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Title: SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation

Abstract

Purpose: The decay of In-111 results in a non-isotropic gamma-ray cascade, which is normally imaged using a gamma camera. Creating images with a gamma camera using coincident gamma-rays from In-111 has not been previously studied. Our objective was to explore the feasibility of imaging this cascade as coincidence events and to determine the optimal timing resolution and source activity using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GEANT4 was used to simulate the decay of the In-111 nucleus and to model the gamma camera. Each photon emission was assigned a timestamp, and the time delay and angular separation for the second gamma-ray in the cascade was consistent with the known intermediate state half-life of 85ns. The gamma-rays are transported through a model of a Siemens dual head Symbia “S” gamma camera with a 5/8-inch thick crystal and medium energy collimators. A true coincident event was defined as a single 171keV gamma-ray followed by a single 245keV gamma-ray within a specified time window (or vice versa). Several source activities (ranging from 10uCi to 5mCi) with and without incorporation of background counts were then simulated. Each simulation was analyzed using varying time windows to assess random events. The noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was computedmore » based on the number of true and random counts for each combination of activity and time window. No scatter events were assumed since sources were simulated in air. Results: As expected, increasing the timing window increased the total number of observed coincidences albeit at the expense of true coincidences. A timing window range of 200–500ns maximizes the NECR at clinically-used source activities. The background rate did not significantly alter the maximum NECR. Conclusion: This work suggests coincident measurements of In-111 gamma-ray decay can be performed with commercial gamma cameras at clinically-relevant activities. Work is ongoing to assess useful clinical applications.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649447
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COUNTING RATES; GAMMA CAMERAS; GAMMA DECAY; GAMMA RADIATION; IMAGES; INDIUM 111; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PERFORMANCE; TIME DELAY; TIME RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Pahlka, R, Kappadath, S, and Mawlawi, O. SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957107.
Pahlka, R, Kappadath, S, & Mawlawi, O. SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957107.
Pahlka, R, Kappadath, S, and Mawlawi, O. Wed . "SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957107.
@article{osti_22649447,
title = {SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation},
author = {Pahlka, R and Kappadath, S and Mawlawi, O},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The decay of In-111 results in a non-isotropic gamma-ray cascade, which is normally imaged using a gamma camera. Creating images with a gamma camera using coincident gamma-rays from In-111 has not been previously studied. Our objective was to explore the feasibility of imaging this cascade as coincidence events and to determine the optimal timing resolution and source activity using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GEANT4 was used to simulate the decay of the In-111 nucleus and to model the gamma camera. Each photon emission was assigned a timestamp, and the time delay and angular separation for the second gamma-ray in the cascade was consistent with the known intermediate state half-life of 85ns. The gamma-rays are transported through a model of a Siemens dual head Symbia “S” gamma camera with a 5/8-inch thick crystal and medium energy collimators. A true coincident event was defined as a single 171keV gamma-ray followed by a single 245keV gamma-ray within a specified time window (or vice versa). Several source activities (ranging from 10uCi to 5mCi) with and without incorporation of background counts were then simulated. Each simulation was analyzed using varying time windows to assess random events. The noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed based on the number of true and random counts for each combination of activity and time window. No scatter events were assumed since sources were simulated in air. Results: As expected, increasing the timing window increased the total number of observed coincidences albeit at the expense of true coincidences. A timing window range of 200–500ns maximizes the NECR at clinically-used source activities. The background rate did not significantly alter the maximum NECR. Conclusion: This work suggests coincident measurements of In-111 gamma-ray decay can be performed with commercial gamma cameras at clinically-relevant activities. Work is ongoing to assess useful clinical applications.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957107},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To optimize collimation and shielding for a deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator for an inexpensive and compact clinical neutron imaging system. The envisioned application is cancer diagnosis through Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT). Methods: Collimator designs were tested with an isotropic 2.5 MeV neutron source through GEANT4 simulations. The collimator is a 52×52×52 cm{sup 3} polyethylene block coupled with a 1 cm lead sheet in sequence. Composite opening was modeled into the collimator to permit passage of neutrons. The opening varied in shape (cylindrical vs. tapered), size (1–5 cm source-side and target-side openings) and aperture placements (13–39 cm frommore » source-side). Spatial and energy distribution of neutrons and gammas were tracked from each collimator design. Parameters analyzed were primary beam width (FWHM), divergence, and efficiency (percent transmission) for different configurations of the collimator. Select resultant outputs were then used for simulated NSECT imaging of a virtual breast phantom containing a 2.5 cm diameter tumor to assess the effect of the collimator on spatial resolution, noise, and scan time. Finally, composite shielding enclosure made of polyethylene and lead was designed and evaluated to block 99.99% of neutron and gamma radiation generated in the system. Results: Analysis of primary beam indicated the beam-width is linear to the aperture size. Increasing source-side opening allowed at least 20% more neutron throughput for all designs relative to the cylindrical openings. Maximum throughput for all designs was 364% relative to cylindrical openings. Conclusion: The work indicates potential for collimating and shielding a DD neutron generator for use in a clinical NSECT system. The proposed collimator designs produced a well-defined collimated neutron beam that can be used to image samples of interest with millimeter resolution. Balance in output efficiency, noise reduction, and scan time should be considered to determine the optimal design for specific NSECT applications.« less
  • Purpose: Cone beam X-ray luminescence computed tomography (CB-XLCT), which aims to achieve molecular and functional imaging by X-rays, has recently been proposed as a new imaging modality. However, the inverse problem of CB-XLCT is seriously ill-conditioned, hindering us to achieve good image quality. In this work, a novel reconstruction method based on Bayesian theory is proposed to tackle this problem Methods: Bayesian theory provides a natural framework for utilizing various kinds of available prior information to improve the reconstruction image quality. A generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF) model is proposed here to construct the prior model of the Bayesianmore » theory. The most important feature of GGMRF model is the adjustable shape parameter p, which can be continuously adjusted from 1 to 2. The reconstruction image tends to have more edge-preserving property when p is slide to 1, while having more noise tolerance property when p is slide to 2, just like the behavior of L1 and L2 regularization methods, respectively. The proposed method provides a flexible regularization framework to adapt to a wide range of applications. Results: Numerical simulations were implemented to test the performance of the proposed method. The Digimouse atlas were employed to construct a three-dimensional mouse model, and two small cylinders were placed inside to serve as the targets. Reconstruction results show that the proposed method tends to obtain better spatial resolution with a smaller shape parameter, while better signal-to-noise image with a larger shape parameter. Quantitative indexes, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), were used to assess the performance of the proposed method, and confirmed its effectiveness in CB-XLCT reconstruction. Conclusion: A novel reconstruction method for CB-XLCT is proposed based on GGMRF model, which enables an adjustable performance tradeoff between L1 and L2 regularization methods. Numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate its performance.« less
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