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Title: SU-G-JeP4-15: Feasibility Study of Tumor Monitoring Technique Using Prompt Gamma Rays During Antiproton Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to suggest a tumor monitoring technique using prompt gamma rays emitted during the reaction between an antiproton and a boron particle, and to verify the increase of the therapeutic effectiveness of the antiproton boron fusion therapy using Monte Carlo simulation code. Methods: We acquired the percentage depth dose of the antiproton beam from a water phantom with and without three boron uptake regions (region A, B, and C) using F6 tally of MCNPX. The tomographic image was reconstructed using prompt gamma ray events from the reaction between the antiproton and boron during the treatment from 32 projections (reconstruction algorithm: MLEM). For the image reconstruction, we were performed using a 80 × 80 pixel matrix with a pixel size of 5 mm. The energy window was set as a 10 % energy window. Results: The prompt gamma ray peak for imaging was observed at 719 keV in the energy spectrum using the F8 tally fuction (energy deposition tally) of the MCNPX code. The tomographic image shows that the boron uptake regions were successfully identified from the simulation results. In terms of the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve values weremore » 0.647 (region A), 0.679 (region B), and 0.632 (region C). The SNR values increased as the tumor diameter increased. The CNR indicated the relative signal intensity within different regions. The CNR values also increased as the different of BURs diamter increased. Conclusion: We confirmed the feasibility of tumor monitoring during the antiproton therapy as well as the superior therapeutic effect of the antiproton boron fusion therapy. This result can be beneficial for the development of a more accurate particle therapy.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. The catholic university of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649464
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANTIPROTON BEAMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BORON; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; ENERGY SPECTRA; FEASIBILITY STUDIES; GAMMA RADIATION; IMAGE PROCESSING; KEV RANGE 100-1000; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEOPLASMS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Shin, H, Yoon, D, Jung, J, Kim, M, and Suh, T. SU-G-JeP4-15: Feasibility Study of Tumor Monitoring Technique Using Prompt Gamma Rays During Antiproton Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957125.
Shin, H, Yoon, D, Jung, J, Kim, M, & Suh, T. SU-G-JeP4-15: Feasibility Study of Tumor Monitoring Technique Using Prompt Gamma Rays During Antiproton Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957125.
Shin, H, Yoon, D, Jung, J, Kim, M, and Suh, T. 2016. "SU-G-JeP4-15: Feasibility Study of Tumor Monitoring Technique Using Prompt Gamma Rays During Antiproton Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957125.
@article{osti_22649464,
title = {SU-G-JeP4-15: Feasibility Study of Tumor Monitoring Technique Using Prompt Gamma Rays During Antiproton Therapy},
author = {Shin, H and Yoon, D and Jung, J and Kim, M and Suh, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The purpose of this study is to suggest a tumor monitoring technique using prompt gamma rays emitted during the reaction between an antiproton and a boron particle, and to verify the increase of the therapeutic effectiveness of the antiproton boron fusion therapy using Monte Carlo simulation code. Methods: We acquired the percentage depth dose of the antiproton beam from a water phantom with and without three boron uptake regions (region A, B, and C) using F6 tally of MCNPX. The tomographic image was reconstructed using prompt gamma ray events from the reaction between the antiproton and boron during the treatment from 32 projections (reconstruction algorithm: MLEM). For the image reconstruction, we were performed using a 80 × 80 pixel matrix with a pixel size of 5 mm. The energy window was set as a 10 % energy window. Results: The prompt gamma ray peak for imaging was observed at 719 keV in the energy spectrum using the F8 tally fuction (energy deposition tally) of the MCNPX code. The tomographic image shows that the boron uptake regions were successfully identified from the simulation results. In terms of the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve values were 0.647 (region A), 0.679 (region B), and 0.632 (region C). The SNR values increased as the tumor diameter increased. The CNR indicated the relative signal intensity within different regions. The CNR values also increased as the different of BURs diamter increased. Conclusion: We confirmed the feasibility of tumor monitoring during the antiproton therapy as well as the superior therapeutic effect of the antiproton boron fusion therapy. This result can be beneficial for the development of a more accurate particle therapy.