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Title: SU-G-TeP2-14: Universal Function Form for Photon Open Field In-Water Output Ratio

Abstract

Purpose: In-Water-Output-Ratio (IWOR) plays a significant role in linac-based radiotherapy treatment planning, linking MUs to delivered radiation dose. For an open rectangular field, IWOR depends on both its width and length, and changes rapidly when one of them becomes small. In this study, a universal functional form is proposed to fit the open field IWOR tables in Varian TrueBeam representative datasets for all photon energies. Methods: A novel Generalized Mean formula is first used to estimate the Equivalent Square (ES) for a rectangular field. The formula’s weighting factor and power index are determined by collapsing all data points as much as possible onto a single curve in IWOR vs. ES plot. The result is then fitted with a novel universal function IWOR=1+b*Log(ES/10cm)/(ES/10cm)^c via a least-square procedure to determine the optimal values for parameters b and c. The maximum relative residual error in IWOR over the entire two-dimensional measurement table with field sizes between 3cm and 40cm is used to evaluate the quality of fit for the function. Results: The two-step fitting strategy works very well in determining the optimal parameter values for open field IWOR of each photon energies in the Varian data-set. Relative residual error ≤0.71% is achieved formore » all photon energies (including Flattening-Filter-Free modes) with field sizes between 3cm and 40cm. The optimal parameter values change smoothly with regular photon beam quality. Conclusion: The universal functional form fits the Varian TrueBeam open field IWOR measurement tables accurately with small relative residual errors for all photon energies. Therefore, it can be an excellent choice to represent IWOR in absolute dose and MU calculations. The functional form can also be used as a QA/commissioning tool to verify the measured data quality and consistency by checking the IWOR data behavior against the function for new photon energies with arbitrary beam quality.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)
  2. Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649394
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ERRORS; LEAST SQUARE FIT; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; PHOTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; TWO-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Zhou, S, Fan, Q, Lei, Y, Li, S, Li, X, Ma, R, Wang, S, Wang, X, Zheng, D, Zhu, X, Enke, C, and Wu, Q. SU-G-TeP2-14: Universal Function Form for Photon Open Field In-Water Output Ratio. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957049.
Zhou, S, Fan, Q, Lei, Y, Li, S, Li, X, Ma, R, Wang, S, Wang, X, Zheng, D, Zhu, X, Enke, C, & Wu, Q. SU-G-TeP2-14: Universal Function Form for Photon Open Field In-Water Output Ratio. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957049.
Zhou, S, Fan, Q, Lei, Y, Li, S, Li, X, Ma, R, Wang, S, Wang, X, Zheng, D, Zhu, X, Enke, C, and Wu, Q. 2016. "SU-G-TeP2-14: Universal Function Form for Photon Open Field In-Water Output Ratio". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957049.
@article{osti_22649394,
title = {SU-G-TeP2-14: Universal Function Form for Photon Open Field In-Water Output Ratio},
author = {Zhou, S and Fan, Q and Lei, Y and Li, S and Li, X and Ma, R and Wang, S and Wang, X and Zheng, D and Zhu, X and Enke, C and Wu, Q},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In-Water-Output-Ratio (IWOR) plays a significant role in linac-based radiotherapy treatment planning, linking MUs to delivered radiation dose. For an open rectangular field, IWOR depends on both its width and length, and changes rapidly when one of them becomes small. In this study, a universal functional form is proposed to fit the open field IWOR tables in Varian TrueBeam representative datasets for all photon energies. Methods: A novel Generalized Mean formula is first used to estimate the Equivalent Square (ES) for a rectangular field. The formula’s weighting factor and power index are determined by collapsing all data points as much as possible onto a single curve in IWOR vs. ES plot. The result is then fitted with a novel universal function IWOR=1+b*Log(ES/10cm)/(ES/10cm)^c via a least-square procedure to determine the optimal values for parameters b and c. The maximum relative residual error in IWOR over the entire two-dimensional measurement table with field sizes between 3cm and 40cm is used to evaluate the quality of fit for the function. Results: The two-step fitting strategy works very well in determining the optimal parameter values for open field IWOR of each photon energies in the Varian data-set. Relative residual error ≤0.71% is achieved for all photon energies (including Flattening-Filter-Free modes) with field sizes between 3cm and 40cm. The optimal parameter values change smoothly with regular photon beam quality. Conclusion: The universal functional form fits the Varian TrueBeam open field IWOR measurement tables accurately with small relative residual errors for all photon energies. Therefore, it can be an excellent choice to represent IWOR in absolute dose and MU calculations. The functional form can also be used as a QA/commissioning tool to verify the measured data quality and consistency by checking the IWOR data behavior against the function for new photon energies with arbitrary beam quality.