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Title: SU-G-BRA-06: Quantification of Tracking Performance of a Multi-Layer Electronic Portal Imaging Device

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the improvement in tumor tracking, with and without fiducial markers, afforded by employing a multi-layer (MLI) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) over the current state-of-the-art, single-layer, digital megavolt imager (DMI) architecture. Methods: An ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (d’) approach was used to quantify the ability of an MLI EPID and a current, state-of-the-art DMI EPID to track lung tumors from the treatment beam’s-eye-view. Using each detector modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) as inputs, a detection task was employed with object functions describing simple three-dimensional Cartesian shapes (spheres and cylinders). Marker-less tumor tracking algorithms often use texture discrimination to differentiate benign and malignant tissue. The performance of such algorithms is simulated by employing a discrimination task for the ideal observer, which measures the ability of a system to differentiate two image quantities. These were defined as the measured textures for benign and malignant lung tissue. Results: The NNPS of the MLI ∼25% of that of the DMI at the expense of decreased MTF at intermediate frequencies (0.25≤

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649294
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMAL TISSUES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; EQUIPMENT; FIDUCIAL MARKERS; IMAGES; LUNGS; NEOPLASMS; PARTICLE TRACKS; PERFORMANCE; TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

Citation Formats

Hu, Y, Rottmann, J, Myronakis, M, and Berbeco, R. SU-G-BRA-06: Quantification of Tracking Performance of a Multi-Layer Electronic Portal Imaging Device. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956930.
Hu, Y, Rottmann, J, Myronakis, M, & Berbeco, R. SU-G-BRA-06: Quantification of Tracking Performance of a Multi-Layer Electronic Portal Imaging Device. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956930.
Hu, Y, Rottmann, J, Myronakis, M, and Berbeco, R. 2016. "SU-G-BRA-06: Quantification of Tracking Performance of a Multi-Layer Electronic Portal Imaging Device". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956930.
@article{osti_22649294,
title = {SU-G-BRA-06: Quantification of Tracking Performance of a Multi-Layer Electronic Portal Imaging Device},
author = {Hu, Y and Rottmann, J and Myronakis, M and Berbeco, R},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the improvement in tumor tracking, with and without fiducial markers, afforded by employing a multi-layer (MLI) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) over the current state-of-the-art, single-layer, digital megavolt imager (DMI) architecture. Methods: An ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (d’) approach was used to quantify the ability of an MLI EPID and a current, state-of-the-art DMI EPID to track lung tumors from the treatment beam’s-eye-view. Using each detector modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) as inputs, a detection task was employed with object functions describing simple three-dimensional Cartesian shapes (spheres and cylinders). Marker-less tumor tracking algorithms often use texture discrimination to differentiate benign and malignant tissue. The performance of such algorithms is simulated by employing a discrimination task for the ideal observer, which measures the ability of a system to differentiate two image quantities. These were defined as the measured textures for benign and malignant lung tissue. Results: The NNPS of the MLI ∼25% of that of the DMI at the expense of decreased MTF at intermediate frequencies (0.25≤},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956930},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Fast and accurate transit portal dosimetry was investigated by developing a density-scaled layer model of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and applying it to a clinical environment. Methods: The model was developed for fast Monte Carlo dose calculation. The model was validated through comparison with measurements of dose on EPID using first open beams of varying field sizes under a 20-cm-thick flat phantom. After this basic validation, the model was further tested by applying it to transit dosimetry and dose reconstruction that employed our predetermined dose-response-based algorithm developed earlier. The application employed clinical intensity-modulated beams irradiated on a Randomore » phantom. The clinical beams were obtained through planning on pelvic regions of the Rando phantom simulating prostate and large pelvis intensity modulated radiation therapy. To enhance agreement between calculations and measurements of dose near penumbral regions, convolution conversion of acquired EPID images was alternatively used. In addition, thickness-dependent image-to-dose calibration factors were generated through measurements of image and calculations of dose in EPID through flat phantoms of various thicknesses. The factors were used to convert acquired images in EPID into dose. Results: For open beam measurements, the model showed agreement with measurements in dose difference better than 2% across open fields. For tests with a Rando phantom, the transit dosimetry measurements were compared with forwardly calculated doses in EPID showing gamma pass rates between 90.8% and 98.8% given 4.5 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD) for all individual beams tried in this study. The reconstructed dose in the phantom was compared with forwardly calculated doses showing pass rates between 93.3% and 100% in isocentric perpendicular planes to the beam direction given 3 mm DTA and 3% DD for all beams. On isocentric axial planes, the pass rates varied between 95.8% and 99.9% for all individual beams and they were 98.2% and 99.9% for the composite beams of the small and large pelvis cases, respectively. Three-dimensional gamma pass rates were 99.0% and 96.4% for the small and large pelvis cases, respectively. Conclusions: The layer model of EPID built for Monte Carlo calculations offered fast (less than 1 min) and accurate calculation for transit dosimety and dose reconstruction.