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957125},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To simulate the feasibility of a Cherenkov glass material for the determination of the penetration depth of therapeutic proton beams in water. Methods: Proton pencil beams of various energies incident onto a water phantom with dimensions of 5 x 5 x 30 cm{sup 3} were used for simulation with the Geant4 toolkit. The model used standard electromagnetic packages, packages based on binary-cascade nuclear model, several decay modules (G4Decay, G4DecayPhysics, and G4RadioactiveDecayPhysics), and optical photon components (G4OpticalPhysics). A Cherenkov glass material was modeled as the detector medium (7.2 g of In2O3 + 90 g cladding, density of 2.82 g/cm{sup 3},more » Zeff = 33.7, index of refraction n(600 nm) = 1.56, and energy threshold of production Eth = 156 keV ). The emitted secondary particles are analyzed characterizing their timing, energy, and angular distributions. A feasibility analysis was conducted for a simplistic detector system using this material to locate the position of the Bragg Peak. Results: The escaping neutrons have energies ranging from thermal to the incident proton energy and the escaping photons have energies >10 MeV. Photon peaks between 4 and 6 MeV were attributed to originate from direct proton interactions with {sup 12}C (∼ 4.4 MeV) and {sup 16}O (∼ 6 MeV), respectively. The escaping photons are emitted isotropically, while low (≤10 MeV) and high (>10 MeV) neutrons are isotropic and forward-directional, respectively. The emissions of photons are categorized into prompt (∼ns) and delayed (∼min) where the prompt photons include the 4.4 and 6 MeV. The Cherenkov material had on average <2% of neutron interactions while LYSO and BGO scintillators had a minimum of ∼50%. Our simplistic detector system was capable of discerning Bragg Peak locations using a timing discrimination of ∼50 ns. Conclusion: We investigate the viability of using the Cherenkov material for MeV photon detection medium for the prompt gamma technique.« less
  • Purpose: Evaluation of a prototype Compton camera (CC) for imaging prompt gamma rays (PG) emitted during clinical proton beam irradiation for in vivo beam range verification. Methods: We irradiated a water phantom with 114 MeV and 150 MeV proton pencil beams at clinical beam currents ranging from 1 nA up to 5 nA. The CC was placed 15 cm from the beam central axis and PGs from 0.2 MeV up to 6.5 MeV were measured during irradiation. From the measured data, 2-dimensional (2D) PG images were reconstructed. One-dimensional (1D) profiles from the PG images were compared to measured depth dosemore » curves. Results: The CC was able to measure PG emission during delivery of both a single 150 MeV pencil beam and a 5 cm x 5 cm mono-energetic layer of 114 MeV pencil beams. From the 2D images, a strong correlation was seen between the depth of the distal falloff of PG emission and the Bragg peak (BP). 1D profiles extracted from the PG images show that the distal 60% falloff of the PG emission lined up well with the distal 90% of the BP. Shifts as small as 3 mm in the beam range could be detected on both the 2D PG images and 1D profiles with an uncertainty of 1.5 mm. With the current CC prototype, a minimum dose delivery of 400 cGy was required to produce usable PG images. Conclusions: It was possible to measure and image PG emission with our prototype CC during proton beam delivery and to detect shifts in the BP range in the images. Therefore prompt gamma imaging with a CC for the purpose of in vivo range verification is feasible. However, for the studied system improvements in detector efficiency and reconstruction algorithms are necessary to make it clinically viable.« less
  • Purpose: Real-time ultrasound monitoring during SBRT is advantageous in understanding and identifying motion irregularities which may cause geometric misses. In this work, we propose to utilize real-time ultrasound to track the diaphragm in conjunction with periodical kV fluoroscopy to monitor motion of tumor or landmarks during SBRT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal Ultrasound (TAUS) b-mode images were collected from 10 healthy volunteers using the Clarity Autoscan System (Elekta). The autoscan transducer, which has a center frequency of 5 MHz, was utilized for the scans. The acquired images were contoured using the Clarity Automatic Fusion and Contouring workstation software. Monitoring sessions of 5more » minute length were observed and recorded. The position correlation between tumor and diaphragm could be established with periodic kV fluoroscopy periodically acquired during treatment with Elekta XVI. We acquired data using a tissue mimicking ultrasound phantom with embedded spheres placed on a motion stand using ultrasound and kV Fluoroscopy. MIM software was utilized for image fusion. Correlation of diaphragm and target motion was also validated using 4D-MRI and 4D-CBCT. Results: The diaphragm was visualized as a hyperechoic region on the TAUS b-mode images. Volunteer set-up can be adjusted such that TAUS probe will not interfere with treatment beams. A segment of the diaphragm was contoured and selected as our tracking structure. Successful monitoring sessions of the diaphragm were recorded. For some volunteers, diaphragm motion over 2 times larger than the initial motion has been observed during tracking. For the phantom study, we were able to register the 2D kV Fluoroscopy with the US images for position comparison. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of tracking the diaphragm using real-time ultrasound. Real-time tracking can help in identifying such irregularities in the respiratory motion which is correlated to tumor motion. We also showed the feasibility of acquiring 2D KV Fluoroscopy and registering the images with Ultrasound.« less
