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Title: SU-G-JeP1-09: Evaluation of Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging as a Potential Solution for Target Tracking During Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Abstract

Purpose: Prostate SABR is emerging as a clinically viable, potentially cost effective alternative to prostate IMRT but its adoption is contingent on providing solutions for accurate tracking during beam delivery. Our goal is to evaluate the performance of the Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system for inter-fractional prostate motion tracking in both phantoms and in-vivo. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. The probe was placed before KV imaging and real-time tracking was started and continued until the end of treatment. Initial absolute 3D positions of fiducials were estimated from KV images. Fiducial positions in MV images subsequently acquired during beam delivery were compared with predicted positions based on Clarity estimated motion. Results: Phantom studies with motion amplitudes of ±1.5, ±3, ±6 mm in lateral direction and ±2 mm in longitudinal direction resulted in tracking errors of −0.03 ± 0.3, −0.04 ± 0.6, −0.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, in lateral direction and −0.05 ± 0.30 mm in longitudinal direction. In phantom, measured and predicted fiducial positions in MV images were within 0.1 ± 0.6 mm. Four patients consented tomore » participate in the study and data was acquired over a total of 140 fractions. MV imaging tracking was possible in about 75% of the time (due to occlusion of fiducials) compared to 100% with Clarity. Overall range of estimated motion by Clarity was 0 to 4.0 mm. In-vivo fiducial localization error was 1.2 ± 1.0 mm compared to 1.8 ± 1.9 mm if not taking Clarity estimated motion into account. Conclusion: Real-time transperineal ultrasound tracking reduces uncertainty in prostate position due to intrafractional motion. Research was supported by Elekta.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
  2. Elekta Inc., Montreal, QC (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649334
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; IMAGES; IN VIVO; MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS; PHANTOMS; PROSTATE; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Najafi, M, Han, B, Hancock, S, Hristov, D, and Cooper, D. SU-G-JeP1-09: Evaluation of Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging as a Potential Solution for Target Tracking During Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956984.
Najafi, M, Han, B, Hancock, S, Hristov, D, & Cooper, D. SU-G-JeP1-09: Evaluation of Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging as a Potential Solution for Target Tracking During Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956984.
Najafi, M, Han, B, Hancock, S, Hristov, D, and Cooper, D. 2016. "SU-G-JeP1-09: Evaluation of Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging as a Potential Solution for Target Tracking During Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956984.
@article{osti_22649334,
title = {SU-G-JeP1-09: Evaluation of Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging as a Potential Solution for Target Tracking During Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer},
author = {Najafi, M and Han, B and Hancock, S and Hristov, D and Cooper, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Prostate SABR is emerging as a clinically viable, potentially cost effective alternative to prostate IMRT but its adoption is contingent on providing solutions for accurate tracking during beam delivery. Our goal is to evaluate the performance of the Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system for inter-fractional prostate motion tracking in both phantoms and in-vivo. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. The probe was placed before KV imaging and real-time tracking was started and continued until the end of treatment. Initial absolute 3D positions of fiducials were estimated from KV images. Fiducial positions in MV images subsequently acquired during beam delivery were compared with predicted positions based on Clarity estimated motion. Results: Phantom studies with motion amplitudes of ±1.5, ±3, ±6 mm in lateral direction and ±2 mm in longitudinal direction resulted in tracking errors of −0.03 ± 0.3, −0.04 ± 0.6, −0.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, in lateral direction and −0.05 ± 0.30 mm in longitudinal direction. In phantom, measured and predicted fiducial positions in MV images were within 0.1 ± 0.6 mm. Four patients consented to participate in the study and data was acquired over a total of 140 fractions. MV imaging tracking was possible in about 75% of the time (due to occlusion of fiducials) compared to 100% with Clarity. Overall range of estimated motion by Clarity was 0 to 4.0 mm. In-vivo fiducial localization error was 1.2 ± 1.0 mm compared to 1.8 ± 1.9 mm if not taking Clarity estimated motion into account. Conclusion: Real-time transperineal ultrasound tracking reduces uncertainty in prostate position due to intrafractional motion. Research was supported by Elekta.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956984},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Imaging of patient anatomy during treatment is a necessity for position verification and for adaptive radiotherapy based on daily dose recalculation. Ultrasound (US) image guided radiotherapy systems are currently available to collect US images at the simulation stage (US{sub sim}), coregistered with the simulation computed tomography (CT), and during all treatment fractions. The authors hypothesize that a deformation field derived from US-based deformable image registration can be used to create a daily pseudo-CT (CT{sub ps}) image that is more representative of the patients’ geometry during treatment than the CT acquired at simulation stage (CT{sub sim}). Methods: The three prostatemore » patients, considered to evaluate this hypothesis, had coregistered CT and US scans on various days. In particular, two patients had two US–CT datasets each and the third one had five US–CT datasets. Deformation fields were computed between pairs of US images of the same patient and then applied to the corresponding US{sub sim} scan to yield a new deformed CT{sub ps} scan. The original treatment plans were used to recalculate dose distributions in the simulation, deformed and ground truth CT (CT{sub gt}) images to compare dice similarity coefficients, maximum absolute distance, and mean absolute distance on CT delineations and gamma index (γ) evaluations on both the Hounsfield units (HUs) and the dose. Results: In the majority, deformation did improve the results for all three evaluation methods. The change in gamma failure for dose (γ{sub Dose}, 3%, 3 mm) ranged from an improvement of 11.2% in the prostate volume to a deterioration of 1.3% in the prostate and bladder. The change in gamma failure for the CT images (γ{sub CT}, 50 HU, 3 mm) ranged from an improvement of 20.5% in the anus and rectum to a deterioration of 3.2% in the prostate. Conclusions: This new technique may generate CT{sub ps} images that are more representative of the actual patient anatomy than the CT{sub sim} scan.« less
