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Title: Influence of the Extent and Dose of Radiation on Complications After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Subsequent Esophagectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction With a Cervical Anastomosis

Abstract

Purpose: To determine, in a large series, the influence of the extent and dose of radiation to the fundus of the stomach and mediastinum on the development and severity of anastomotic complications in patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2012, 364 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (41.4 Gy combined with chemotherapy) followed by esophagectomy were included. The future anastomotic region in the fundus was determined, and the mean dose, V20-V40, and upper planning target volume border in relation to mediastinal length, expressed as the mediastinal ratio, were calculated. Results: Anastomotic leakage occurred in 22% and anastomotic stenosis in 41%. Logistic regression analysis revealed no influence of age, comorbidity, mean fundus dose, V20-V40, or the mediastinal ratio on the incidence of anastomotic leakage or anastomotic stenosis. In 28% of the patients severe complications (Clavien-Dindo score of ≥IIIB) occurred. The presence of multiple comorbidities (hazard ratio 2.4 [95% confidence interval 1.3-4.5], P=.006) and a mediastinal ratio of 0.5 to 1.0 (hazard ratio 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.0-3.5], P=.036) were both independent predictors of severe complications. Conclusion: With a mean radiation dose of 24.2 Gy to the futuremore » anastomotic region of the gastric fundus, the radiation dose was not associated with the incidence of anastomotic leakage or anastomotic stenosis. The incidence of severe complications was associated with a high superior mediastinal planning target volume border.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [4]
  1. Department of Surgery, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
  2. Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
  4. Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649871
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 97; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CHEMOTHERAPY; GY RANGE 10-100; LEAKS; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Citation Formats

