy, Hanne and Yock, Torunn I. and Tarbell, Nancy J. and DeLaney, Thomas F. and Adams, Judith and Paganetti, Harald and MacDonald, Shannon M.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: At present, proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for growing children is delivered to the whole vertebral body (WVB) to avoid asymmetric growth. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of delivering vertebral body sparing (VBS) versus WVB CSI with passively scattered (PS) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in growing children treated for medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Five plans were generated for medulloblastoma patients, who had been previously treated with CSI PS proton radiation therapy: (1) single posteroanterior (PA) PS field covering the WVB (PS-PA-WVB); (2) single PA PS field that included only the thecal sac in the target volume (PS-PA-VBS); (3) single PA IMPT field covering the WVB (IMPT-PA-WVB); (4) single PA IMPT field, target volume including thecal sac only (IMPT-PA-VBS); and (5) 2 posterior-oblique (−35°, +35°) IMPT fields, with the target volume including the thecal sac only (IMPT2F-VBS). For all cases, 23.4 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness [RBE]) was prescribed to 95% of the spinal canal. The dose, linear energy transfer, and variable-RBE-weighted dose distributions were calculated for all plans using the tool for particle simulation, version 2, Monte Carlo system. Results: IMPT VBS techniques efficiently spared the anterior vertebral bodies (AVBs), even when accounting for potential higher variable RBE predicted by linear energy transfer distributions. Assuming an RBE of 1.1, the V10 Gy(RBE) decreased from 100% for the WVB techniques to 59.5% to 76.8% for the cervical, 29.9% to 34.6% for the thoracic, and 20.6% to 25.1% for the lumbar AVBs, and the V20 Gy(RBE) decreased from 99.0% to 17.8% to 20.0% for the cervical, 7.2% to 7.6% for the thoracic, and 4.0% to 4.6% for the lumbar AVBs when IMPT VBS techniques were applied. The corresponding percentages for the PS VBS technique were higher. Conclusions: Advanced proton techniques can sufficiently reduce the dose to the vertebral body and allow for vertebral column growth for children with central nervous system tumors requiring CSI. This was true even when considering variable RBE values. A clinical trial is planned for VBS to the thoracic and lumbosacral spine in growing children.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2017.01.226},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 98,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Purpose: To investigate the trade-off between vertebral column sparing and thecal-sac target coverage in craniospinal irradiation (CSI) of pediatric patients treated with passive-scattering (PS) and intensity modulated (IMPT) proton therapy. Methods: We selected 2 pediatric patients treated with PS CSI for medulloblastoma. Spinal irradiation was re-planned with IMPT. For all cases, we assumed prescription dose of 23.4 Gy(RBE), with the spinal canal receiving at least 95% of 23.4 Gy(RBE). PS planning was performed using the commercial system XiO. IMPT planning was done using the Astroid planning system. Beam arrangements consisted of (a) PS posterior-anterior (PA) field, PS-PA, (b) IMPT PAmore » field, IMPT-PA, and (c) two posterior oblique IMPT fields, IMPT2 (-35°, 35°). Dose distributions were re-calculated using TOPAS Monte Carlo, along with LET distributions, to investigate LET variations within the target and vertebra anatomy. Variable RBE-weighed dose distributions were also calculated based on a dose and LET-dependent biophysical model. Dosimetric data were compared among the plans for the target volume, spinal cord and adjacent critical organs (thecal-sac and cauda equina). Results: IMPT2 resulted in better sparing of the posterior vertebral column (entrance region posterior to thecal-sac), where planned dose was approximately 6–8Gy(RBE). For IMPT-PA and PS-PA the MC-calculated dose to the posterior vertebral column was, on average, 20Gy and 18Gy respectively. For IMPT2 higher mean-LET (5keV/µm/(g/cm3)) values were observed in anterior vertebral column (beyond the thecal-sac) relative to IMPT-PA and PS-PA, where mean-LET was 3.5keV/µm/(g/cm3) and 2.5keV/µm/(g/cm3) respectively. The higher LET region observed for both IMPT plans was in the distal end of treatment fields, where dose delivered was less 5Gy(RBE). Conclusion: The two-oblique proton beams IMPT2 best spared the spinal column, while reducing the dose to the posterior spinal column from 18–20 to 6–8 Gy(RBE). The best LET distribution was obtained with the PS-PA fields.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate use of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and number of beams for sparing cochlea in treatment of whole brain for pediatric medulloblastoma patients. Methods: In our institution, craniospinal irradiation patients are treated in supine position on our proton gantries using pencil beam scanning with each beam uniformly covering the target volume (SFUD). Each treatment plan consists of two opposed lateral whole brain fields and one or two spinal fields. For sparing the cochlea for the whole brain treatment, we created three different plans using IMPT for five pediatric patients. The first plan consisted of two lateral fields,more » the second two lateral fields and a superior-inferior field, and the third two lateral fields and two superior oblique fields. Optimization was performed with heavy weights applied to the eye, lens and cochlea while maintaining a dose prescription of 36 Gy to the whole brain. Results: IMPT plans reduce the dose to the cochlea. Increasing the number of treatment fields was found to lower the average dose to the cochlea: 15.0, 14.5 and 12.5 Gy for the two-field, three-field, and four-field plans respectively. The D95 for the two-field plan was 98.2%, compared to 100.0% for both the three-field and four-field plan. Coverage in the mid-brain was noticeably better in the three- and four-field plans, with more dose conformality surrounding the cochlea. Conclusion: IMPT plans for CSI and the whole brain irradiations are capable of sparing cochlea and reduce the dose considerably without compromising treating brain tissues. The reduction in average dose increases with three and four field plans as compared to traditional two lateral beam plans.