  • Purpose: To compare two different ultrasound-based verification systems for prostate alignment during daily external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Prostate displacements were measured prospectively in 40 patients undergoing daily EBRT. Comparison was made between a system based on the cross-modality verification method (CMVM), which uses two different imaging modalities to assess organ motion, and a system based on the intramodality verification method (IMVM), which uses only one imaging modality for such assessment. A total of 217 CMVM and 217 IMVM displacements were collected within a minute of each other. In 10 patients, IMVM displacementsmore » were also compared with those measured by sequential CT scans. Results: Analysis in the paired CMVM and IMVM displacements shows a significant mean difference of 0.9 {+-} 3.3 mm in the lateral and 6.0 {+-} 5.1 mm in the superoinferior directions (p < 0.0001), whereas no significant difference was detected in the anteroposterior direction between the two methods. Comparison of the computed tomography scan and IMVM measured displacements shows no significant difference between the two methods, with mean values of 0.2 {+-} 1.7 mm in the lateral, -0.3 {+-} 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior, and 0.1 {+-} 1.4 mm in the superoinferior directions. Conclusions: A significant systematic difference exists between cross-modality and intramodality methods when assessing prostate alignment during daily EBRT. Because displacements assessed by IMVM are consistent with those assessed by computed tomography scan, a more accurate prostate alignment appears to be obtained when the IMVM method is used.« less
  • A combined modality approach has been developed for treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer consisting of: surgical staging with lymphadenectomy; transperineal placement of afterloading needles for a course of /sup 192/Ir brachytherapy; and a course of moderate-dose external beam irradiation to tight prostatic fields. The flexibility of the treatment permits adaptation of the dose to any tumor configuration. A total of 23 patients have been treated to date; 18 are available for treatment review and 14 for acute toxicity analysis. Significant morbidity has occurred in only 2 patients, 1 with a pelvic hematoma and 1 with hematoma in the wound.more » Local tumor response has been excellent in all but 1 patient. A good degree of symptomatic improvement was observed at the three-month follow-up. This approach appears to be safe and effective at this time. A brief review of the technique and the rationale for its use are also presented.« less
  • Purpose: Clarity Autoscan ultrasound monitoring system allows acquisition of raw radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound data prior and during radiotherapy. This enables the computation of 3D Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) tissue parametric maps from. We aim to evaluate whether QUS parameters undergo changes with radiotherapy and thus potentially be used as early predictors and/or markers of treatment response in prostate cancer patients. Methods: In-vivo evaluation was performed under IRB protocol to allow data collection in prostate patients treated with VMAT whereby prostate was imaged through the acoustic window of the perineum. QUS spectroscopy analysis was carried out by computing a tissue power spectrummore » normalized to the power spectrum obtained from a quartz to remove system transfer function effects. A ROI was selected within the 3D image volume of the prostate. Because longitudinal registration was optimal, the same features could be used to select ROIs at roughly the same location in images acquired on different days. Parametric maps were generated within the rectangular ROIs with window sizes that were approximately 8 times the wavelength of the ultrasound. The mid-band fit (MBF), spectral slope (SS) and spectral intercept (SI) QUS parameters were computed for each window within the ROI and displayed as parametric maps. Quantitative parameters were obtained by averaging each of the spectral parameters over the whole ROI. Results: Data was acquired for over 21 treatment fractions. Preliminary results show changes in the parametric maps. MBF values decreased from −33.9 dB to −38.7 dB from pre-treatment to the last day of treatment. The spectral slope increased from −1.1 a.u. to −0.5 a.u., and spectral intercept decreased from −28.2 dB to −36.3 dB over the 21 treatment regimen. Conclusion: QUS parametric maps change over the course of treatment which warrants further investigation in their potential use for treatment planning and predicting treatment outcomes. Research was supported by Elekta.« less
  • Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT), multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and a combination of both techniques for the detection of local recurrence of prostate cancer initially treated by radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective, single-institution study of 32 patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence who underwent both FCH-PET/CT and 3T mpMRI within 3 months of one another for the detection of recurrence. All included patients had to be cleared for metastatic recurrence. The reference procedure was systematic 3-dimensional (3D)-transperineal prostate biopsy for the final assessment of local recurrence.more » Both imaging modalities were analyzed by 2 experienced readers blinded to clinical data. The analysis was made per-patient and per-segment using a 4-segment model. Results: The median prostate-specific antigen value at the time of imaging was 2.92 ng/mL. The mean prostate-specific antigen doubling time was 14 months. Of the 32 patients, 31 had a positive 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy for a local relapse. On a patient-based analysis, the detection rate was 71% (22 of 31) for mpMRI and 74% (23 of 31) for FCH-PET/CT. On a segment-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 32% and 87% for mpMRI, 34% and 87% for FCH-PET/CT, and 43% and 83% for the combined analysis of both techniques. Accuracy was 64%, 65%, and 66%, respectively. The interobserver agreement was κ = 0.92 for FCH-PET/CT and κ = 0.74 for mpMRI. Conclusions: Both mpMRI and FCH-PET/CT show limited sensitivity but good specificity for the detection of local cancer recurrence after radiation therapy, when compared with 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy. Prostate biopsy still seems to be mandatory to diagnose local relapse and select patients who could benefit from local salvage therapy.« less