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Title: SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: To quantify the magnitude of geometric distortion for MRI scanners and provide recommendations for MRI imaging for radiation therapy Methods: A novel phantom, QUASAR MRID3D [Modus Medical Devices Inc.], was scanned to evaluate the level of 3D geometric distortion present in five MRI scanners used for radiation therapy in our department. The phantom was scanned using the body coil with 1mm image slice thickness to acquire 3D images of the phantom body. The phantom was aligned to its geometric center for each scan, and the field of view was set to visualize the entire phantom. The dependence of distortion magnitude with distance from imaging isocenter and with magnetic field strength (1.5T and 3T) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of distortion for Siemens and GE machines were compared. The image distortion for each scanner was quantified in terms of mean, standard deviation (STD), maximum distortion, and skewness. Results: The 3T and 1.5T scans show a similar absolute distortion with a mean of 1.38mm (0.33mm STD) for 3T and 1.39mm (0.34mm STD) for 1.5T for a 100mm radius distance from isocenter. Some machines can have a distortion larger than 10mm at a distance of 200mm from the isocenter. The distortions aremore » presented with plots of the x, y, and z directional components. Conclusion: The results indicate that quantification of MRI image distortion is crucial in radiation oncology for target and organ delineation and treatment planning. The magnitude of geometric distortion determines the margin needed for target contouring which is usually neglected in treatment planning process, especially for SRS/SBRT treatments. Understanding the 3D distribution of the MRI image distortion will improve the accuracy of target delineation and, hence, treatment efficacy. MRI imaging with proper patient alignment to the isocenter is vital to reducing the effects of MRI distortion in treatment planning.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Ohio State University Columbus, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649378
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; DISTANCE; GEOMETRY; IMAGES; MAGNETIC FIELDS; NMR IMAGING; PHANTOMS; PLANNING; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Stowe, M, Gupta, N, Raterman, B, and Lu, L. SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957032.
Stowe, M, Gupta, N, Raterman, B, & Lu, L. SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957032.
Stowe, M, Gupta, N, Raterman, B, and Lu, L. Wed . "SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957032.
@article{osti_22649378,
title = {SU-G-JeP2-12: Quantification of 3D Geometric Distortion for 1.5T and 3T MRI Scanners Used for Radiation Therapy},
author = {Stowe, M and Gupta, N and Raterman, B and Lu, L},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To quantify the magnitude of geometric distortion for MRI scanners and provide recommendations for MRI imaging for radiation therapy Methods: A novel phantom, QUASAR MRID3D [Modus Medical Devices Inc.], was scanned to evaluate the level of 3D geometric distortion present in five MRI scanners used for radiation therapy in our department. The phantom was scanned using the body coil with 1mm image slice thickness to acquire 3D images of the phantom body. The phantom was aligned to its geometric center for each scan, and the field of view was set to visualize the entire phantom. The dependence of distortion magnitude with distance from imaging isocenter and with magnetic field strength (1.5T and 3T) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of distortion for Siemens and GE machines were compared. The image distortion for each scanner was quantified in terms of mean, standard deviation (STD), maximum distortion, and skewness. Results: The 3T and 1.5T scans show a similar absolute distortion with a mean of 1.38mm (0.33mm STD) for 3T and 1.39mm (0.34mm STD) for 1.5T for a 100mm radius distance from isocenter. Some machines can have a distortion larger than 10mm at a distance of 200mm from the isocenter. The distortions are presented with plots of the x, y, and z directional components. Conclusion: The results indicate that quantification of MRI image distortion is crucial in radiation oncology for target and organ delineation and treatment planning. The magnitude of geometric distortion determines the margin needed for target contouring which is usually neglected in treatment planning process, especially for SRS/SBRT treatments. Understanding the 3D distribution of the MRI image distortion will improve the accuracy of target delineation and, hence, treatment efficacy. MRI imaging with proper patient alignment to the isocenter is vital to reducing the effects of MRI distortion in treatment planning.