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Title: MO-AB-BRA-01: A Global Level Set Based Formulation for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: The current clinical Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization is formulated as a non-convex problem and various greedy heuristics have been employed for an empirical solution, jeopardizing plan consistency and quality. We introduce a novel global direct aperture optimization method for VMAT to overcome these limitations. Methods: The global VMAT (gVMAT) planning was formulated as an optimization problem with an L2-norm fidelity term and an anisotropic total variation term. A level set function was used to describe the aperture shapes and adjacent aperture shapes were penalized to control MLC motion range. An alternating optimization strategy was implemented to solve the fluence intensity and aperture shapes simultaneously. Single arc gVMAT plans, utilizing 180 beams with 2° angular resolution, were generated for a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), lung (LNG), and 2 head and neck cases—one with 3 PTVs (H&N3PTV) and one with 4 PTVs (H&N4PTV). The plans were compared against the clinical VMAT (cVMAT) plans utilizing two overlapping coplanar arcs. Results: The optimization of the gVMAT plans had converged within 600 iterations. gVMAT reduced the average max and mean OAR dose by 6.59% and 7.45% of the prescription dose. Reductions in max dose and mean dose were as high as 14.5 Gymore » in the LNG case and 15.3 Gy in the H&N3PTV case. PTV coverages (D95, D98, D99) were within 0.25% of the prescription dose. By globally considering all beams, the gVMAT optimizer allowed some beams to deliver higher intensities, yielding a dose distribution that resembles a static beam IMRT plan with beam orientation optimization. Conclusions: The novel VMAT approach allows for the search of an optimal plan in the global solution space and generates deliverable apertures directly. The single arc VMAT approach fully utilizes the digital linacs’ capability in dose rate and gantry rotation speed modulation. Varian Medical Systems, NIH grant R01CA188300, NIH grant R43CA183390.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649490
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BEAMS; DOSE RATES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; OPTIMIZATION; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Nguyen, D, Lyu, Q, Ruan, D, O’Connor, D, Low, D, and Sheng, K. MO-AB-BRA-01: A Global Level Set Based Formulation for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957153.
Nguyen, D, Lyu, Q, Ruan, D, O’Connor, D, Low, D, & Sheng, K. MO-AB-BRA-01: A Global Level Set Based Formulation for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957153.
Nguyen, D, Lyu, Q, Ruan, D, O’Connor, D, Low, D, and Sheng, K. 2016. "MO-AB-BRA-01: A Global Level Set Based Formulation for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957153.
@article{osti_22649490,
title = {MO-AB-BRA-01: A Global Level Set Based Formulation for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy},
author = {Nguyen, D and Lyu, Q and Ruan, D and O’Connor, D and Low, D and Sheng, K},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The current clinical Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization is formulated as a non-convex problem and various greedy heuristics have been employed for an empirical solution, jeopardizing plan consistency and quality. We introduce a novel global direct aperture optimization method for VMAT to overcome these limitations. Methods: The global VMAT (gVMAT) planning was formulated as an optimization problem with an L2-norm fidelity term and an anisotropic total variation term. A level set function was used to describe the aperture shapes and adjacent aperture shapes were penalized to control MLC motion range. An alternating optimization strategy was implemented to solve the fluence intensity and aperture shapes simultaneously. Single arc gVMAT plans, utilizing 180 beams with 2° angular resolution, were generated for a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), lung (LNG), and 2 head and neck cases—one with 3 PTVs (H&N3PTV) and one with 4 PTVs (H&N4PTV). The plans were compared against the clinical VMAT (cVMAT) plans utilizing two overlapping coplanar arcs. Results: The optimization of the gVMAT plans had converged within 600 iterations. gVMAT reduced the average max and mean OAR dose by 6.59% and 7.45% of the prescription dose. Reductions in max dose and mean dose were as high as 14.5 Gy in the LNG case and 15.3 Gy in the H&N3PTV case. PTV coverages (D95, D98, D99) were within 0.25% of the prescription dose. By globally considering all beams, the gVMAT optimizer allowed some beams to deliver higher intensities, yielding a dose distribution that resembles a static beam IMRT plan with beam orientation optimization. Conclusions: The novel VMAT approach allows for the search of an optimal plan in the global solution space and generates deliverable apertures directly. The single arc VMAT approach fully utilizes the digital linacs’ capability in dose rate and gantry rotation speed modulation. Varian Medical Systems, NIH grant R01CA188300, NIH grant R43CA183390.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957153},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To investigate the roles of volumetric modulated arc therapy with SmartArc (VMAT-S), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and helical tomotherapy (HT) for oropharyngeal cancer using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach. Methods and Materials: Eight patients treated with IMRT were selected at random. Plans were computed for both IMRT and VMAT-S (using Pinnacle TPS for an Elekta Infinity linac) along with HT. A three-dose level prescription was used to deliver 70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy to regions of macroscopic, microscopic high-risk, and microscopic low-risk disease, respectively. All doses were given in 35 fractions. Comparisons were performed on dose-volumemore » histogram data, monitor units per fraction (MU/fx), and delivery time. Results: VMAT-S target coverage was close to that achieved by IMRT, but inferior to HT. The conformity and homogeneity within the PTV were improved for HT over all strategies. Sparing of the organs at risk (OAR) was achieved with all modalities. VMAT-S (along with HT) shortened delivery time (mean, -38%) and reduced MU/fx (mean, -28%) compared with IMRT. Conclusion: VMAT-S represents an attractive solution because of the shorter delivery time and the lower number of MU/fx compared with IMRT. However, in this complex clinical setting, current VMAT-S does not appear