Koëter, M., Kathiravetpillai, N., Gooszen, J.A., Berge Henegouwen, M.I. van, Gisbertz, S.S., Sangen, M.J.C. van der, Luyer, M.D.P., Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P., E-mail: grard.nieuwenhuijzen@catharinaziekenhuis.nl, and Hulshof, M.C.C.M.. Influence of the Extent and Dose of Radiation on Complications After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Subsequent Esophagectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction With a Cervical Anastomosis. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.11.054.
Koëter, M., Kathiravetpillai, N., Gooszen, J.A., Berge Henegouwen, M.I. van, Gisbertz, S.S., Sangen, M.J.C. van der, Luyer, M.D.P., Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P., E-mail: grard.nieuwenhuijzen@catharinaziekenhuis.nl, & Hulshof, M.C.C.M.. Influence of the Extent and Dose of Radiation on Complications After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Subsequent Esophagectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction With a Cervical Anastomosis. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.11.054.
Koëter, M., Kathiravetpillai, N., Gooszen, J.A., Berge Henegouwen, M.I. van, Gisbertz, S.S., Sangen, M.J.C. van der, Luyer, M.D.P., Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P., E-mail: grard.nieuwenhuijzen@catharinaziekenhuis.nl, and Hulshof, M.C.C.M.. Wed . "Influence of the Extent and Dose of Radiation on Complications After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Subsequent Esophagectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction With a Cervical Anastomosis". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.11.054.
@article{osti_22649871,
title = {Influence of the Extent and Dose of Radiation on Complications After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Subsequent Esophagectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction With a Cervical Anastomosis},
author = {Koëter, M. and Kathiravetpillai, N. and Gooszen, J.A. and Berge Henegouwen, M.I. van and Gisbertz, S.S. and Sangen, M.J.C. van der and Luyer, M.D.P. and Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P., E-mail: grard.nieuwenhuijzen@catharinaziekenhuis.nl and Hulshof, M.C.C.M.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To determine, in a large series, the influence of the extent and dose of radiation to the fundus of the stomach and mediastinum on the development and severity of anastomotic complications in patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis. Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2012, 364 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (41.4 Gy combined with chemotherapy) followed by esophagectomy were included. The future anastomotic region in the fundus was determined, and the mean dose, V20-V40, and upper planning target volume border in relation to mediastinal length, expressed as the mediastinal ratio, were calculated. Results: Anastomotic leakage occurred in 22% and anastomotic stenosis in 41%. Logistic regression analysis revealed no influence of age, comorbidity, mean fundus dose, V20-V40, or the mediastinal ratio on the incidence of anastomotic leakage or anastomotic stenosis. In 28% of the patients severe complications (Clavien-Dindo score of ≥IIIB) occurred. The presence of multiple comorbidities (hazard ratio 2.4 [95% confidence interval 1.3-4.5], P=.006) and a mediastinal ratio of 0.5 to 1.0 (hazard ratio 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.0-3.5], P=.036) were both independent predictors of severe complications. Conclusion: With a mean radiation dose of 24.2 Gy to the future anastomotic region of the gastric fundus, the radiation dose was not associated with the incidence of anastomotic leakage or anastomotic stenosis. The incidence of severe complications was associated with a high superior mediastinal planning target volume border.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.11.054},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 97,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is increasingly used in locally advanced esophageal cancer. Some studies have suggested that CRT results in increased surgical morbidity. We assessed the influence of CRT on anastomotic complications in a cohort of patients who underwent CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and pathologic data were collected from all patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT (36 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. On the radiotherapy (RT) planning computed tomography scans, normal tissue volumes were drawn encompassing the proximal esophageal region and the gastric fundus. Within these volumes, dose-volume histogramsmore » were analyzed to generate the total dose to 50% of the volume (D{sub 50}). We studied the ability of the D{sub 50} to predict anastomotic complications (leakage, ischemia, or stenosis). Dose limits were derived using receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Fifty-four patients were available for analysis. RT resulted in either T or N downstaging in 51% of patients; complete pathologic response was achieved in 11%. In-hospital mortality was 5.4%, and major morbidity occurred in 36% of patients. Anastomotic complications (AC) developed in 7 patients (13%). No significant influence of the D{sub 50} on the proximal esophagus was noted on the anastomotic complication rate. The median D{sub 50} on the gastric fundus, however, was 33 Gy in patients with AC and 18 Gy in patients without AC (p = 0.024). Using receiver operating characteristics analysis, the D{sub 50} limit on the gastric fundus was defined as 29 Gy. Conclusions: In patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, the incidence of AC is related to the RT dose on the gastric fundus but not to the dose received by the proximal esophagus. When planning preoperative RT, efforts should be made to limit the median dose on the gastric fundus to 29 Gy with a V{sub 30} below 40%.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors andmore » the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy for early-stage cervical cancer.« less
  • Purpose: Our aim was to investigate the association of clinical factors, dosimetric parameters, and biomarkers with postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated by neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) under strict pulmonary dose constraints and esophagectomy. Methods and Materials: We prospectively enrolled 112 patients undergoing trimodality treatment (including radiation therapy [40 Gy], concurrent taxane-/5-fluorouracil-based regimens, and radical esophagectomy) for ESCC. A PPC was defined as pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome within 30 days after surgery. Serum samples were collected before and within 1 month after CCRT. The association of serum biomarkers with PPCs wasmore » detected by proximity ligation assay (PLA) and verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations of clinical factors, lung dosimetric parameters, and biomarkers with PPC were tested statistically. Results: Thirty-three patients (29.5%) had PPCs. None of the dosimetric parameters was associated with PPCs. Preoperative functional vital capacity (FVC) was significantly associated with PPCs (P=.004). Of the 15 PLA-screened biomarkers, posttreatment transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was borderline significantly associated with PPCs (P=.087). Patients with PPCs had significantly larger pre-CCRT to post-CCRT decrease in serum TGF-β1 concentration (−11,310 vs −5332 pg/mL, P=.005) and higher pre-CCRT to post-CCRT percent decline in serum TGF-β1 concentration (−37.4% vs −25.0%, P=.009) than patients without PPCs. On multivariate analysis, preoperative FVC (P=.003) and decrease in TGF-β1 >7040 pg/mL (P=.014) were independent factors associated with PPCs. Conclusions: Preoperative FVC and decrease in serum TGF-β1 level after dose-limited CCRT to the lung are associated with the development of PPCs.« less
  • Purpose: To assess how neoadjuvant chemoradiation regimens modulate the immune system state in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN), in the setting of advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tumor-draining lymph nodes of patients undergoing chemotherapy only (nonirradiated, NI-TDLN) and chemoradiation with lower-dose (39.6 Gy, LD-TDLN) and higher-dose radiation (50 Gy, HD-TDLN) were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry. Results: Enlarging our previous data, LD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an enhanced antitumor response as compared with NI-TDLN, namely a significant Th1 and Tc1 polarization and a lower amount of the potent CD4{sup +}Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup high} regulatory T cell (Treg) subset identified bymore » neuropilin-1 expression. Conversely, compared with NI-TDLN, HD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an impaired antitumor response, namely a significantly inverted CD4/CD8 cell ratio, a higher Nrp1{sup +}Treg frequency, and a higher frequency of CCR4{sup +}Treg, a Treg subset facilitated in migrating out from TDLN to suppress the immune response against distant cancer cells. Moreover, the Th1 and Tc1 polarization induced by LD radiation was lost, and there was an unfavorable tolerogenic/immunogenic dendritic cell ratio compared with LD-TDLN. Conclusions: Even minor differences in radiation dose in neoadjuvant regimens for locally advanced cervical cancer are crucial for determining the balance between a tolerogenic and an efficacious antitumor immune response in TDLN. Because most of the anticancer immune response takes place in TDLN, the present findings also emphasize the importance of chemoradiation protocols in the context of immunotherapeutic trials.« less
  • Background: The use of induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery has been widely used for the treatment of esophageal cancer. The presumed risk of increased postoperative morbidity and mortality with this regimen has led to reluctance to offer this therapy to elderly patients. We compared the perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients 70 years old and older with those of patients younger than 70 who received CRT followed by esophagectomy and sought to identify preoperative risk factors that may predict higher risk of postoperative death or complications. Methods and Materials: We identified 260 patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy.more » The association of age with postoperative death and complications was evaluated. The Charlson index, prior cardiac history, and diabetes were identified as preoperative risk factors and were evaluated as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results: Cardiac disease and the Charlson index were potential modifiers of the effect of age on length of hospital stay (p = 0.08 and p = 0.07, respectively) and postoperative complications (p = 0.1 and p = 0.2) but were not statistically significant. There was a slight nonsignificant decrease in the risk of death in elderly patients after adjustment for the Charlson index (p = 0.2). Conclusion: No significant differences were detected with respect to morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. The presence of cardiac disease, higher scores on the Charlson index, or diabetes did not significantly influence length of stay, postoperative complications, or postoperative death. Given the potential to improve outcomes, this regimen should not be discounted in elderly patients.« less