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Title: Epitaxial growth of GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures for HEMTs in horizontal MOCVD reactors with different designs

Abstract

The epitaxial growth of InAlN layers and GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures for HEMTs in growth systems with horizontal reactors of the sizes 1 × 2', 3 × 2', and 6 × 2' is investigated. Studies of the structural properties of the grown InAlN layers and electrophysical parameters of the GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures show that the optimal quality of epitaxial growth is attained upon a compromise between the growth conditions for InGaN and AlGaN. A comparison of the epitaxial growth in different reactors shows that optimal conditions are realized in small-scale reactors which make possible the suppression of parasitic reactions in the gas phase. In addition, the size of the reactor should be sufficient to provide highly homogeneous heterostructure parameters over area for the subsequent fabrication of devices. The optimal compositions and thicknesses of the InAlN layer for attaining the highest conductance in GaN/AlN/InAlN transistor heterostructures.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
  2. CEMES–CNRS—Université de Toulouse (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649701
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Semiconductors; Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALUMINIUM NITRIDES; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CRYSTAL GROWTH; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; EPITAXY; FABRICATION; GALLIUM NITRIDES; HETEROJUNCTIONS; INDIUM COMPOUNDS; LAYERS; TRANSISTORS

Citation Formats

Tsatsulnikov, A. F., E-mail: andrew@beam.ioffe.ru, Lundin, W. V., Sakharov, A. V., Zavarin, E. E., Usov, S. O., Nikolaev, A. E., Yagovkina, M. A., Ustinov, V. M., and Cherkashin, N. A. Epitaxial growth of GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures for HEMTs in horizontal MOCVD reactors with different designs. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1134/S1063782616090232.
Tsatsulnikov, A. F., E-mail: andrew@beam.ioffe.ru, Lundin, W. V., Sakharov, A. V., Zavarin, E. E., Usov, S. O., Nikolaev, A. E., Yagovkina, M. A., Ustinov, V. M., & Cherkashin, N. A. Epitaxial growth of GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures for HEMTs in horizontal MOCVD reactors with different designs. United States. doi:10.1134/S1063782616090232.
Tsatsulnikov, A. F., E-mail: andrew@beam.ioffe.ru, Lundin, W. V., Sakharov, A. V., Zavarin, E. E., Usov, S. O., Nikolaev, A. E., Yagovkina, M. A., Ustinov, V. M., and Cherkashin, N. A. Thu . "Epitaxial growth of GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures for HEMTs in horizontal MOCVD reactors with different designs". United States. doi:10.1134/S1063782616090232.
@article{osti_22649701,
title = {Epitaxial growth of GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures for HEMTs in horizontal MOCVD reactors with different designs},
author = {Tsatsulnikov, A. F., E-mail: andrew@beam.ioffe.ru and Lundin, W. V. and Sakharov, A. V. and Zavarin, E. E. and Usov, S. O. and Nikolaev, A. E. and Yagovkina, M. A. and Ustinov, V. M. and Cherkashin, N. A.},
abstractNote = {The epitaxial growth of InAlN layers and GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures for HEMTs in growth systems with horizontal reactors of the sizes 1 × 2', 3 × 2', and 6 × 2' is investigated. Studies of the structural properties of the grown InAlN layers and electrophysical parameters of the GaN/AlN/InAlN heterostructures show that the optimal quality of epitaxial growth is attained upon a compromise between the growth conditions for InGaN and AlGaN. A comparison of the epitaxial growth in different reactors shows that optimal conditions are realized in small-scale reactors which make possible the suppression of parasitic reactions in the gas phase. In addition, the size of the reactor should be sufficient to provide highly homogeneous heterostructure parameters over area for the subsequent fabrication of devices. The optimal compositions and thicknesses of the InAlN layer for attaining the highest conductance in GaN/AlN/InAlN transistor heterostructures.},
doi = {10.1134/S1063782616090232},
journal = {Semiconductors},
number = 9,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • The effect of the layer thickness and composition in AlGaN/AlN/GaN and InAlN/AlN/GaN transistor heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas on their electrical and the static parameters of test transistors fabricated from such heterostructures are experimentally and theoretically studied. It is shown that the use of an InAlN barrier layer instead of AlGaN results in a more than twofold increase in the carrier concentration in the channel, which leads to a corresponding increase in the saturation current. In situ dielectric-coating deposition on the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure surface during growth process allows an increase in the maximum saturation current and breakdown voltages whilemore » retaining high transconductance.« less
