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Title: SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation

Abstract

Purpose: The decay of In-111 results in a non-isotropic gamma-ray cascade, which is normally imaged using a gamma camera. Creating images with a gamma camera using coincident gamma-rays from In-111 has not been previously studied. Our objective was to explore the feasibility of imaging this cascade as coincidence events and to determine the optimal timing resolution and source activity using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GEANT4 was used to simulate the decay of the In-111 nucleus and to model the gamma camera. Each photon emission was assigned a timestamp, and the time delay and angular separation for the second gamma-ray in the cascade was consistent with the known intermediate state half-life of 85ns. The gamma-rays are transported through a model of a Siemens dual head Symbia “S” gamma camera with a 5/8-inch thick crystal and medium energy collimators. A true coincident event was defined as a single 171keV gamma-ray followed by a single 245keV gamma-ray within a specified time window (or vice versa). Several source activities (ranging from 10uCi to 5mCi) with and without incorporation of background counts were then simulated. Each simulation was analyzed using varying time windows to assess random events. The noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was computedmore » based on the number of true and random counts for each combination of activity and time window. No scatter events were assumed since sources were simulated in air. Results: As expected, increasing the timing window increased the total number of observed coincidences albeit at the expense of true coincidences. A timing window range of 200–500ns maximizes the NECR at clinically-used source activities. The background rate did not significantly alter the maximum NECR. Conclusion: This work suggests coincident measurements of In-111 gamma-ray decay can be performed with commercial gamma cameras at clinically-relevant activities. Work is ongoing to assess useful clinical applications.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649447
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COUNTING RATES; GAMMA CAMERAS; GAMMA DECAY; GAMMA RADIATION; IMAGES; INDIUM 111; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PERFORMANCE; TIME DELAY; TIME RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Pahlka, R, Kappadath, S, and Mawlawi, O. SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957107.
Pahlka, R, Kappadath, S, & Mawlawi, O. SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957107.
Pahlka, R, Kappadath, S, and Mawlawi, O. 2016. "SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957107.
@article{osti_22649447,
title = {SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation},
author = {Pahlka, R and Kappadath, S and Mawlawi, O},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The decay of In-111 results in a non-isotropic gamma-ray cascade, which is normally imaged using a gamma camera. Creating images with a gamma camera using coincident gamma-rays from In-111 has not been previously studied. Our objective was to explore the feasibility of imaging this cascade as coincidence events and to determine the optimal timing resolution and source activity using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GEANT4 was used to simulate the decay of the In-111 nucleus and to model the gamma camera. Each photon emission was assigned a timestamp, and the time delay and angular separation for the second gamma-ray in the cascade was consistent with the known intermediate state half-life of 85ns. The gamma-rays are transported through a model of a Siemens dual head Symbia “S” gamma camera with a 5/8-inch thick crystal and medium energy collimators. A true coincident event was defined as a single 171keV gamma-ray followed by a single 245keV gamma-ray within a specified time window (or vice versa). Several source activities (ranging from 10uCi to 5mCi) with and without incorporation of background counts were then simulated. Each simulation was analyzed using varying time windows to assess random events. The noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed based on the number of true and random counts for each combination of activity and time window. No scatter events were assumed since sources were simulated in air. Results: As expected, increasing the timing window increased the total number of observed coincidences albeit at the expense of true coincidences. A timing window range of 200–500ns maximizes the NECR at clinically-used source activities. The background rate did not significantly alter the maximum NECR. Conclusion: This work suggests coincident measurements of In-111 gamma-ray decay can be performed with commercial gamma cameras at clinically-relevant activities. Work is ongoing to assess useful clinical applications.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957107},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
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