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Title: SU-G-IeP2-06: Evaluation of Registration Accuracy for Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction Techniques

Abstract

Purpose: Cone-beam (CB) computed tomography (CT) is used for image guidance during radiotherapy treatment delivery. Conventional Feldkamp and compressed sensing (CS) based CBCT recon-struction techniques are compared for image registration. This study is to evaluate the image registration accuracy of conventional and CS CBCT for head-and-neck (HN) patients. Methods: Ten HN patients with oropharyngeal tumors were retrospectively selected. Each HN patient had one planning CT (CTP) and three CBCTs were acquired during an adaptive radiotherapy proto-col. Each CBCT was reconstructed by both the conventional (CBCTCON) and compressed sens-ing (CBCTCS) methods. Two oncologists manually labeled 23 landmarks of normal tissue and implanted gold markers on both the CTP and CBCTCON. Subsequently, landmarks on CTp were propagated to CBCTs, using a b-spline-based deformable image registration (DIR) and rigid registration (RR). The errors of these registration methods between two CBCT methods were calcu-lated. Results: For DIR, the mean distance between the propagated and the labeled landmarks was 2.8 mm ± 0.52 for CBCTCS, and 3.5 mm ± 0.75 for CBCTCON. For RR, the mean distance between the propagated and the labeled landmarks was 6.8 mm ± 0.92 for CBCTCS, and 8.7 mm ± 0.95 CBCTCON. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that CS CBCTmore » is more accurate than conventional CBCT in image registration by both rigid and non-rigid methods. It is potentially suggested that CS CBCT is an improved image modality for image guided adaptive applications.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Sichuan Cancer Hospital, Chengdu (China)
  2. Beijing Linking Medical Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649359
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; IMAGES; MEDICAL PERSONNEL; PATIENTS

Citation Formats

Li, J, Wang, P, and Zhang, H. SU-G-IeP2-06: Evaluation of Registration Accuracy for Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction Techniques. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4957011.
Li, J, Wang, P, & Zhang, H. SU-G-IeP2-06: Evaluation of Registration Accuracy for Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction Techniques. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957011.
Li, J, Wang, P, and Zhang, H. 2016. "SU-G-IeP2-06: Evaluation of Registration Accuracy for Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction Techniques". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4957011.
@article{osti_22649359,
title = {SU-G-IeP2-06: Evaluation of Registration Accuracy for Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction Techniques},
author = {Li, J and Wang, P and Zhang, H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Cone-beam (CB) computed tomography (CT) is used for image guidance during radiotherapy treatment delivery. Conventional Feldkamp and compressed sensing (CS) based CBCT recon-struction techniques are compared for image registration. This study is to evaluate the image registration accuracy of conventional and CS CBCT for head-and-neck (HN) patients. Methods: Ten HN patients with oropharyngeal tumors were retrospectively selected. Each HN patient had one planning CT (CTP) and three CBCTs were acquired during an adaptive radiotherapy proto-col. Each CBCT was reconstructed by both the conventional (CBCTCON) and compressed sens-ing (CBCTCS) methods. Two oncologists manually labeled 23 landmarks of normal tissue and implanted gold markers on both the CTP and CBCTCON. Subsequently, landmarks on CTp were propagated to CBCTs, using a b-spline-based deformable image registration (DIR) and rigid registration (RR). The errors of these registration methods between two CBCT methods were calcu-lated. Results: For DIR, the mean distance between the propagated and the labeled landmarks was 2.8 mm ± 0.52 for CBCTCS, and 3.5 mm ± 0.75 for CBCTCON. For RR, the mean distance between the propagated and the labeled landmarks was 6.8 mm ± 0.92 for CBCTCS, and 8.7 mm ± 0.95 CBCTCON. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that CS CBCT is more accurate than conventional CBCT in image registration by both rigid and non-rigid methods. It is potentially suggested that CS CBCT is an improved image modality for image guided adaptive applications.