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957049},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To investigate the long term stability and viability of using EPID-based daily output QA via in-house and vendor driven protocol, to replace conventional QA tools and improve QA efficiency. Methods: Two Varian TrueBeam machines (TB1&TB2) equipped with electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) were employed in this study. Both machines were calibrated per TG-51 and used clinically since Oct 2014. Daily output measurement for 6/15 MV beams were obtained using SunNuclear DailyQA3 device as part of morning QA. In addition, in-house protocol was implemented for EPID output measurement (10×10 cm fields, 100 MU, 100cm SID, output defined over an ROImore » of 2×2 cm around central axis). Moreover, the Varian Machine Performance Check (MPC) was used on both machines to measure machine output. The EPID and DailyQA3 based measurements of the relative machine output were compared and cross-correlated with monthly machine output as measured by an A12 Exradin 0.65cc Ion Chamber (IC) serving as ground truth. The results were correlated using Pearson test. Results: The correlations among DailyQA3, in-house EPID and Varian MPC output measurements, with the IC for 6/15 MV were similar for TB1 (0.83–0.95) and TB2 (0.55–0.67). The machine output for the 6/15MV beams on both machines showed a similar trend, namely an increase over time as indicated by all measurements, requiring a machine recalibration after 6 months. This drift is due to a known issue with pressurized monitor chamber which tends to leak over time. MPC failed occasionally but passed when repeated. Conclusion: The results indicate that the use of EPID for daily output measurements has the potential to become a viable and efficient tool for daily routine LINAC QA, thus eliminating weather (T,P) and human setup variability and increasing efficiency of the QA process.« less
  • Purpose: Radiotherapy treatment is specified by radiation dose prescriptions, but biological DNA damage actually controls treatment effectiveness. It is impractical to directly measure dose in the clinic, so we measure quantities, such as collected charge, and calculate the relationship to dose. At small fields, such as those in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), charged-particle equilibrium (CPE) breaks down and the accuracy of the measurement for delivered dose decreases. By measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) directly, we believe treatment accuracy could improve by providing a more meaningful measurement. Methods: A DNA dosimeter, consisting of magnetic streptavidin beads attached to 4 kilobase pair DNAmore » strands labeled with biotin and fluorescein amidite (FAM) on opposing ends, was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Twenty µL samples were placed in plastic micro-capillary tubes inside a water tank setup and irradiated with 10 cm, 3 cm, 1.25 cm, 0.75 cm, and 0.5 cm radiation field sizes, where the three smallest sizes were cones. After irradiation, the dosimeters were mechanically separated into beads (intact DNA) and supernatant (broken DNA/FAM) using a magnet. The fluorescence was read and the probability of DSB was calculated. This was used to calculate the output factor for an SRS beam and compared to that measured using a diode detector. Results: The output factors relative to a 10 cm field were 0.89±0.07, 0.76±0.08, 0.59±0.04, and 0.78±0.12 for the field sizes of 3 cm, 1.25 cm, 0.75 cm, and 0.5 cm, respectively. Some of the diode measurements do not fall within these uncertainties. Conclusion: This was the first attempt to measure output factors in a water tank with the DNA dosimeter. Although differences compared to the diode were observed, the uncertainty analysis ignored systematic errors. For future work, we will repeat this experiment to quantify and correct systematic errors, such as those caused by positional alignment and sample contamination. This work was funded in part by CPRIT (RP140105).« less
  • Purpose: In radiation therapy optimization the constraints can be either hard constraints which must be satisfied or soft constraints which are included but do not need to be satisfied exactly. Currently the voxel dose constraints are viewed as soft constraints and included as a part of the objective function and approximated as an unconstrained problem. However in some treatment planning cases the constraints should be specified as hard constraints and solved by constrained optimization. The goal of this work is to present a computation efficiency graph form alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm for constrained quadratic treatment planning optimizationmore » and compare it with several commonly used algorithms/toolbox. Method: ADMM can be viewed as an attempt to blend the benefits of dual decomposition and augmented Lagrangian methods for constrained optimization. Various proximal operators were first constructed as applicable to quadratic IMRT constrained optimization and the problem was formulated in a graph form of ADMM. A pre-iteration operation for the projection of a point to a graph was also proposed to further accelerate the computation. Result: The graph form ADMM algorithm was tested by the Common Optimization for Radiation Therapy (CORT) dataset including TG119, prostate, liver, and head & neck cases. Both unconstrained and constrained optimization problems were formulated for comparison purposes. All optimizations were solved by LBFGS, IPOPT, Matlab built-in toolbox, CVX (implementing SeDuMi) and Mosek solvers. For unconstrained optimization, it was found that LBFGS performs the best, and it was 3–5 times faster than graph form ADMM. However, for constrained optimization, graph form ADMM was 8 – 100 times faster than the other solvers. Conclusion: A graph form ADMM can be applied to constrained quadratic IMRT optimization. It is more computationally efficient than several other commercial and noncommercial optimizers and it also used significantly less computer memory.« less
  • The concept of in-air output ratio (S{sub c}) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of S{sub c}. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of S{sub c}. The in-air output ratio, S{sub c}, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, K{sub p}, per monitor unit betweenmore » an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of S{sub c}. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct S{sub c} from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure S{sub c} for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of S{sub c}, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate S{sub c} for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of S{sub c} in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of S{sub c} data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.« less