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Title: SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI

Abstract

Purpose: To develop and validate a real-time motion management platform for radiotherapy that directly tracks tumor motion using ultrasound and MRI. This will be a cost-effective and non-invasive real-time platform combining the excellent temporal resolution of ultrasound with the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI. Methods: A 4D planar ultrasound acquisition during the treatment that is coupled to a pre-treatment calibration training image set consisting of a simultaneous 4D ultrasound and 4D MRI acquisition. The image sets will be rapidly matched using advanced image and signal processing algorithms, allowing the display of virtual MR images of the tumor/organ motion in real-time from an ultrasound acquisition. Results: The completion of this work will result in several innovations including: a (2D) patch-like, MR and LINAC compatible 4D planar ultrasound transducer that is electronically steerable for hands-free operation to provide real-time virtual MR and ultrasound imaging for motion management during radiation therapy; a multi- modal tumor localization strategy that uses ultrasound and MRI; and fast and accurate image processing algorithms that provide real-time information about the motion and location of tumor or related soft-tissue structures within the patient. Conclusion: If successful, the proposed approach will provide real-time guidance for radiation therapy without degrading imagemore » or treatment plan quality. The approach would be equally suitable for image-guided proton beam or heavy ion-beam therapy. This work is partially funded by NIH grant R01CA190298.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649289
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; HEAVY IONS; IMAGE PROCESSING; ION BEAMS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; PROTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Bednarz, B, Culberson, W, Bassetti, M, McMillan, A, Matrosic, C, Shepard, A, Zagzebski, J, Smith, S, Lee, W, Mills, D, Cao, K, Wang, B, Fiveland, E, Darrow, R, and Foo, T. SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956925.
Bednarz, B, Culberson, W, Bassetti, M, McMillan, A, Matrosic, C, Shepard, A, Zagzebski, J, Smith, S, Lee, W, Mills, D, Cao, K, Wang, B, Fiveland, E, Darrow, R, & Foo, T. SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956925.
Bednarz, B, Culberson, W, Bassetti, M, McMillan, A, Matrosic, C, Shepard, A, Zagzebski, J, Smith, S, Lee, W, Mills, D, Cao, K, Wang, B, Fiveland, E, Darrow, R, and Foo, T. 2016. "SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956925.
@article{osti_22649289,
title = {SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI},
author = {Bednarz, B and Culberson, W and Bassetti, M and McMillan, A and Matrosic, C and Shepard, A and Zagzebski, J and Smith, S and Lee, W and Mills, D and Cao, K and Wang, B and Fiveland, E and Darrow, R and Foo, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop and validate a real-time motion management platform for radiotherapy that directly tracks tumor motion using ultrasound and MRI. This will be a cost-effective and non-invasive real-time platform combining the excellent temporal resolution of ultrasound with the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI. Methods: A 4D planar ultrasound acquisition during the treatment that is coupled to a pre-treatment calibration training image set consisting of a simultaneous 4D ultrasound and 4D MRI acquisition. The image sets will be rapidly matched using advanced image and signal processing algorithms, allowing the display of virtual MR images of the tumor/organ motion in real-time from an ultrasound acquisition. Results: The completion of this work will result in several innovations including: a (2D) patch-like, MR and LINAC compatible 4D planar ultrasound transducer that is electronically steerable for hands-free operation to provide real-time virtual MR and ultrasound imaging for motion management during radiation therapy; a multi- modal tumor localization strategy that uses ultrasound and MRI; and fast and accurate image processing algorithms that provide real-time information about the motion and location of tumor or related soft-tissue structures within the patient. Conclusion: If successful, the proposed approach will provide real-time guidance for radiation therapy without degrading image or treatment plan quality. The approach would be equally suitable for image-guided proton beam or heavy ion-beam therapy. This work is partially funded by NIH grant R01CA190298.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956925},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Methods: Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by twomore » calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Results: Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. Conclusions: A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring during ocular radiotherapy treatments. The device aims at improving state-of-the-art invasive procedures based on surgical implantation of radiopaque clips and repeated acquisition of X-ray images, with expected positive effects on treatment quality and patient outcome.« less