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the prostate intrafraction motion in volumetric modulated arc therapy treatments using cine megavoltage (MV) images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients were treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy using a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator equipped with an EPID for acquiring cine MV images during treatment. Cine MV images acquisition was scheduled for single or multiple treatment fractions (between 1 and 8). A novel automatic fiducial detection algorithm that can handle irregular multileaf collimator apertures, field edges, fast leaf and gantry movement, and MV image noise and artifacts inmore » patient anatomy was used. All sets of images (approximately 25,000 images in total) were analyzed to measure the positioning accuracy of implanted fiducial markers and assess the prostate movement. Results: Prostate motion can vary greatly in magnitude among different patients. Different motion patterns were identified, showing its unpredictability. The mean displacement and standard deviation of the intrafraction motion was generally less than 2.0 ± 2.0 mm in each of the spatial directions. In certain patients, however, the percentage of the treatment time in which the prostate is displaced more than 5 mm from its planned position in at least 1 spatial direction was 10% or more. The maximum prostate displacement observed was 13.3 mm. Conclusion: Prostate tracking and motion assessment was performed with MV imaging and an EPID. The amount of prostate motion observed suggests that patients will benefit from its real-time monitoring. Megavoltage imaging can provide the basis for real-time prostate tracking using conventional linear accelerators.« less
  • The purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of a commercial electronic portal imaging device (EPID), based on a two-dimensional matrix of liquid-filled ionization chambers, for transmission dose measurements during patient treatment. Electronic portal imaging device measurements were performed in a cobalt-60 beam and two accelerator x-ray beams, and compared with measurements performed with a Farmer-type ionization chamber in air in a miniphantom and in an extended water phantom. The warming up time of the EPID is about 1 h. The long-term stability of the detector is better than 1% under reference conditions for a period of aboutmore » 3 months. The signal of the ionization chambers follows approximately the square root of the dose rate, although the relation becomes more linear for larger (> 1 Gy/min) dose rates. The signal can be transformed to dose rate with an accuracy of 0.6% (1 SD). The short-term influence of integrated dose on the sensitivity of the ionization chambers is small. The sensitivity increases about 0.5% for all ionization chambers after an absorbed dose of 8 Gy and returns to its original value in less than 5 min after stopping the irradiation. This small increase in sensitivity can be ascribed to the electrode distance of the ionization chambers in commercial EPIDs, which is 0.8 {plus_minus} 0.1 mm. The sensitivity increase depends on the electrode distance and is 4% for a 1.4 mm electrode distance. The scattering properties of the EPID ionization chambers were between those of an ionization chamber in a miniphantom and in a water phantom. The matrix ionization chamber EPID has characteristics that make it very suitable for dose rate measurements. It is therefore a very promising device for in vivo dosimetry purposes. 17 refs., 5 figs.« less
  • Purpose: Radiotherapy patients are increasingly treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and high tumor doses. As part of our quality control program to ensure accurate dose delivery, a new method was investigated that enables the verification of the IMRT fluence delivered during patient treatment using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), irrespective of changes in patient geometry. Methods and materials: Each IMRT treatment field is split into a static field and a modulated field, which are delivered in sequence. Images are acquired for both fields using an EPID. The portal dose image obtained for the static field is used to determinemore » changes in patient geometry between the planning CT scan and the time of treatment delivery. With knowledge of these changes, the delivered IMRT fluence can be verified using the portal dose image of the modulated field. This method, called split IMRT field technique (SIFT), was validated first for several phantom geometries, followed by clinical implementation for a number of patients treated with IMRT. Results: The split IMRT field technique allows for an accurate verification of the delivered IMRT fluence (generally within 1% [standard deviation]), even if large interfraction changes in patient geometry occur. For interfraction radiological path length changes of 10 cm, deliberately introduced errors in the delivered fluence could still be detected to within 1% accuracy. Application of SIFT requires only a minor increase in treatment time relative to the standard IMRT delivery. Conclusions: A new technique to verify the delivered IMRT fluence from EPID images, which is independent of changes in the patient geometry, has been developed. SIFT has been clinically implemented for daily verification of IMRT treatment delivery.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the daily setup variation and the anatomic movement of the heart and lungs during breast irradiation with tangential photon beams, as measured with an electronic portal imaging device. Methods and materials: Analysis of 1,709 portal images determined changes in the radiation field during a treatment course in 8 patients. Values obtained for every image included central lung distance (CLD) and area of lung and heart within the irradiated field. The data from these measurements were used to evaluate variation from setup between treatment days and motion due to respiration and/or patient movement during treatment delivery. Results: Themore » effect of respiratory motion and movement during treatment was minimal: the maximum range in CLD for any patient on any day was 0.25 cm. The variation caused by day-to-day setup variation was greater, with CLD values for patients ranging from 0.59 cm to 2.94 cm. Similar findings were found for heart and lung areas. Conclusions: There is very little change in CLD and corresponding lung and heart area during individual radiation treatment fractions in breast tangential fields, compared with a relatively greater amount of variation that occurs between days.« less