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Title: SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: To quantify the magnitude of geometric distortion for MRI scanners and provide recommendations for MRI imaging for radiation therapy Methods: A novel phantom, QUASAR MRID3D [Modus Medical Devices Inc.], was scanned to evaluate the level of 3D geometric distortion present in five MRI scanners used for radiation therapy in our department. The phantom was scanned using the body coil with 1mm image slice thickness to acquire 3D images of the phantom body. The phantom was aligned to its geometric center for each scan, and the field of view was set to visualize the entire phantom. The dependence of distortion magnitude with distance from imaging isocenter and with magnetic field strength (1.5T and 3T) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of distortion for Siemens and GE machines were compared. The image distortion for each scanner was quantified in terms of mean, standard deviation (STD), maximum distortion, and skewness. Results: The 3T and 1.5T scans show a similar absolute distortion with a mean of 1.38mm (0.33mm STD) for 3T and 1.39mm (0.34mm STD) for 1.5T for a 100mm radius distance from isocenter. Some machines can have a distortion larger than 10mm at a distance of 200mm from the isocenter. The distortions aremore » presented with plots of the x, y, and z directional components. Conclusion: The results indicate that quantification of MRI image distortion is crucial in radiation oncology for target and organ delineation and treatment planning. The magnitude of geometric distortion determines the margin needed for target contouring which is usually neglected in treatment planning process, especially for SRS/SBRT treatments. Understanding the 3D distribution of the MRI image distortion will improve the accuracy of target delineation and, hence, treatment efficacy. MRI imaging with proper patient alignment to the isocenter is vital to reducing the effects of MRI distortion in treatment planning.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Ohio State University Columbus, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649378
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; DISTANCE; GEOMETRY; IMAGES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; NMR IMAGING; PHANTOMS; PLANNING; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Stowe, M, Gupta, N, Raterman, B, and Lu, L. SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957032.
Stowe, M, Gupta, N, Raterman, B, & Lu, L. SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957032.
Stowe, M, Gupta, N, Raterman, B, and Lu, L. 2016. "SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957032.
@article{osti_22649378,
title = {SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy},
author = {Stowe, M and Gupta, N and Raterman, B and Lu, L},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To quantify the magnitude of geometric distortion for MRI scanners and provide recommendations for MRI imaging for radiation therapy Methods: A novel phantom, QUASAR MRID3D [Modus Medical Devices Inc.], was scanned to evaluate the level of 3D geometric distortion present in five MRI scanners used for radiation therapy in our department. The phantom was scanned using the body coil with 1mm image slice thickness to acquire 3D images of the phantom body. The phantom was aligned to its geometric center for each scan, and the field of view was set to visualize the entire phantom. The dependence of distortion magnitude with distance from imaging isocenter and with magnetic field strength (1.5T and 3T) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of distortion for Siemens and GE machines were compared. The image distortion for each scanner was quantified in terms of mean, standard deviation (STD), maximum distortion, and skewness. Results: The 3T and 1.5T scans show a similar absolute distortion with a mean of 1.38mm (0.33mm STD) for 3T and 1.39mm (0.34mm STD) for 1.5T for a 100mm radius distance from isocenter. Some machines can have a distortion larger than 10mm at a distance of 200mm from the isocenter. The distortions are presented with plots of the x, y, and z directional components. Conclusion: The results indicate that quantification of MRI image distortion is crucial in radiation oncology for target and organ delineation and treatment planning. The magnitude of geometric distortion determines the margin needed for target contouring which is usually neglected in treatment planning process, especially for SRS/SBRT treatments. Understanding the 3D distribution of the MRI image distortion will improve the accuracy of target delineation and, hence, treatment efficacy. MRI imaging with proper patient alignment to the isocenter is vital to reducing the effects of MRI distortion in treatment planning.