to provide any distinct advantage compared with helical tomotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: To develop a formulation for 4D treatment planning for a tumour tracking volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment (VMAT) plan for lung cancer. Methods: A VMAT plan was optimized based on a reference phase of the 4DCT of a lung cancer patient. The PTV was generated from the GTV of the reference phase. The collimator angle was set to 90 degrees such that the MLC travels along superior-inferior direction which is the main component of movement of a lung tumour. Then, each control point of the VMAT plan was assigned to a particular phase of the 4DCT in chronological order.more » The MLC positions of each control point were shifted according to the position of the tumour centroid of its assigned phase to form a tumour tracking VMAT plan. The control points of the same phase were grouped to form a pseudo VMAT plan for that particular phase. Dose calculation was performed for each pseudo VMAT plan on the corresponding phase of the 4DCT. The CTs of all phases were registered to the reference phase CT according to the displacement of the tumour centroid. The individual dose distributions of the pseudo VMAT plans were summed up and displayed on the reference phase of the 4DCT. A control VMAT plan was optimized based on a PTV generated from the ITV of all phases and compared with the tumour tracking VMAT plan. Results: Both plans achieved >95% volume coverage at the prescription dose level (96% for the tumour tracking plan and 97% for the control plan). But the normal lung volume irradiated at the prescription dose level was 39% less for the tumour tracking plan than the control plan. Conclusion: A formulation of 4D treatment planning for tumour tracking VMAT plans for lung cancer was developed.« less
  • Purpose: To choose appropriate gantry starting angle for partial left breast irradiation using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: A random patient of left breast carcinoma was selected for this study. The slice which was selected for this mathematical formulation was having maximum breast thickness and maximum medial and lateral tangential distance. After this appropriate isocenter was chosen on that CT slice. The distances between various points were measured by the measuring tool in Monaco 5.00.04. Using the various trigonometric equations, a final equation was derived which shows the relationship between Gantry start angle, isocenter Location and tissue thickness. Results:more » The final equation for gantry start for right medial tangential arc is given asStarting angle = 270°+tan^(−1)(sin(θ)/(x-1/x-2 +cosθ))The above equation was tested for 10 cases and it was found to be appropriate for all the cases. Conclusion: Gantry starting angle for partial arc irradiation depends upon Breast thickness, Distance between Medial and lateral tangent and isocenter location.« less
  • To compare the dosimetric performance of 3 different treatment techniques: hybrid volumetric-modulated arc therapy (hybrid-VMAT), pure-VMAT, and fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (F-IMRT) for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer. The hybrid-VMAT treatment technique and 2 other treatment techniques—pure-VMAT and F-IMRT—were compared retrospectively in 10 patients with left-sided early breast cancer. The treatment plans of these patients were replanned using the same contours based on the original computed tomography (CT) data sets. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality. Total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were also recorded and evaluated. The hybrid-VMAT plan generated the best results inmore » dose coverage of the target and the dose uniformity inside the target (p < 0.0001 for conformal index [CI]; p = 0.0002 for homogeneity index [HI] of planning target volume [PTV]{sub 50.4} {sub Gy} and p < 0.0001 for HI of PTV{sub 62} {sub Gy}). Volumes of ipsilateral lung irradiated to doses of 20 Gy (V{sub 20} {sub Gy}) and 5 Gy (V{sub 5} {sub Gy}) by the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those of the F-IMRT and the pure-VMAT plans. The volume of ipsilateral lung irradiated to a dose of 5 Gy was significantly less using the hybrid-VMAT plan than that using the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The total mean MUs for the hybrid-VMAT plan were significantly less than those for the F-IMRT or the pure-VMAT plan. The mean machine delivery time was 3.23 ± 0.29 minutes for the hybrid-VMAT plans, which is longer than that for the pure-VMAT plans but shorter than that for the F-IMRT plans. The hybrid-VMAT plan is feasible for whole-breast irradiation of left-sided early breast cancer.« less
  • Purpose: To describe biological-based optimization and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation-based treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung, liver, and prostate patients. Methods: Optimization strategies and VMAT planning parameters using a biological-based optimization MC planning system were analyzed for 24 SBRT patients. Patients received a median dose of 45 Gy [range, 34-54 Gy] for lung tumors in 1-5 fxs and a median dose of 52 Gy [range, 48-60 Gy] for liver tumors in 3-6 fxs. Prostate patients received a fractional dose of 10 Gy in 5 fxs. Biological-cost functions weremore » used for plan optimization, and its dosimetric quality was evaluated using the conformity index (CI), the conformation number (CN), the ratio of the volume receiving 50% of the prescription dose over the planning target volume (Rx/PTV50). The quality and efficiency of the delivery were assessed according to measured quality assurance (QA) passing rates and delivery times. For each disease site, one patient was replanned using physical cost function and compared to the corresponding biological plan. Results: Median CI, CN, and Rx/PTV50 for all 24 patients were 1.13 (1.02-1.28), 0.79 (0.70-0.88), and 5.3 (3.1-10.8), respectively. The median delivery rate for all patients was 410 MU/min with a maximum possible rate of 480 MU/min (85%). Median QA passing rate was 96.7%, and it did not significantly vary with the tumor site. Conclusions: VMAT delivery of SBRT plans optimized using biological-motivated cost-functions result in highly conformal dose distributions. Plans offer shorter treatment-time benefits and provide efficient dose delivery without compromising the plan conformity for tumors in the prostate, lung, and liver, thereby improving patient comfort and clinical throughput. The short delivery times minimize the risk of patient setup and intrafraction motion errors often associated with long SBRT treatment delivery times.« less