  • Purpose: To simulate a Cherenkov glass detector system utilizing prompt gamma (PG) technique to quantify range uncertainties in proton radiation therapy. Methods: A simulation of high energy photons typically produced in proton interactions with materials incident onto a block of Cherenkov glass was performed with the Geant4 toolkit. The standard electromagnetic package was used along with several decay modules (G4Decay, G4DecayPhysics, and G4RadioactiveDecayPhysics) and the optical photon components (G4OpticalPhysics). Our setup included a pencil beam consisting of a hundred thousand 6 MeV photons (approximately the deexcitation energy released from 16O) incident onto a 2.5 ⊗ 2.5 ⊗ 1.5 cm3 ofmore » a Cherenkov glass (7.2 g of In2O3 + 90 g cladding, density of 2.82 g/cm3, Zeff = 33.7, index of refraction 1.56). The energy deposited from incident 6 MeV photons as well as secondary electrons and resulting optical photons were recorded. Results: The energy deposited by 6 MeV photons in glass material showed several peaks that included the photoelectric, the single and double escape peaks. About 11% of incident photons interacted with glass material to deposit energy. Most of the photons collected were in the region of double escape peak (approximately 4.98 MeV). The secondary electron spectrum produced from incident photons showed a high energy peak located near 6 MeV and a sharp peak located ∼120 keV with a continuous distribution between these two points. The resulting Cherenkov photons produced showed a continuous energy distribution between 2 and 5 eV with a slight increase in yield beginning about 3 eV. The amount of Cherenkov photons produced per interacting incident 6 MeV photon was ∼240.7. Conclusion: This study suggests the viability of utilizing the Cherenkov glass material as a possible prompt gamma photon detection device. Future work will include optimization of the detector system to maximize photon detection efficiency.« less
  • Purpose: In spot-scanning proton therapy, the interplay effect between tumor motion and beam delivery leads to deterioration of the dose distribution. To mitigate the impact of tumor motion, gating in combination with repainting is one of the most promising methods that have been proposed. This study focused on a synchrotron-based spot-scanning proton therapy system integrated with real-time tumor monitoring. The authors investigated the effectiveness of gating in terms of both the delivered dose distribution and irradiation time by conducting simulations with patients' motion data. The clinically acceptable range of adjustable irradiation control parameters was explored. Also, the relation between themore » dose error and the characteristics of tumor motion was investigated.Methods: A simulation study was performed using a water phantom. A gated proton beam was irradiated to a clinical target volume (CTV) of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 3}, in synchronization with lung cancer patients' tumor trajectory data. With varying parameters of gate width, spot spacing, and delivered dose per spot at one time, both dose uniformity and irradiation time were calculated for 397 tumor trajectory data from 78 patients. In addition, the authors placed an energy absorber upstream of the phantom and varied the thickness to examine the effect of changing the size of the Bragg peak and the number of required energy layers. The parameters with which 95% of the tumor trajectory data fulfill our defined criteria were accepted. Next, correlation coefficients were calculated between the maximum dose error and the tumor motion characteristics that were extracted from the tumor trajectory data.Results: With the assumed CTV, the largest percentage of the data fulfilled the criteria when the gate width was {+-}2 mm. Larger spot spacing was preferred because it increased the number of paintings. With a prescribed dose of 2 Gy, it was difficult to fulfill the criteria for the target with a very small effective depth (the sum of an assumed energy absorber's thickness and the target depth in the phantom) because of the sharpness of the Bragg peak. However, even shallow targets could be successfully irradiated by employing an adequate number of paintings and by placing an energy absorber of sufficient thickness to make the effective target depth more than 12 cm. The authors also observed that motion in the beam direction was the main cause of dose distortion, followed by motion in the lateral plane perpendicular to the scan direction.Conclusions: The results suggested that by properly adjusting irradiation control parameters, gated proton spot-scanning beam therapy can be robust to target motion. This is an important first step toward establishing treatment plans in real patient geometry.« less