skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines

Abstract

Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, microplate based, label-free detection approach. This study investigates how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology. Experiments were performed at 32 °C, 37 °C and 42 °C using assay medium conditions and equipment settings adjusted to produce equal oxygen and pH levels ubiquitously at the beginning of all experiments. The results suggest that temperature significantly changes multiple components of glycolytic and mitochondrial function of all cell lines tested. Under hypothermia conditions (32 °C), the extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) of CRC cells were significantly lower compared to the same basal ECAR levels measured at 37 °C. Mitochondrial stress test for SW480 cells at 37 °C vs 42 °C demonstrated increased proton leak while all other OCR components remained unchanged (similar results were detected also for the patient-derived xenograftmore » cells Pt.93). Interestingly, the FCCP dose response at 37 °C vs 42 °C show significant shifts in profiles, suggesting that single dose FCCP experiments might not be sufficient to characterize the mitochondrial metabolic potential when comparing groups, conditions or treatments. These findings provide valuable insights for the metabolic and bioenergetic changes of CRC cells under hypo- and hyperthermia conditions that could potentially lead to development of better targeted and personalized strategies for patients undergoing combined thermotherapy with chemotherapy.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ;  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)
  2. Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)
  3. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649856
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 354; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACIDIFICATION; ADENOSINE; ATP; AUC; BIOLOGICAL STRESS; CARBONYLS; CHEMOTHERAPY; CLINICAL TRIALS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CYANIDES; DOXORUBICIN; FUNCTIONS; GLYCOLYSIS; HYPERTHERMIA; HYPOTHERMIA; MITOCHONDRIA; NEOPLASMS; OXIDATION; OXYGEN; PATIENTS; PHOSPHORYLATION

