skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: MO-DE-204-04: Dose Optimization in CT: Trends and Motivation in the US

Abstract

The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across amore » range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend in the dose optimization and future prospectives. M. Rehani, The work was a part of the work of IAEA where I was an employee and IAEA is a United Nations organization.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Mayo Clinic (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649520
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; IAEA; MAMMARY GLANDS; NORTH AMERICA; NUCLEAR ENERGY; OPTIMIZATION; PERSONNEL; RADIATION DOSES; UNITED NATIONS

Citation Formats

Kofler, J. MO-DE-204-04: Dose Optimization in CT: Trends and Motivation in the US. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957193.
Kofler, J. MO-DE-204-04: Dose Optimization in CT: Trends and Motivation in the US. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957193.
Kofler, J. 2016. "MO-DE-204-04: Dose Optimization in CT: Trends and Motivation in the US". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957193.
@article{osti_22649520,
title = {MO-DE-204-04: Dose Optimization in CT: Trends and Motivation in the US},
author = {Kofler, J.},
abstractNote = {The main topic of the session is to show how dose optimization is being implemented in various regions of the world, including Europe, Australia, North America and other regions. A multi-national study conducted under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) across more than 50 less resourced countries gave insight into patient radiation doses and safety practices in CT, mammography, radiography and interventional procedures, both for children and adults. An important outcome was the capability development on dose assessment and management. An overview of recent European projects related to CT radiation dose and optimization both to adults and children will be presented. Existing data on DRLs together with a European methodology proposed on establishing and using DRLs for paediatric radiodiagnostic imaging and interventional radiology practices will be shown. Compared with much of Europe at least, many Australian imaging practices are relatively new to the task of diagnostic imaging dose optimisation. In 2008 the Australian Government prescribed a requirement to periodically compare patient radiation doses with diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), where DRLs have been established. Until recently, Australia had only established DRLs for computed tomography (CT). Regardless, both professional society and individual efforts to improved data collection and develop optimisation strategies across a range of modalities continues. Progress in this field, principally with respect to CT and interventional fluoroscopy will be presented. In the US, dose reduction and optimization efforts for computed tomography have been promoted and mandated by several organizations and accrediting entities. This presentation will cover the general motivation, implementation, and implications of such efforts. Learning Objectives: Understand importance of the dose optimization in Diagnostic Radiology. See how this goal is achieved in different regions of the World. Learn about the global trend in the dose optimization and future prospectives. M. Rehani, The work was a part of the work of IAEA where I was an employee and IAEA is a United Nations organization.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957193},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • A fast, accurate and stable optimization algorithm is very important for inverse planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and for implementing dose-adaptive radiotherapy in the future. Conventional numerical search algorithms with positive beam weight constraints generally require numerous iterations and may produce suboptimal dose results due to trapping in local minima regions of the objective function landscape. A direct solution of the inverse problem using conventional quadratic objective functions without positive beam constraints is more efficient but it will result in unrealistic negative beam weights. We review here a direct solution of the inverse problem that is efficient and doesmore » not yield unphysical negative beam weights. In fast inverse dose optimization (FIDO) method the objective function for the optimization of a large number of beamlets is reformulated such that the optimization problem is reducible to a linear set of equations. The optimal set of intensities is then found through a matrix inversion, and negative beamlet intensities are avoided without the need for externally imposed ad hoc conditions. In its original version [S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, in Proceedings of the XIVth International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy, 2004, pp. 112-115; S. P. Goldman, J. Z. Chen, and J. J. Battista, Med. Phys. 32, 3007 (2005)], FIDO was tested on single two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) slices with sharp KERMA beams without scatter, in order to establish a proof of concept which demonstrated that FIDO could be a viable method for the optimization of cancer treatment plans. In this paper we introduce the latest advancements in FIDO that now include not only its application to three-dimensional volumes irradiated by beams with full scatter but include as well a complete implementation of clinical dose-volume constraints including maximum and minimum dose as well as equivalent uniform dose constraints. The method has been integrated into a commercial treatment planning system (Pinnacle, Philips Medical Systems) for beta testing using clinical radiotherapy cases and standard dose constraints set by radiation oncologists. Our FIDO method consistently delivered excellent treatment plans comparable and often better than those obtained using standard optimization techniques that are considerably slower. By design, FIDO is guaranteed to find a global minimum and will achieve highly conformal and homogeneous dose distributions without the need for artificial internal contours that must be created in conventional IMRT optimization systems to help the search engines better control some beam entry directions and in this way avoid the creation of hot and cold spots. This method provides a fast, intuitive and robust technique that yields excellent results for the inverse planning of IMRT. FIDO's ability to efficiently optimize very large numbers of beamlet weights also makes it an ideal tool for the optimization of helical tomotherapy. Future gains in speed will make it possible to use FIDO for instant treatment plan reoptimization using CT images produced at the radiotherapy machine, just prior to daily treatments of the patient.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the advantages of anatomy-based inverse optimization (IO) in planning high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 114 patients who received HDR brachytherapy (9 Gy in two fractions) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) were analyzed. The dose distributions of HDR brachytherapy were optimized using geometric optimization (GO) in 70 patients and by anatomy-based IO in the remaining 44 patients. The correlation between the dose-volume histogram parameters, including the urethral dose and the incidence of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity, was evaluated. Results: The averaged values of the percentage of volume receiving 80-150% of the prescribedmore » minimal peripheral dose (V{sub 8}-V{sub 15}) of the urethra generated by anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than the corresponding values generated by GO. Similarly, the averaged values of the minimal dose received by 5-50% of the target volume (D{sub 5}-D{sub 5}) obtained using anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than those obtained using GO. Regarding acute toxicity, Grade 2 or worse acute GU toxicity developed in 23% of all patients, but was significantly lower in patients for whom anatomy-based IO (16%) was used than in those for whom GO was used (37%), consistent with the reduced urethral dose (p <0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that anatomy-based IO is superior to GO for dose optimization in HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer.« less