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4957011},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The intensive use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) during radiotherapy treatments raise some questions about the dose to healthy tissues delivered during image acquisitions. We hence developed a Monte Carlo (MC)-based tool to predict doses to organs delivered by the Elekta XVI kV-CBCT. This work aims at assessing the dosimetric accuracy of the MC tool, in all tissue types. Methods: The kV-CBCT MC model was developed using the PENELOPE code. The beam properties were validated against measured lateral and depth dose profiles in water, and energy spectra measured with a CdTe detector. The CBCT simulator accuracy then required verificationmore » in clinical conditions. For this, we compared calculated and experimental dose values obtained with OSL nanoDots and XRQA2 films inserted in CIRS anthropomorphic phantoms (male, female, and 5-year old child). Measurements were performed at different locations, including bone and lung structures, and for several acquisition protocols: lung, head-and-neck, and pelvis. OSLs and film measurements were corrected when possible for energy dependence, by taking into account for spectral variations between calibration and measurement conditions. Results: Comparisons between measured and MC dose values are summarized in table 1. A mean difference of 8.6% was achieved for OSLs when the energy correction was applied, and 89.3% of the 84 dose points were within uncertainty intervals, including those in bones and lungs. Results with XRQA2 are not as good, because incomplete information about electronic equilibrium in film layers hampered the application of a simple energy correction procedure. Furthermore, measured and calculated doses (Fig.1) are in agreement with the literature. Conclusion: The MC-based tool developed was validated with an extensive set of measurements, and enables the organ dose calculation with accuracy. It can now be used to compute and report doses to organs for clinical cases, and also to drive strategies to optimize imaging protocols.« less
  • Purpose: To balance dose reduction and image registration accuracy in breast setup imaging. In particular, the authors demonstrate the relationship between scan angle and dose delivery for cone beam tomosynthesis (CBTS) when employed for setup verification of breast cancer patients with surgical clips. Methods: The dose measurements were performed in a female torso phantom for varying scan angles of CBTS. Setup accuracy was measured using three registration methods: Clip centroid localization accuracy and the accuracy of two semiautomatic registration algorithms. The dose to the organs outside of the ipsilateral breast and registration accuracy information were compared to determine the optimalmore » scan angle for CBTS for breast patient setup verification. Isocenter positions at the center of the patient and at the breast-chest wall interface were considered. Results: Image registration accuracy was within 1 mm for the CBTS scan angles {theta} above 20 deg. for some scenarios and as large as 80 deg. for the worst case, depending on the imaged breast and registration algorithm. Registration accuracy was highest based on clip centroid localization. For left and right breast imaging with the isocenter at the chest wall, the dose to the contralateral side of the patient was very low (<0.5 cGy) for all scan angles considered. For central isocenter location, the optimal scan angles were 30 deg. - 50 deg. for the left breast imaging and 40 deg. - 50 deg. for the right breast imaging, with the difference due to the geometric asymmetry of the current clinical imaging system. Conclusions: The optimal scan angles for CBTS imaging were found to be between 10 deg. and 50 deg., depending on the isocenter location and ipsilateral breast. Use of the isocenter at the breast-chest wall locations always resulted in greater accuracy of image registration (<1 mm) at smaller angles (10 deg. - 20 deg.) and at lower doses (<0.1 cGy) to the contralateral organs. For chest wall isocenters, doses delivered to organs outside of the target breast were much smaller than the scattered and leakage doses of the treatment beams. The complete volumetric information of all clips in the region of interest, combined with the small dose to the contralateral organs and the small scan angle, could result in an advantage for small angle CBTS with off center isocenters over simple orthogonal pairs.« less
  • Purpose: To quantify the difference in isocenter shifts when co-registering MR and MR-based pseudo CTs (pCT) with on-board megavoltage conebeam CT (CBCT) images. Methods: Fast Spoiled Gradient Echo MRs were used to generate pCTs (research version of Advantage Sim MD™, GE Healthcare) for ten patients who had prior brain radiotherapy. The planning CT (rCT) for each was co-registered with the MR, and the plan isocenter and two other reference points were transferred to the MR and pCT. CBCT images (with the machine isocenter) from a single treatment day were coregistered with the 3 test images (MR, pCT and rCT), bymore » two observers and by an automated registration algorithm. The reference points were used to calculate patient shifts and rotations from the registrations. The shifts calculated from the test image registrations were compared to each other and to the shifts performed by the therapists who treated the patients on that