Citation Formats

Mitov, Mihail I., E-mail: m.mitov@uky.edu, Harris, Jennifer W., Alstott, Michael C., Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y., Evers, B. Mark, Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, Butterfield, D. Allan, and Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506. Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.03.046.
Mitov, Mihail I., E-mail: m.mitov@uky.edu, Harris, Jennifer W., Alstott, Michael C., Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y., Evers, B. Mark, Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, Butterfield, D. Allan, & Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506. Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines. United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.03.046.
Mitov, Mihail I., E-mail: m.mitov@uky.edu, Harris, Jennifer W., Alstott, Michael C., Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y., Evers, B. Mark, Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, Butterfield, D. Allan, and Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506. Mon . "Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines". United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.03.046.
@article{osti_22649856,
title = {Temperature induces significant changes in both glycolytic reserve and mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity in colorectal cancer cell lines},
author = {Mitov, Mihail I., E-mail: m.mitov@uky.edu and Harris, Jennifer W. and Alstott, Michael C. and Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y. and Evers, B. Mark and Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 and Butterfield, D. Allan and Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506},
abstractNote = {Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, microplate based, label-free detection approach. This study investigates how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology. Experiments were performed at 32 °C, 37 °C and 42 °C using assay medium conditions and equipment settings adjusted to produce equal oxygen and pH levels ubiquitously at the beginning of all experiments. The results suggest that temperature significantly changes multiple components of glycolytic and mitochondrial function of all cell lines tested. Under hypothermia conditions (32 °C), the extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) of CRC cells were significantly lower compared to the same basal ECAR levels measured at 37 °C. Mitochondrial stress test for SW480 cells at 37 °C vs 42 °C demonstrated increased proton leak while all other OCR components remained unchanged (similar results were detected also for the patient-derived xenograft cells Pt.93). Interestingly, the FCCP dose response at 37 °C vs 42 °C show significant shifts in profiles, suggesting that single dose FCCP experiments might not be sufficient to characterize the mitochondrial metabolic potential when comparing groups, conditions or treatments. These findings provide valuable insights for the metabolic and bioenergetic changes of CRC cells under hypo- and hyperthermia conditions that could potentially lead to development of better targeted and personalized strategies for patients undergoing combined thermotherapy with chemotherapy.},
doi = {10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.03.046},
journal = {Experimental Cell Research},
number = 2,
volume = 354,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • The synthetic retinoid-related molecule CD437-induced apoptosis in human epithelial airway respiratory cells: the 16HBE bronchial cell line and normal nasal epithelial cells. CD437 caused apoptosis in S-phase cells and cell cycle arrest in S phase. Apoptosis was abolished by caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk which preserved S-phase cells but was weakly inhibited by others selective caspase-inhibitors, indicating that caspase-8 activation was involved. z-VAD and z-IETD prevented the nuclear envelope fragmentation but did not block the chromatin condensation. The disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was also induced by CD437 treatment. The translocation of Bax to mitochondria was demonstrated, as well as the releasemore » of cytochrome c into the cytosol and of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocated into the nucleus. z-VAD and z-IETD did not inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, Bax translocation or release of cytochrome c and AIF from mitochondria. These results suggest that CD437-induced apoptosis is executed by two converging pathways. AIF release is responsible for chromatin condensation, the first stage of apoptotic cell, via a mitochondrial pathway independent of caspase. But final stage of apoptosis requires the caspase-8-dependent nuclear envelope fragmentation. In addition, using SP600125, JNK inhibitor, we demonstrated that CD437 activates the JNK-MAP kinase signaling pathway upstream to mitochondrial and caspase-8 pathways. Conversely, JNK pathway inhibition, which suppresses S-phase apoptosis, did not prevent cell cycle arrest within S phase, confirming that these processes are triggered by distinct mechanisms.« less
  • CD147 is a multifunctional transmembrane protein and promotes cancer progression. We found that the anti-human CD147 mouse monoclonal antibody MEM-M6/1 strongly induces necrosis-like cell death in LoVo, HT-29, WiDr, and SW620 colon cancer cells and A2058 melanoma cells, but not in WI-38 and TIG-113 normal fibroblasts. Silencing or overexpression of CD147 in LoVo cells enhanced or decreased the MEM-M6/1 induced cell death, respectively. CD147 is known to form complex with proton-linked monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which is critical for lactate transport and intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis. In LoVo cells, CD147 and MCT-1 co-localized on the cell surface, and MEM-M6/1 inhibited themore » association of these molecules. MEM-M6/1 inhibited lactate uptake, lactate release, and reduced pHi. Further, the induction of acidification was parallel to the decrease of the glycolytic flux and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were not found in the normal fibroblasts. As cancer cells depend on glycolysis for their energy production, CD147 inhibition might induce cell death specific to cancer cells.« less
  • Ndc80 has been shown to play an important role in stable microtubule-kinetochore attachment, chromosome alignment, and spindle checkpoint activation in mitosis. It is composed of two heterodimers, CDCA1-KNTC2 and SPC24-SPC25. Overexpression of CDCA1 and KNTC2 is reported to be associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), and siRNA-mediated knockdown against CDCA1 or KNTC2 has been found to inhibit cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in NSCLC, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer and glioma. Therefore, CDCA1 and KNTC2 can be considered good candidates for molecular target therapy as well as diagnosis in some cancers. However, the role of themore » Ndc80 complex in colorectal and gastric cancers (CRC and GC) still remains unclear. In the present study, we used qRT-PCR to evaluate the expression levels of CDCA1, KNTC2, SPC24 and SPC25 in CRC and GC and employed siRNA-mediated knockdown to examine cell proliferation and apoptosis. mRNA overexpression of these four genes was observed in CRCs and GCs when compared with the corresponding normal mucosae. Additionally, the expression levels of tumor/normal ratios of CDCA1, KNTC2, SPC24 and SPC25 correlated with each other in CRCs. MTT assays revealed that cell growths after the siRNA-mediated knockdown of either CDCA1 or KNTC2 were significantly suppressed, and flow cytometry analyses revealed significant increases of the subG1 fractions after knockdown against both genes. Our present results suggest that expressional control of component molecules of Ndc80 can be utilized for molecular target therapy of patients with CRC and GC.« less
  • Epigenetic alteration induced loss function of the transcription factor 21 (TCF21) has been associated with different types of human cancers. However, the epigenetic regulation and molecular functions of TCF21 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. In this study, TCF21 expression levels and methylation status of its promoter region in CRC cell lines (n = 5) and CRC tissues (n = 151) as well as normal colorectal mucosa (n = 30) were assessed by RTq-PCR and methylation analysis (methylation specific PCR, MSP and bisulfite sequencing PCR, BSP), respectively. The cellular functions of TCF21 on CRC cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration were investigated in vitro. Our data revealedmore » that TCF21 was frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in both tested CRC cell lines and primary CRC, and correlation analysis between methylation status and clinicopathologic parameters found that TCF21 methylation was significantly correlated with lymph node invasion (P = 0.013), while no significant correlation was found in other parameters. In addition, demethylation treatment resulted in re-expression of TCF21 in CRC cell lines, and cellular function experiments revealed that restoration of TCF21 inhibited CRC cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis and suppressed cell invasion and migration, suggesting that TCF21 may function as a tumor suppressor gene, which is downregulated through promoter hypermethylation in CRC development. - Highlights: • TCF21 was frequently silenced by promoter DNA methylation in CRC cells. • TCF21 was frequently methylated in primary CRC and significantly correlated with metastasis. • Restoration of TCF21 promotes cell apoptosis of CRC cells. • Restoration of TCF21 inhibits cell invasion and migration of CRC cells.« less
  • Highlights: {yields} NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. {yields} Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. {yields} Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalyticmore » activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.« less