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957032},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Evaluate a large-field MRI phantom for assessment of geometric distortion in whole-body MRI for real-time MR guided radiation therapy. Methods: A prototype CIRS large-field MRI distortion phantom consisting of a PMMA cylinder (33 cm diameter, 30 cm length) containing a 3D-printed orthogonal grid (3 mm diameter rods, 20 mm apart), was filled with 6 mM NiCl{sub 2} and 30 mM NaCl solution. The phantom was scanned at 1.5T and 3.0T on a GE HDxt and Discovery MR750, respectively, and at 0.35T on a ViewRay system. Scans were obtained with and without 3D distortion correction to demonstrate the impact ofmore » such corrections. CT images were used as a reference standard for analysis of geometric distortion, as determined by a fully automated gradient-search method developed in Matlab. Results: 1,116 grid points distributed throughout a cylindrical volume 28 cm in diameter and 16 cm in length were identified and analyzed. With 3D distortion correction, average/maximum displacements for the 1.5, 3.0, and 0.35T systems were 0.84/2.91, 1.00/2.97, and 0.95/2.37 mm, respectively. The percentage of points with less than (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm) total displacement were (73%, 92%, 97%), (54%, 85%, 97%), and (55%, 90%, 99%), respectively. A reduced scan volume of 20 × 20 × 10 cm{sup 3} (representative of a head and neck scan volume) consisting of 420 points was also analyzed. In this volume, the percentage of points with less than (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm) total displacement were (90%, 99%, 100%), (63%, 95%, 100%), and (75%, 96%, 100%), respectively. Without 3D distortion correction, average/maximum displacements were 1.35/3.67, 1.67/4.46, and 1.51/3.89 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The prototype large-field MRI distortion phantom and developed software provide a thorough assessment of 3D spatial distortions in MRI. The distortions measured were acceptable for RT applications, both for the high field strengths and the system configuration developed by ViewRay.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the dose effects of electron-return-effect (ERE) at air-tissue and lung-tissue interfaces under a 1.5T transverse-magnetic-field (TMF). Methods: IMRT and VMAT plans for representative pancreas, lung, breast and head & neck (H&N) cases were generated following clinical dose volume (DV) criteria. The air-cavity walls, as well as the lung wall, were delineated to examine the ERE. In each case, the original plan generated without TMF is compared with the reconstructed plan (generated by recalculating the original plan with the presence of TMF) and the optimized plan (generated by a full optimization withmore » TMF), using a variety of DV parameters, including V100%, D95% and dose heterogeneity index for PTV, Dmax, and D1cc for OARs (organs at risk) and tissue interface. Results: The dose recalculation under TMF showed the presence of the 1.5 T TMF can slightly reduce V100% and D95% for PTV, with the differences being less than 4% for all but lung case studied. The TMF results in considerable increases in Dmax and D1cc on the skin in all cases, mostly between 10-35%. The changes in Dmax and D1cc on air cavity walls are dependent upon site, geometry, and size, with changes ranging up to 15%. In general, the VMAT plans lead to much smaller dose effects from ERE compared to fixed-beam IMRT. When the TMF is considered in the plan optimization, the dose effects of the TMF at tissue interfaces are significantly reduced in most cases. Conclusion: The doses on tissue interfaces can be significantly changed by the presence of a 1.5T TMF during MR-guided RT when the TMF is not included in plan optimization. These changes can be substantially reduced or even removed during VMAT/IMRT optimization that specifically considers the TMF, without deteriorating overall plan quality.« less
  • Purpose: To assess MR signal contrast for different ferrous ion compounds used in Fricke-type gel dosimeters for real-time dose measurements for MR-guided radiation therapy applications. Methods: Fricke-type gel dosimeters were prepared in 4% w/w gelatin prior to irradiation in an integrated 1.5 T MRI and 7 MV linear accelerator system (MR-Linac). 4 different ferrous ion (Fe2?) compounds (referred to as A, B, C, and D) were investigated for this study. Dosimeter D consisted of ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS), which is conventionally used for Fricke dosimeters. Approximately half of each cylindrical dosimeter (45 mm diameter, 80 mm length) was irradiated tomore » ∼17 Gy. MR imaging during irradiation was performed with the MR-Linac using a balanced-FFE sequence of TR/TE = 5/2.4 ms. An approximate uncertainty of 5% in our dose delivery was anticipated since the MR-Linac had not yet been fully commissioned. Results: The signal intensities (SI) increased between the un-irradiated and irradiated regions by approximately 8.6%, 4.4%, 3.2%, and 4.3% after delivery of ∼2.8 Gy for dosimeters A, B, C, and D, respectively. After delivery of ∼17 Gy, the SI had increased by 24.4%, 21.0%, 3.1%, and 22.2% compared to the un-irradiated regions. The increase in SI with respect to dose was linear for dosimeters A, B, and D with slopes of 0.0164, 0.0251, and 0.0236 Gy{sup −1} (R{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.97, and 0.96), respectively. Visually, dosimeter A had the greatest optical contrast from yellow to purple in the irradiated region. