skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body

Abstract

The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known. Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human CB slices when acute hypoxic conditions were applied. Analysis of the hypoxia-regulated miRNAs shows that they target biological pathways with upregulation of functions related to cell proliferation and immune response and downregulation of cell differentiation and cell death functions. Comparative analysis of the human CB miRNAome with the global miRNA expression patterns of a large number of different human tissues showed that the CB miRNAome had a unique profile which reflects its highly specialized functional status. Nevertheless, the human CB miRNAome is most closely related to the miRNA expression pattern of brain tissues indicating thatmore » they may have the most similar developmental origins. - Highlights: • Hypoxia triggers differential expression of many miRNAs in the human carotid body. • This can lead to the upregulation of proliferation and immune response functions. • CB expression profile in the carotid body resembles the miRNA expression pattern in the brain. • miRNAs are involved in the regulation of carotid body functions including oxygen sensing.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [2];  [3]; ;  [1];  [3]
  1. Section for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)
  2. Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 117599 Singapore (Singapore)
  3. (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649846
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 352; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANIMAL TISSUES; ANIMALS; ANOXIA; APOPTOSIS; BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS; BIOLOGICAL RECOVERY; BRAIN; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; GENES; HOMEOSTASIS; LEAD; OXYGEN; REGULATIONS; RESPONSE FUNCTIONS; RNA; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Mkrtchian, Souren, E-mail: souren.mkrtchian@ki.se, Lee, Kian Leong, E-mail: csilkl@nus.edu.sg, Kåhlin, Jessica, Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Ebberyd, Anette, Poellinger, Lorenz, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson, Eriksson, Lars I., and Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm. Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.02.027.
Mkrtchian, Souren, E-mail: souren.mkrtchian@ki.se, Lee, Kian Leong, E-mail: csilkl@nus.edu.sg, Kåhlin, Jessica, Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Ebberyd, Anette, Poellinger, Lorenz, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson, Eriksson, Lars I., & Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm. Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body. United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.02.027.
Mkrtchian, Souren, E-mail: souren.mkrtchian@ki.se, Lee, Kian Leong, E-mail: csilkl@nus.edu.sg, Kåhlin, Jessica, Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Ebberyd, Anette, Poellinger, Lorenz, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson, Eriksson, Lars I., and Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm. Wed . "Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body". United States. doi:10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.02.027.
@article{osti_22649846,
title = {Hypoxia regulates microRNA expression in the human carotid body},
author = {Mkrtchian, Souren, E-mail: souren.mkrtchian@ki.se and Lee, Kian Leong, E-mail: csilkl@nus.edu.sg and Kåhlin, Jessica and Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm and Ebberyd, Anette and Poellinger, Lorenz and Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm and Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson and Eriksson, Lars I. and Function Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm},
abstractNote = {The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known. Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human CB slices when acute hypoxic conditions were applied. Analysis of the hypoxia-regulated miRNAs shows that they target biological pathways with upregulation of functions related to cell proliferation and immune response and downregulation of cell differentiation and cell death functions. Comparative analysis of the human CB miRNAome with the global miRNA expression patterns of a large number of different human tissues showed that the CB miRNAome had a unique profile which reflects its highly specialized functional status. Nevertheless, the human CB miRNAome is most closely related to the miRNA expression pattern of brain tissues indicating that they may have the most similar developmental origins. - Highlights: • Hypoxia triggers differential expression of many miRNAs in the human carotid body. • This can lead to the upregulation of proliferation and immune response functions. • CB expression profile in the carotid body resembles the miRNA expression pattern in the brain. • miRNAs are involved in the regulation of carotid body functions including oxygen sensing.},
doi = {10.1016/J.YEXCR.2017.02.027},
journal = {Experimental Cell Research},
number = 2,