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate local positioning errors of the lumbar spine during fractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy of patients treated with craniospinal irradiation and to assess the impact of rotational error correction on these uncertainties for one patient setup correction strategy. Methods and Materials: 8 patients (6 adults, 2 children) treated with helical tomotherapy for craniospinal irradiation were retrospectively chosen for this analysis. Patients were immobilized with a deep-drawn Aquaplast head mask. Additionally to daily megavoltage control computed tomography scans of the skull, once-a-week positioning of the lumbar spine was assessed. Therefore, patient setup was corrected by a target point correction, derived frommore » a registration of the patient's skull. The residual positioning variations of the lumbar spine were evaluated applying a rigid-registration algorithm. The impact of different rotational error corrections was simulated. Results: After target point correction, residual local positioning errors of the lumbar spine varied considerably. Craniocaudal axis rotational error correction did not improve or deteriorate these translational errors, whereas simulation of a rotational error correction of the right-left and anterior-posterior axis increased these errors by a factor of 2 to 3. Conclusion: The patient fixation used allows for deformations between the patient's skull and spine. Therefore, for the setup correction strategy evaluated in this study, generous margins for the lumbar spinal target volume are needed to prevent a local geographic miss. With any applied correction strategy, it needs to be evaluated whether or not a rotational error correction is beneficial.« less
  • Purpose: To compare dose volume histograms of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) with those of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) for the treatment of stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the possibility of individualized radical radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose volume histograms designed to deliver IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, PSPT at 74 Gy, and IMPT at the same doses were compared and the use of individualized radical radiotherapy was assessed in patients with extensive stage IIIB NSCLC (n = 10 patients for each approach). These patients were selected based on theirmore » extensive disease and were considered to have no or borderline tolerance to IMRT at 60 to 63 Gy, based on the dose to normal tissue volume constraints (lung volume receiving 20 Gy [V20] of <35%, total mean lung dose <20 Gy; spinal cord dose, <45 Gy). The possibility of increasing the total tumor dose with IMPT for each patient without exceeding the dose volume constraints (maximum tolerated dose [MTD]) was also investigated. Results: Compared with IMRT, IMPT spared more lung, heart, spinal cord, and esophagus, even with dose escalation from 63 Gy to 83.5 Gy, with a mean MTD of 74 Gy. Compared with PSPT, IMPT allowed further dose escalation from 74 Gy to a mean MTD of 84.4 Gy (range, 79.4-88.4 Gy) while all parameters of normal tissue sparing were kept at lower or similar levels. In addition, IMPT prevented lower-dose target coverage in patients with complicated tumor anatomies. Conclusions: IMPT reduces the dose to normal tissue and allows individualized radical radiotherapy for extensive stage IIIB NSCLC.« less
  • With traditional photon therapy to treat large postoperative pancreatic target volume, it often leads to poor tolerance of the therapy delivered and may contribute to interrupted treatment course. This study was performed to evaluate the potential advantage of using passive-scattering (PS) and modulated-scanning (MS) proton therapy (PT) to reduce normal tissue exposure in postoperative pancreatic cancer treatment. A total of 11 patients with postoperative pancreatic cancer who had been previously treated with PS PT in University of Pennsylvania Roberts Proton Therapy Center from 2010 to 2013 were identified. The clinical target volume (CTV) includes the pancreatic tumor bed as wellmore » as the adjacent high-risk nodal areas. Internal (iCTV) was generated from 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT), taking into account target motion from breathing cycle. Three-field and 4-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy, 2-arc volumetric-modulated radiation therapy, and 2-field PS and MS PT were created on the patients’ average CT. All the plans delivered 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV). Overall, 98% of PTV was covered by 95% of the prescription dose and 99% of iCTV received 98% prescription dose. The results show that all the proton plans offer significant lower doses to the left kidney (mean and V{sub 18} {sub Gy}), stomach (mean and V{sub 20} {sub Gy}), and cord (maximum dose) compared with all the photon plans, except 3-field 3DCRT in cord maximum dose. In addition, MS PT also provides lower doses to the right kidney (mean and V{sub 18} {sub Gy}), liver (mean dose), total bowel (V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and mean dose), and small bowel (V{sub 15} {sub Gy} absolute volume ratio) compared with all the photon plans and PS PT. The dosimetric advantage of PT points to the possibility of treating tumor bed and comprehensive nodal areas while providing a more tolerable treatment course that could be used for dose escalation and combining with radiosensitizing chemotherapy.« less