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957032},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Subject-specific susceptibility-induced B0 inhomogeneity affects the geometric accuracy of MRI images, with potential impact on the accuracy of treatment planning and image guidance. This study quantifies individual distortions for patients with intrahepatic tumors. Methods: Liver MRI scans of 13 patients who were enrolled in an IRB approved study were acquired on a 3T scanner (Skyra, Siemens). Clinical contrast-enhanced images were acquired by a 3D Volume Interpolated Breath-Hold Examination (VIBE) sequence with TE/TR =1.65/4.3ms, voxel size = 2.5×2.5×3mm (axial sets) or 3.5×3.5×5mm (coronal sets), and frequency-encoding (FE) bandwidth of 440Hz/pixel. B0 inhomogeneity was evaluated by acquisition of dual gradient echoesmore » (GRE) with TE1/TE2/TR =4.92/7.38/106ms, a voxel size of 3.5×3.5×3.75mm, a FE bandwidth of 290Hz/pixel and breath-hold. The phase difference maps from the two echoes were unwrapped using a quantitative MRI analysis software package (FSL, FMRIB, Oxford, UK). The resulting calculated B0 inhomogeneity maps (ΔB0 in Hz) were converted to voxel distortion maps in the FE direction (ΔX in mm) corresponding to the VIBE images. Results: Maximum susceptibility-induced distortions were observed in the liver dome near the diaphragm. Using results from coronal VIBE images in this study as examples, we observed clusters of voxels displaced close to or greater than ΔX=3.5mm (440 Hz in ΔB0) in the VIBE images of the liver in 3 patients, and greater than 2 mm but less than 3.5 mm in 12 patients. On average, approximately 14% of imaged liver voxels had distortions ΔX>±1mm (ΔB0>±125Hz) and 1% of the voxels had ΔX>±2mm (ΔB0>±250Hz). Conclusion: Although advanced MRI techniques, like VIBE, permit faster acquisitions allowing for breath-held examinations with limited motion-induced artifacts, this study suggests that localized distortions due to subject-specific susceptibility variations can occur and require additional advanced corrections based on measuring patient-specific B0 inhomogeneity maps. The authors would like to acknowledge funding support from NIH R01EB016079 and NIH/NCI RO1 CA132834.« less
  • Purpose: Evaluate a large-field MRI phantom for assessment of geometric distortion in whole-body MRI for real-time MR guided radiation therapy. Methods: A prototype CIRS large-field MRI distortion phantom consisting of a PMMA cylinder (33 cm diameter, 30 cm length) containing a 3D-printed orthogonal grid (3 mm diameter rods, 20 mm apart), was filled with 6 mM NiCl{sub 2} and 30 mM NaCl solution. The phantom was scanned at 1.5T and 3.0T on a GE HDxt and Discovery MR750, respectively, and at 0.35T on a ViewRay system. Scans were obtained with and without 3D distortion correction to demonstrate the impact ofmore » such corrections. CT images were used as a reference standard for analysis of geometric distortion, as determined by a fully automated gradient-search method developed in Matlab. Results: 1,116 grid points distributed throughout a cylindrical volume 28 cm in diameter and 16 cm in length were identified and analyzed. With 3D distortion correction, average/maximum displacements for the 1.5, 3.0, and 0.35T systems were 0.84/2.91, 1.00/2.97, and 0.95/2.37 mm, respectively. The percentage of points with less than (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm) total displacement were (73%, 92%, 97%), (54%, 85%, 97%), and (55%, 90%, 99%), respectively. A reduced scan volume of 20 × 20 × 10 cm{sup 3} (representative of a head and neck scan volume) consisting of 420 points was also analyzed. In this volume, the percentage of points with less than (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm) total displacement were (90%, 99%, 100%), (63%, 95%, 100%), and (75%, 96%, 100%), respectively. Without 3D distortion correction, average/maximum displacements were 1.35/3.67, 1.67/4.46, and 1.51/3.89 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The prototype large-field MRI distortion phantom and developed software provide a thorough assessment of 3D spatial distortions in MRI. The distortions measured were acceptable for RT applications, both for the high field strengths and the system configuration developed by ViewRay.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the 3D geometric distortion of four potential MR sequences for radiotheraptic applications, and its dependency on sequence-type, acquisition-orientation and receiver-bandwidth from a dedicated 1.5T 700mm-wide bore MR-simulator (Magnetom-Aera, Sienmens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany), using a large customized geometric accuracy phantom. Methods: This work studied 3D gradient-echo (VIBE) and spin-echo (SPACE) sequences for anatomical imaging; a specific ultra-short-TE sequence (PETRA) potentially for bone imaging and MR-based dosimetry; and a motion-insensitive sequence (BLADE) for dynamic applications like 4D-MRI. Integrated geometric-correction was employed, three orthogonal acquisition-orientations and up to three receiver-bandwidths were used, yielding 27 acquisitions for testing (Table 1a).A customizedmore » geometric accuracy phantom (polyurethane, MR/CT invisible, W×L×H:55×55×32.5cm3) was constructed and filled with 3892 spherical markers (6mm diameter, MR/CT visible) arranged