volume = 352,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • miR-140-5p is down-regulated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and experimental models of PAH, and inhibits hypoxia-mediated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation in vitro. Delivery of synthetic miR-140-5p prevents and treats established, experimental PAH. DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is up-regulated in PAH associated human PASMCs (HPASMCs), which promotes the development of PAH by hypermethylation of CpG islands within the promoter for superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and down-regulating SOD2 expression. We searched for miR-140-5p targets using TargetScan, PicTar and MiRanda tools, and found that Dnmt1 is a potential target of miR-140-5p. Based on these findings, we speculated that miR-140-5pmore » might target Dnmt1 and regulate SOD2 expression to regulate hypoxia-mediated HPASMC proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. We detected the expression of miR-140-5p, Dnmt1 and SOD2 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot assays, respectively, and found down-regulation of miR-140-5p and SOD2 and up-regulation of Dnmt1 exist in PAH tissues and hypoxia-mediated HPASMCs. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation detection showed that miR-140-5p inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis and differentiation of HPASMCs in hypoxia, while the effect of Dnmt1 on hypoxia-mediated HPASMCs is reversed. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-140-5p targets Dnmt1 directly. An inverse correlation is also found between miR-140-5p and Dnmt1 in HPASMCs. In addition, we further investigated whether miR-140-5p and Dnmt1 regulate HPASMC proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation by regulating SOD2 expression, and the results confirmed our speculation. Taken together, these results indicated that miR-140-5p at least partly targets Dnmt1 and regulates SOD2 expression to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis and differentiation of HPASMCs in hypoxia. - Highlights: • miR-140-5p and SOD2 are down-regulated in PAH tissues and hypoxia-mediated HPASMCs. • Dnmt1 is up-regulated in PAH tissues and hypoxia-mediated HPASMCs. • miR-140-5p regulates HPASMC proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. • Dnmt1 and SOD2 regulates HPASMC proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. • miR-140-5p targets Dnmt1 and regulates SOD2 expression.« less
  • MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggestmore » that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.« less
  • Previous studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise role of miRNAs in NSC remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that miR-378 can target Tailless (TLX), a critical regulator of NSC, to regulate NSC proliferation and differentiation. By bioinformatic algorithms, miR-378 was found to have a predicted target site in the 3′-untranslated region of TLX, which was verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The expression of miR-378 was increased during NSC differentiation and inversely correlated with TLX expression. qPCR and Western blot analysis alsomore » showed that miR-378 negatively regulated TLX mRNA and protein expression in neural stem cells (NSCs). Intriguingly, overexpression of miR-378 increased NSC differentiation and reduced NSC proliferation, whereas suppression of miR-378 led to decreased NSC differentiation and increased NSC proliferation. Moreover, the downstream targets of TLX, including p21, PTEN and Wnt/β-catenin were also found to be regulated by miR-378. Additionally, overexpression of TLX rescued the NSC proliferation deficiency induced by miR-378 overexpression and abolished miR-378-promoted NSC differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-378 is a novel miRNA that regulates NSC proliferation and differentiation via targeting TLX. Therefore, manipulating miR-378 in NSCs could be a novel strategy to develop novel interventions for the treatment of relevant neurological disorders. - Highlights: • miR-378 targeted and regulated TLX. • miR-378 was increased during NSC differentiation. • miR-378 regulated NSC proliferation and differentiation. • miR-378 regulated NSC self-renew through TLX.« less
  • LATS2 is a member of the LATS tumor suppressor family. It has been implicated in regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis. Frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of LATS2 has been reported in human esophageal cancer. But, the LATS2 gene expression and its regulatory mechanism in esophageal cancer remain unclear. The present study has shown that LATS2 protein expression was mediated by miR-373 at the post-transcriptional level and inversely correlated with miR-373 amounts in esophageal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the direct inhibition of LATS2 protein was mediated by miR-373 and manipulated the expression of miR-373 to affectmore » esophageal cancer cells growth. Moreover, this correlation was supported by data collected ex vivo, in which esophageal cancer tissues from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were analyzed. Finally, by miRNA microarray analysis, four miRNAs including miR-373 were over-expressed in ESCC samples. Our findings reveal that miR-373 would be a potential oncogene and it participates in the carcinogenesis of human esophageal cancer by suppressing LATS2 expression.« less
  • Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation onmore » Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder layers maintain human iPS cells pluripotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs negatively regulates the synthesis of primary precursor miRNA in human iPS.« less