skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-G-JeP1-02: A New Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion Tracking Method in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Via 2D/3D Registration

Abstract

Purpose: Intra-fractional prostate motion leads uncertainty on delivered dose in radiotherapy and may cause significant dose deviation from the planned dose distribution. This is especially a concern in scenarios with a high dose per fraction and hence a long delivery time, e.g. stereotactic body radiotherapy. Knowledge about intra-fractional prostate motion is valuable to address this problem, e.g. by reconstructing delivered dose and performing adaptation. This study proposes a new approach to determine intra-fractional prostate motion in VMAT via 2D/3D maker registration. Methods: At our institution, each patient has three markers implanted in the prostate. During treatment delivery, kV triggered images were taken every three seconds to acquire 2D projection of 3D anatomy at the direction orthogonal to the therapeutic beam. Projected marker locations were identified on each projection image using template matching with geometric constraints. 3D prostate translation and rotation for each triggered image were obtained by solving an optimization problem, such that the calculated marker locations match the measured ones. Inter-image motion smoothness was employed as a constraint. We tested this method in simulation studies with five realistic prostate motion trajectories acquired via Calypso and in real phantom experiments. Results: For the simulation case, the motion range for thesemore » patients was 0.5∼6.0 mm. Root mean square (RMS) error of calculated motion along left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions were 0.26mm, 0.36mm, and 0.016mm, respectively. The motion range in the phantom study along LR, AP, and CC directions were 15mm, 20mm and 10mm. The mean RMS errors along these directions were 1.99mm, 1.37mm and 0.22mm. Conclusion: A new prostate motion tracking algorithm based on kV triggered images has been developed and validated. Clinically acceptable accuracy has been achieved.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649328
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; IMAGES; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Chi, Y, Rezaeian, N Hassan, Hannan, R, and Jia, X. SU-G-JeP1-02: A New Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion Tracking Method in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Via 2D/3D Registration. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956977.
Chi, Y, Rezaeian, N Hassan, Hannan, R, & Jia, X. SU-G-JeP1-02: A New Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion Tracking Method in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Via 2D/3D Registration. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956977.
Chi, Y, Rezaeian, N Hassan, Hannan, R, and Jia, X. 2016. "SU-G-JeP1-02: A New Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion Tracking Method in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Via 2D/3D Registration". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956977.
@article{osti_22649328,
title = {SU-G-JeP1-02: A New Intra-Fractional Prostate Motion Tracking Method in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Via 2D/3D Registration},
author = {Chi, Y and Rezaeian, N Hassan and Hannan, R and Jia, X},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Intra-fractional prostate motion leads uncertainty on delivered dose in radiotherapy and may cause significant dose deviation from the planned dose distribution. This is especially a concern in scenarios with a high dose per fraction and hence a long delivery time, e.g. stereotactic body radiotherapy. Knowledge about intra-fractional prostate motion is valuable to address this problem, e.g. by reconstructing delivered dose and performing adaptation. This study proposes a new approach to determine intra-fractional prostate motion in VMAT via 2D/3D maker registration. Methods: At our institution, each patient has three markers implanted in the prostate. During treatment delivery, kV triggered images were taken every three seconds to acquire 2D projection of 3D anatomy at the direction orthogonal to the therapeutic beam. Projected marker locations were identified on each projection image using template matching with geometric constraints. 3D prostate translation and rotation for each triggered image were obtained by solving an optimization problem, such that the calculated marker locations match the measured ones. Inter-image motion smoothness was employed as a constraint. We tested this method in simulation studies with five realistic prostate motion trajectories acquired via Calypso and in real phantom experiments. Results: For the simulation case, the motion range for these patients was 0.5∼6.0 mm. Root mean square (RMS) error of calculated motion along left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and cranial-caudal (CC) directions were 0.26mm, 0.36mm, and 0.016mm, respectively. The motion range in the phantom study along LR, AP, and CC directions were 15mm, 20mm and 10mm. The mean RMS errors along these directions were 1.99mm, 1.37mm and 0.22mm. Conclusion: A new prostate motion tracking algorithm based on kV triggered images has been developed and validated. Clinically acceptable accuracy has been achieved.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956977},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: A clinical trial on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for high-risk prostate cancer is undergoing at our institution. In addition to escalating dose to the prostate, we have increased dose to intra-prostatic lesions. Intra-fractional prostate motion deteriorates well planned radiation dose, especially for the small intra-prostatic lesions. To solve this problem, we have developed a motion tracking and 4D dose-reconstruction system to facilitate adaptive re-planning. Methods: Patients in the clinical trial were treated with VMAT using four arcs and 10 FFF beam. KV triggered x-ray projections were taken every 3 sec during delivery to acquire 2D projections of 3Dmore » anatomy at the direction orthogonal to the therapeutic beam. Each patient had three implanted prostate markers. Our developed system first determined 2D projection locations of these markers and then 3D prostate translation and rotation via 2D/3D registration of the markers. Using delivery log files, our GPU-based Monte Carlo tool (goMC) reconstructed dose corresponding to each triggered image. The calculated 4D dose distributions were further aggregated to yield the delivered dose. Results: We first tested each module in our system. MC dose engine were commissioned to our treatment planning system with dose difference of <0.5%. For motion tracking, 1789 kV projections from 7 patients were acquired. The 2D marker location error was <1 mm. For 3D motion tracking, root mean square (RMS) errors along LR, AP, and CC directions were 0.26mm, 0.36mm, and 0.01mm respectively in simulation studies and 1.99mm, 1.37mm, and 0.22mm in phantom studies. We also tested the entire system workflow. Our system was able to reconstruct delivered dose. Conclusion: We have developed a functional intra-fractional motion tracking and 4D dose re-construction system to support our clinical trial on adaptive high-risk prostate cancer SBRT. Comprehensive evaluations have shown the capability and accuracy of our system.