on a 25mm-interval 3D isotropic-grid (Fig.1). The marker positions in MR images were quantitatively calculated and compared against those in the CT-reference using customized MatLab scripts. Results: The average distortion within various diameter-of-spherical-volumes (DSVs) and the usable DSVs under various distortion limits were measured (Tables 1b-c). It was observed that distortions fluctuated when sequence-type, acquisition-orientation or receiver-bandwidth changed (e.g. within 300mm-DSV, the lowest/highest average distortions of VIBE were 0.40mm/0.59mm, a 47.5% difference). According to AAPM-TG66 (<1mm distortion, left-most column of Table 1c), PETRA (Largest-DSV:253.9mm) has the potential on brain treatment, while BLADE (Largest-DSV:207.2mm) may need improvement for thoracic/abdominal applications. The results of VIBE (Largest-DSVs:294.3mm, the best among tested acquisitions) and SPACE (Largest-DSVs:267.7mm) suggests their potentials on head and neck applications. These Largest-DSVs were attained on different acquisition-orientations and receiver-bandwidths. Conclusion: Geometric distortion was shown to be dependent on sequence-type, acquisition-orientation and receiver-bandwidth. In the experiment, no configuration in any one of these factors could consistently reduce distortion while the others were varying. The distortion analysis result is a valuable guideline for sequence selection and optimization for MR-aided radiotherapy applications.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the dose effects of electron-return-effect (ERE) at air-tissue and lung-tissue interfaces under a 1.5T transverse-magnetic-field (TMF). Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans for representative pancreas, lung, breast and head & neck (H&N) cases were generated following clinical dose volume (DV) criteria. The air-cavity walls, as well as the lung wall, were delineated to examine the ERE. In each case, the original plan generated without TMF is compared with the reconstructed plan (generated by recalculating the original plan with the presence of TMF) and the optimized plan (generated by a full optimization withmore » TMF), using a variety of DV parameters, including V100%, D95% and dose heterogeneity index for PTV, Dmax, and D1cc for OARs (organs at risk) and tissue interface. Results: The dose recalculation under TMF showed the presence of the 1.5 T TMF can slightly reduce V100% and D95% for PTV, with the differences being less than 4% for all but lung case studied. The TMF results in considerable increases in Dmax and D1cc on the skin in all cases, mostly between 10-35%. The changes in Dmax and D1cc on air cavity walls are dependent upon site, geometry, and size, with changes ranging up to 15%. In general, the VMAT plans lead to much smaller dose effects from ERE compared to fixed-beam IMRT. When the TMF is considered in the plan optimization, the dose effects of the TMF at tissue interfaces are significantly reduced in most cases. Conclusion: The doses on tissue interfaces can be significantly changed by the presence of a 1.5T TMF during MR-guided RT when the TMF is not included in plan optimization. These changes can be substantially reduced or even removed during VMAT/IMRT optimization that specifically considers the TMF, without deteriorating overall plan quality.« less
  • Because magnetic resonance imaging–guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) offers exquisite soft tissue contrast and the ability to image tissues in arbitrary planes, the interest in this technology has increased dramatically in recent years. However, intrinsic geometric distortion stemming from both the system hardware and the magnetic properties of the patient affects MR images and compromises the spatial integrity of MRI-based radiation treatment planning, given that for real-time MRIgRT, precision within 2 mm is desired. In this article, we discuss the causes of geometric distortion, describe some well-known distortion correction algorithms, and review geometric distortion measurements from 12 studies, while taking into accountmore » relevant imaging parameters. Eleven of the studies reported phantom measurements quantifying system-dependent geometric distortion, while 2 studies reported simulation data quantifying magnetic susceptibility–induced geometric distortion. Of the 11 studies investigating system-dependent geometric distortion, 5 reported maximum measurements less than 2 mm. The simulation studies demonstrated that magnetic susceptibility–induced distortion is typically smaller than system-dependent distortion but still nonnegligible, with maximum distortion ranging from 2.1 to 2.6 mm at a field strength of 1.5 T. As expected, anatomic landmarks containing interfaces between air and soft tissue had the largest distortions. The evidence indicates that geometric distortion reduces the spatial integrity of MRI-based radiation treatment planning and likely diminishes the efficacy of MRIgRT. Better phantom measurement techniques and more effective distortion correction algorithms are needed to achieve the desired spatial precision.« less