  • Purpose: We aim to achieve new four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) using the next generation real-time tumor-tracking (RTRT) system and flattening-filter-free techniques. To achieve new 4DRT, it is necessary to understand the respiratory motion of tumor. The purposes of this study were: 1.To develop the respiratory motion analysis tool using log files. 2.To evaluate the reproducibility of tumor motion probability distribution function (PDF) during stereotactic body RT (SBRT) of lung tumor. Methods: Seven patients having fiducial markers closely implanted to the lung tumor were enrolled in this study. The positions of fiducial markers were measured using the RTRT system (Mitsubishi Electronics Co.,more » JP) and recorded as two types of log files during the course of SBRT. For each patients, tumor motion range and tumor motion PDFs in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions were calculated using log files of all beams per fraction (PDFn). Fractional PDF reproducibility (Rn) was calculated as Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between PDF1 and PDFn of tumor motion. The mean of Rn (Rm) was calculated for each patient and correlated to the patient’s mean tumor motion range (Am). The change of Rm during the course of SBRT was also evluated. These analyses were performed using in-house developed software. Results: The Rm were 0.19 (0.07–0.30), 0.14 (0.07–0.32) and 0.16 (0.09–0.28) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The Am were 5.11 mm (2.58–9.99 mm), 7.81 mm (2.87–15.57 mm) and 11.26 mm (3.80–21.27 mm) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The PDF reproducibility decreased as the tumor motion range increased in AP and SI direction. That decreased slightly through the course of RT in SI direction. Conclusion: We developed the respiratory motion analysis tool for 4DRT using log files and quantified the range and reproducibility of respiratory motion for lung tumors.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome of intercepting radiotherapy, in which radiotherapy is delivered only when a tumor in motion enters a target area, using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were untreatable with other modalities because the tumors were adjacent to crucial organs or located too deep beneath the skin surface. Methods and Materials: Eighteen tumors, with a mean diameter of 36 mm, were studied in 15 patients. All tumors were treated on a hypofractionated schedule with a tight margin for setup and organ motion using a 2.0-mm fiducial marker in the livermore » and the RTRT system. The most commonly used dose of radiotherapy was 48 Gy in 8 fractions. Sixteen lesions were treated with a BED{sub 10} of 60 Gy or more (median, 76.8 Gy). Results: With a mean follow-up period of 20 months (range, 3-57 months), the overall survival rate was 39% at 2 years after RTRT. The 2-year local control rate was 83% for initial RTRT but was 92% after allowance for reirradiation using RTRT, with a Grade 3 transient gastric ulcer in 1 patient and Grade 3 transient increases of aspartate amino transaminase in 2 patients. Conclusions: Intercepting radiotherapy using RTRT provided effective focal high doses to liver tumors. Because the fiducial markers for RTRT need not be implanted into the tumor itself, RTRT can be applied to hepatocellular carcinoma in patients who are not candidates for other surgical or nonsurgical treatments.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with pathologically proven, peripherally located, Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer who had undergone stereotactic body radiotherapy using real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy during the developmental period. Methods and Materials: A total of 41 patients (25 with Stage T1 and 16 with Stage T2) were admitted to the study between February 2000 and June 2005. A 5-mm planning target volume margin was added to the clinical target volume determined with computed tomography at the end of the expiratory phase. The gating window ranged from {+-}2 to 3 mm. The dose fractionation schedule was 40more » or 48 Gy in four fractions within 1 week. The dose was prescribed at the center of the planning target volume, giving more than an 80% dose at the planning target volume periphery. Results: For 28 patients treated with 48 Gy in four fractions, the overall actuarial survival rate at 3 years was 82% for those with Stage IA and 32% for those with Stage IB. For patients treated with 40 Gy in four fractions within 1 week, the overall actuarial survival rate at 3 years was 50% for those with Stage IA and 0% for those with Stage IB. A significant difference was found in local control between those with Stage IB who received 40 Gy vs. 48 Gy (p = 0.0015) but not in those with Stage IA (p = 0.5811). No serious radiation morbidity was observed with either dose schedule. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that 48 Gy in four fractions within 1 week is a safe and effective treatment for peripherally located, Stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer. A steep dose-response curve between 40 and 48 Gy using a daily dose of 12 Gy delivered within 1 week was identified for Stage IB non-small-cell lung cancer in stereotactic body radiotherapy using real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the three-dimensional intrafraction motion of the breast during tangential breast irradiation using a real-time tracking radiotherapy (RT) system with a high-sampling frequency. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with breast cancer who had received breast conservation RT were included in this study. A 2.0-mm gold marker was placed on the skin near the nipple of the breast for RT. A fluoroscopic real-time tumor-tracking RT system was used to monitor the marker. The range of motion of each patient was calculated in three directions. Results: The mean {+-} standard deviation of the range of respiratory motionmore » was 1.0 {+-} 0.6 mm (median, 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] of the marker position, 0.4-2.6), 1.3 {+-} 0.5 mm (median, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5), and 2.6 {+-} 1.4 (median, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-6.9) for the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction, respectively. No correlation was found between the range of motion and the body mass index or respiratory function. The mean {+-} standard deviation of the absolute value of the baseline shift in the right-left, craniocaudal, and anteroposterior direction was 0.2 {+-} 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.8 mm), 0.3 {+-} 0.2 mm (range, 0.0-0.7 mm), and 0.8 {+-} 0.7 mm (range, 0.1-1.8 mm), respectively. Conclusion: Both the range of motion and the baseline shift were within a few millimeters in each direction. As long as the conventional wedge-pair technique and the proper immobilization are used, the intrafraction three-dimensional change in the breast surface did not much influence the dose distribution.« less