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using Fricke-type dosimeters for real-time dose measurements with the greatest optical and MR contrast for dosimeter A. We also demonstrated the need to investigate Fe{sup 2+} compounds beyond the conventionally utilized FAS compound in order to improve the MR signal contrast in 3D dosimeters used for MR-guided radiation therapy. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. LH- 102SPS.« less
  • Purpose: To demonstrate the potential of polymer gels to serve as 3D QA devices in MR-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Custom-designed polymer gel dosimeters (MGS Research, Madison, CT) were centered on the penumbras of a radiation field, parallel to the magnetic field lines inside a 1.5 T MR scanner integrated with a 7 MV linac (MR-Linac). 15 Gy were delivered perpendicular to the magnetic field. Coronal MR images were acquired with a 2D balanced-Fast Field Echo (b-FFE) sequence in real-time during irradiation and with a 2D spin echo sequence at different times after irradiation. Signal intensities (SI) were measured inside and outsidemore » the radiation field on b-FFE images obtained during irradiation. Spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) maps were calculated from images after irradiation and penumbra widths were calculated from these maps. Results: A difference in SI between areas of the dosimeter inside and outside of the radiation field could be measured immediately after the beam was turned on. The difference in SI increased throughout the duration of the exposure. R2 values from immediately after irradiation were 83% of those measured 24h post-irradiation. At 1h after irradiation, the R2 values were 87% of those at 24h indicating that polymerization of the gel was still ongoing. At 24h postirradiation the width of the 80/20 penumbra on the left field edge measured 6.5 mm and on the right 5.6 mm. Conclusion: The MR-Linac allows for MR imaging during treatment and measurements of 3D dose distributions with steep dose gradients without having to transfer dosimeters for read-out. The results showed promise for polymer gels as relative 3D QA devices to verify radiation treatment plans delivered by an MR-Linac. To our knowledge, this was the first time that polymer gels were used for real-time image acquisition. Further investigations into the application of polymer gel dosimetry on MR-Linac are ongoing.« less
  • Purpose: There are very few commercial 4D phantoms that are marketed as MRI compatible. We are evaluating one such commercial phantom, made to be used with an MRI-Linear accelerator. The focus of this work is to characterize the geometric distortions produced in this phantom at 3T using 3 clinical MR pulse sequences. Methods: The CIRS MRI-Linac Dynamic Phantom (CIRSTM) under investigation in this study consists of a softwaredriven moving tumour volume within a thorax phantom body and enables dose accumulation by placing a dosimeter within the tumour volume. Our initial investigation is to evaluate the phantom in static mode priormore » to examining its 4D capability. The water-filled thorax phantom was scanned using a wide-bore Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner employing a Thoracic xl coil and clinical 2D T1W FFE, 2D T1W TSE and 3D T1W TFE pulse sequences. Each of the MR image sets was rigidly fused with a reference CT image of the phantom employing a rigid registration with 6 degrees of freedom. Geometric distortions between the MR and CT image sets were measured in 3 dimensions at selected points along the periphery of the distortion grid embedded within the phantom body (11.5, 7.5 and 3 cm laterally, ant/post and sup/inf of magnetic isocenter respectively). Results: The maximal measured geometric distortions between the MR and reference CT points of interest were 0.9, 1.8 and 1.3 mm in the lateral, anteriorposterior and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. For all 3 spatial dimensions, the maximal distortions occurred for the FFE pulse sequence. Maximal distortions for the 2D FFE, 2D TSE and 3D TFE sequences were 1, 0.7 and 1.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial static investigation of this phantom shows minimal geometric distortions at 3T along the periphery of the embedded grid. CIRS has provided us with a phantom at no charge for evaluation at 3 Tesla.« less