  • This paper reports on the electrical characterization of Ni/Au Schottky diodes fabricated on InAlN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures grown on low dislocation density free-standing GaN substrates. InAlN HEMT structures were grown on sapphire and GaN substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, and the effects of threading dislocation density on the leakage characteristics of Ni/Au Schottky diodes were investigated. Threading dislocation densities were determined to be 1.8 × 10{sup 4 }cm{sup −2} and 1.2 × 10{sup 9 }cm{sup −2} by the cathodoluminescence measurement for the HEMT structures grown on GaN and sapphire substrates, respectively. Leakage characteristics of Ni/Au Schottky diodes were compared between the two samples, andmore » a reduction of the leakage current of about three to four orders of magnitude was observed in the forward bias region. For the high reverse bias region, however, no significant improvement was confirmed. We believe that the leakage current in the low bias region is governed by a dislocation-related Frenkel–Poole emission, and the leakage current in the high reverse bias region originates from field emission due to the large internal electric field in the InAlN barrier layer. Our results demonstrated that the reduction of dislocation density is effective in reducing leakage current in the low bias region. At the same time, it was also revealed that another approach will be needed, for instance, band modulation by impurity doping and insertion of insulating layers beneath the gate electrodes for a substantial reduction of the gate leakage current.« less
  • Single crystal AlN thin films were epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire (0001) substrates on a macroscopic scale by magnetron sputtering. The microscopic structure and orientation degree of the AlN epilayers were studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal spacing mapping. It was revealed that the AlN epilayers have high in-plane and out-of-plane orientation degrees and low defect density. The electrical and optical properties of the AlN epilayers were also studied, and the results suggest that the AlN epilayers grown by sputtering may be employed in the fabrication of GaN-based light-emitting diode devices with increased efficiency.
  • Using the dielectric continuum (DC) and three-dimensional phonon (3DP) models, energy relaxation (ER) of the hot electrons in the quasi-two-dimensional channel of lattice-matched InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures is studied theoretically, taking into account non-equilibrium polar optical phonons, electron degeneracy, and screening from the mobile electrons. The electron power dissipation (PD) and ER time due to both half-space and interface phonons are calculated as functions of the electron temperature T{sub e} using a variety of phonon lifetime values from experiment, and then compared with those evaluated by the 3DP model. Thereby, particular attention is paid to examination of the 3DP model to usemore » for the hot-electron relaxation study. The 3DP model yields very close results to the DC model: With no hot phonons or screening, the power loss calculated from the 3DP model is 5% smaller than the DC power dissipation, whereas slightly larger 3DP power loss (by less than 4% with a phonon lifetime from 0.1 to 1 ps) is obtained throughout the electron temperature range from room temperature to 2500 K after including both the hot-phonon effect (HPE) and screening. Very close results are obtained also for ER time with the two phonon models (within a 5% of deviation). However, the 3DP model is found to underestimate the HPE by 9%. The Mori-Ando sum rule is restored by which it is proved that the PD values obtained from the DC and 3DP models are in general different in the spontaneous phonon emission process, except when scattering with interface phonons is sufficiently weak, or when the degenerate modes condition is imposed, which is also consistent with Register's scattering rate sum rule. The discrepancy between the DC and 3DP results is found to be caused by how much the high-energy interface phonons contribute to the ER: their contribution is enhanced in the spontaneous emission process but is dramatically reduced after including the HPE. Our calculation with both phonon models has obtained a great fall in ER time at low electron temperatures (T{sub e} < 750 K) and slow decrease at the high temperatures with the use of decreasing phonon lifetime with T{sub e}. The calculated temperature dependence of the relaxation time and the high-temperature relaxation time ∼0.09 ps are in good agreement with experimental results.« less
  • Severe surface decomposition of semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates occurred in high-temperature H{sub 2} atmosphere prior to epitaxial growth in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system. A two-step heating process with a surface stabilization technique was developed to preserve the GaN template surface. Utilizing the optimized heating process, a high two-dimensional electron gas mobility ∼2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s was obtained in a thin AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure with an only 100-nm-thick GaN spacer layer homoepitaxially grown on the GaN template. This technique was also demonstrated viable for native GaN substrates to stabilize the surface facilitating two-dimensional growth of GaN layers. Very high residual silicon andmore » oxygen concentrations were found up to ∼1 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at the interface between the GaN epilayer and the native GaN substrate. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed that the residual carbon doping controlled by growth conditions of the GaN epilayer can be used to successfully compensate the donor-like impurities. State-of-the-art structural properties of a high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure was then realized on a 1 × 1 cm{sup 2} SI native GaN substrate; the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curves of the GaN (002) and (102) peaks are only 21 and 14 arc sec, respectively. The surface morphology of the heterostructure shows uniform parallel bilayer steps, and no morphological defects were noticeable over the entire epi-wafer.« less