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the prostate intrafraction motion in volumetric modulated arc therapy treatments using cine megavoltage (MV) images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients were treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy using a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator equipped with an EPID for acquiring cine MV images during treatment. Cine MV images acquisition was scheduled for single or multiple treatment fractions (between 1 and 8). A novel automatic fiducial detection algorithm that can handle irregular multileaf collimator apertures, field edges, fast leaf and gantry movement, and MV image noise and artifacts inmore » patient anatomy was used. All sets of images (approximately 25,000 images in total) were analyzed to measure the positioning accuracy of implanted fiducial markers and assess the prostate movement. Results: Prostate motion can vary greatly in magnitude among different patients. Different motion patterns were identified, showing its unpredictability. The mean displacement and standard deviation of the intrafraction motion was generally less than 2.0 ± 2.0 mm in each of the spatial directions. In certain patients, however, the percentage of the treatment time in which the prostate is displaced more than 5 mm from its planned position in at least 1 spatial direction was 10% or more. The maximum prostate displacement observed was 13.3 mm. Conclusion: Prostate tracking and motion assessment was performed with MV imaging and an EPID. The amount of prostate motion observed suggests that patients will benefit from its real-time monitoring. Megavoltage imaging can provide the basis for real-time prostate tracking using conventional linear accelerators.« less
  • The primary aim of this study is to compare intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for the radical treatment of prostate cancer using version 10.0 (v10.0) of Varian Medical Systems, RapidArc radiation oncology system. Particular focus was placed on plan quality and the implications on departmental resources. The secondary objective was to compare the results in v10.0 to the preceding version 8.6 (v8.6). Twenty prostate cancer cases were retrospectively planned using v10.0 of Varian's Eclipse and RapidArc software. Three planning techniques were performed: a 5-field IMRT, VMAT using one arc (VMAT-1A), and VMAT with twomore » arcs (VMAT-2A). Plan quality was assessed by examining homogeneity, conformity, the number of monitor units (MUs) utilized, and dose to the organs at risk (OAR). Resource implications were assessed by examining planning and treatment times. The results obtained using v10.0 were also compared to those previously reported by our group for v8.6. In v10.0, each technique was able to produce a dose distribution that achieved the departmental planning guidelines. The IMRT plans were produced faster than VMAT plans and displayed improved homogeneity. The VMAT plans provided better conformity to the target volume, improved dose to the OAR, and required fewer MUs. Treatments using VMAT-1A were significantly faster than both IMRT and VMAT-2A. Comparison between versions 8.6 and 10.0 revealed that in the newer version, VMAT planning was significantly faster and the quality of the VMAT dose distributions produced were of a better quality. VMAT (v10.0) using one or two arcs provides an acceptable alternative to IMRT for the treatment of prostate cancer. VMAT-1A has the greatest impact on reducing treatment time.« less
  • A small decrease in testosterone level has been documented after prostate irradiation, possibly owing to the incidental dose to the testes. Testicular doses from prostate external beam radiation plans with either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were calculated to investigate any difference. Testicles were contoured for 16 patients being treated for localized prostate cancer. For each patient, 2 plans were created: 1 with IMRT and 1 with VMAT. No specific attempt was made to reduce testicular dose. Minimum, maximum, and mean doses to the testicles were recorded for each plan. Of the 16 patients, 4 receivedmore » a total dose of 7800 cGy to the prostate alone, 7 received 8000 cGy to the prostate alone, and 5 received 8000 cGy to the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. The mean (range) of testicular dose with an IMRT plan was 54.7 cGy (21.1 to 91.9) and 59.0 cGy (25.1 to 93.4) with a VMAT plan. In 12 cases, the mean VMAT dose was higher than the mean IMRT dose, with a mean difference of 4.3 cGy (p = 0.019). There was a small but statistically significant increase in mean testicular dose delivered by VMAT compared with IMRT. Despite this, it unlikely that there is a clinically meaningful difference in testicular doses from either modality.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of real-time couch tracking for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Intrafractional motion trajectories of 15 prostate cancer patients were the basis for this phantom study; prostate motion had been monitored with the Calypso System. An industrial robot moved a phantom along these trajectories, motion was detected via an infrared camera system, and the robotic HexaPOD couch was used for real-time counter-steering. Residual phantom motion during real-time tracking was measured with the infrared camera system. Film dosimetry was performed during delivery of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulatedmore » arc therapy (VMAT). Results: Motion of the prostate was largest in the anterior-posterior direction, with systematic ( N-Ary-Summation ) and random ({sigma}) errors of 2.3 mm and 2.9 mm, respectively; the prostate was outside a threshold of 5 mm (3D vector) for 25.0%{+-}19.8% of treatment time. Real-time tracking reduced prostate motion to N-Ary-Summation =0.01 mm and {sigma} = 0.55 mm in the anterior-posterior direction; the prostate remained within a 1-mm and 5-mm threshold for 93.9%{+-}4.6% and 99.7%{+-}0.4% of the time, respectively. Without real-time tracking, pass rates based on a {gamma} index of 2%/2 mm in film dosimetry ranged between 66% and 72% for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT, on average. Real-time tracking increased pass rates to minimum 98% on average for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT. Conclusions: Real-time couch tracking resulted in submillimeter accuracy for prostate cancer, which transferred into high dosimetric accuracy independently of whether 3D-CRT, IMRT, or VMAT was used.« less