day. Results: The average difference in absolute value between the isocenter shifts from the MR-, pCT- and rCT-CBCT registrations, and the therapist shifts, were 2.02, 3.01 and 0.89 mm (craniocaudal), 1.14, 1.34 and 0.46 mm (lateral), and 1.37, 3.43 and 1.43 mm (vertical), respectively. The MR- and pCT-CBCT registrations differed by 1.99, and 2.53 mm (craniocaudal), 1.36, and 1.37 mm (lateral), and 0.74 and 2.34 mm (vertical), respectively, from the average rCT-CBCT shifts. On average, differences of 2.39 (craniocaudal), 1.28 (lateral) and 2.84 mm (vertical) were seen between the MR and pCT shifts. Rotations relative to the CBCT coordinate system were on average <2° for the MR and rCT, and <6° for the pCT. Conclusion: In this study, FSPGR MR-CBCT registrations were more precise compared to the pCT-CBCT registrations. For improved accuracy, MR sequences that are optimal for bony anatomy visualization are necessary. GE healthcare has provided a research version of Advantage Sim MD to UCSF. No financial support was provided.« less
  • Purpose: Artifacts can reduce the quality of dose re-calculations on CBCT scans during a treatment. The aim of this project is to correct the CBCT images in order to allow for more accurate and exact dose calculations in the case of a translation of the tumor in prostate cancer. Methods: Our approach is to develop strategies based on deformable image registration algorithms using the elastix software (Klein et al., 2010) to register the treatment planning CT on a daily CBCT scan taken during treatment. Sets of images are provided by a 3D deformable phantom and comprise two CT and twomore » CBCT scans: one of both with the reference anatomy and the others with known deformations (i.e. translations of the prostate). The reference CT is registered onto the deformed CBCT and the deformed CT serves as the control for dose calculation accuracy. The planned treatment used for the evaluation of dose calculation is a 2-Gy fraction prescribed at the location of the reference prostate and assigned to 7 rectangular fields. Results: For a realistic 0.5-cm translation of the prostate, the relative dose discrepancy between the CBCT and the CT control scan at the prostate's centroid is 8.9 ± 0.8 % while dose discrepancy between the registered CT and the control scan lessens to −2.4 ± 0.8 %. For a 2-cm translation, clinical indices like the V90 and the D100 are more accurate by 0.7 ± 0.3 % and 8.0 ± 0.5 cGy respectively when using registered CT than when using CBCT for dose calculation. Conclusion: The results show that this strategy gives doses in agreement within a few percents with those from calculations on actual CT scans. In the future, various deformations of the phantom anatomy will allow a thorough characterization of the registration strategies needed for more complex anatomies.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the slice direction dependent detectability in cone beam CT images with anatomical background. Methods: We generated 3D anatomical background images using breast anatomy model. To generate 3D breast anatomy, we filtered 3D Gaussian noise with a square root of 1/f{sup 3}, and then assigned the attenuation coefficient of glandular (0.8cm{sup −1}) and adipose (0.46 cm{sup −1}) tissues based on voxel values. Projections were acquired by forward projection, and quantum noise was added to the projection data. The projection data were reconstructed by FDK algorithm. We compared the detectability of a 3 mm spherical signal in the imagemore » reconstructed from four different backprojection Methods: Hanning weighted ramp filter with linear interpolation (RECON1), Hanning weighted ramp filter with Fourier interpolation (RECON2), ramp filter with linear interpolation (RECON3), and ramp filter with Fourier interpolation (RECON4), respectively. We computed task SNR of the spherical signal in transverse and longitudinal planes using channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels. Results: Transverse plane has similar task SNR values for different backprojection methods, while longitudinal plane has a maximum task SNR value in RECON1. For all backprojection methods, longitudinal plane has higher task SNR than transverse plane. Conclusion: In this work, we investigated detectability for different slice direction in cone beam CT images with anatomical background. Longitudinal plane has a higher task SNR than transverse plane, and backprojection with hanning weighted ramp filter with linear interpolation method (i.e., RECON1) produced the highest task SNR among four different backprojection methods. This research was supported by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Korea, under the IT Consilience Creative Programs(IITP-2015-R0346-15-1008) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion), Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the MSIP (2015R1C1A1A01052268) and framework of international cooperation program managed by NRF (NRF-2015K2A1A2067635).« less