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Title: Formation of donors in germanium–silicon alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with different energies

Abstract

The distributions of hydrogen-containing donors in Ge{sub 1–x}Si{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with an energy of 200 and 300 keV and a dose of 1 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2} are studied. It is established that, at the higher ion energy, the limiting donor concentration after postimplantation heat treatment (275°C) is attained within ~30 min and, at the lower energy, within ~320 min. In contrast to donors formed near the surface, a portion of hydrogen-containing donors formed upon the implantation of ions with the higher energy possess the property of bistability. The limiting donor concentration is independent of the ion energy, but decreases from 1.3 × 10{sup 16} to 1.5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –3}, as the Si impurity content in the alloy is increased from x = 0.008 to x = 0.062. It is inferred that the observed differences arise from the participation of the surface in the donor formation process, since the surface significantly influences defect-formation processes involving radiation-induced defects, whose generation accompanies implantation.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ;  [1]
  1. Belarusian State University (Belarus)
  2. University of Manchester (United Kingdom)
  3. Leibnitz Institute of Crystal Growth (Germany)
  4. Sevchenko Institute of Applied Physical Problems (Belarus)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649717
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Semiconductors; Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CONCENTRATION RATIO; GERMANIUM ALLOYS; HEAT TREATMENTS; HYDROGEN; HYDROGEN IONS; ION IMPLANTATION; IRRADIATION; KEV RANGE; PHYSICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; SILICON; SILICON ALLOYS; SURFACES

Citation Formats

Pokotilo, Yu. M., E-mail: Pokotilo@bsu.by, Petukh, A. N., Litvinov, V. V., Markevich, V. P., Abrosimov, N. V., Kamyshan, A. S., Giro, A. V., and Solyanikova, K. A. Formation of donors in germanium–silicon alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with different energies. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1134/S1063782616080182.
Pokotilo, Yu. M., E-mail: Pokotilo@bsu.by, Petukh, A. N., Litvinov, V. V., Markevich, V. P., Abrosimov, N. V., Kamyshan, A. S., Giro, A. V., & Solyanikova, K. A. Formation of donors in germanium–silicon alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with different energies. United States. doi:10.1134/S1063782616080182.
Pokotilo, Yu. M., E-mail: Pokotilo@bsu.by, Petukh, A. N., Litvinov, V. V., Markevich, V. P., Abrosimov, N. V., Kamyshan, A. S., Giro, A. V., and Solyanikova, K. A. 2016. "Formation of donors in germanium–silicon alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with different energies". United States. doi:10.1134/S1063782616080182.
@article{osti_22649717,
title = {Formation of donors in germanium–silicon alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with different energies},
author = {Pokotilo, Yu. M., E-mail: Pokotilo@bsu.by and Petukh, A. N. and Litvinov, V. V. and Markevich, V. P. and Abrosimov, N. V. and Kamyshan, A. S. and Giro, A. V. and Solyanikova, K. A.},
abstractNote = {The distributions of hydrogen-containing donors in Ge{sub 1–x}Si{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with an energy of 200 and 300 keV and a dose of 1 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2} are studied. It is established that, at the higher ion energy, the limiting donor concentration after postimplantation heat treatment (275°C) is attained within ~30 min and, at the lower energy, within ~320 min. In contrast to donors formed near the surface, a portion of hydrogen-containing donors formed upon the implantation of ions with the higher energy possess the property of bistability. The limiting donor concentration is independent of the ion energy, but decreases from 1.3 × 10{sup 16} to 1.5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –3}, as the Si impurity content in the alloy is increased from x = 0.008 to x = 0.062. It is inferred that the observed differences arise from the participation of the surface in the donor formation process, since the surface significantly influences defect-formation processes involving radiation-induced defects, whose generation accompanies implantation.},
doi = {10.1134/S1063782616080182},
journal = {Semiconductors},
number = 8,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}
  • The method of C-V characteristics has been used to study the accumulation kinetics of double and shallow hydrogen-related donors in proton-implanted epitaxial silicon. It is shown that the kinetics corresponds to the first-order reactions. The activation energies {delta}E{sub 1} = 2.3 eV and {delta}E{sub 2} = 1.4 eV and the pre-exponential factors {tau}{sub 01} = 9.1 x 10{sup -17} s and {tau}{sub 02} = 4.2 x 10{sup -9} s were determined for both types of the donors, respectively. It was shown that the bistability of the electric properties of silicon is due to the double hydrogen-related donor.
  • The correct potential in the effective mass equation should be the difference of the potential of a donor in the solid and that of an atom of the semiconductor host crystal. Such a difference potential is constructed for the centralcell region (defined by a sphere of radius of half the nearest neighbor distance), by making use of the Thomas-Fermi statistical theory. and considered as a perturbation to the potential (a simple Coulomb potential shielded by the static dielectric constant of the semiconductor) of the uncorrected theory. Using first-order perturbation theory, the energy corrections are computed and the ground state energiesmore » of P, As, Sb, and Bi in Si and Ge are found to be (the minus signs are not denoted) 31, 35, 39, 45 Mev and 8.9, 9.3, 9.6, 10.0 Mev, respectively, representing a definite improvement over the values of 29 Mev and 9.2 Mev which were predicted for all donors in Si and Ge, respectively, by the uncorrected theory. The possible sources of the still remaining discrepancies between theoretical and experimental values are discussed and attributed partly to effects outside of the central-cell region and partly to approximations involved in the present treatment that resulted in obtaining a lower limit for the size of the corrections. (auth)« less
  • In silicon samples doped with germanium to a concentration 5 x 10/sup 19/-10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/ after heat treatment at 450/sup 0/C the breakdown of the thermal donors and restoration of the electrical resistivity to a value close to the resistivity of the unannealed samples, proceed faster, than in samples not doped with germanium. It is indirectly confirmed by the assumption that the oxygen solubility in germanium-doped silicon samples is higher at 450/sup 0/C than in the undoped samples.