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Title: SU-G-201-07: Dosimetric Verification of a 3D Printed HDR Skin Brachytherapy Applicator

Abstract

Purpose: The use of radiation as a treatment modality for skin cancer has increased significantly over the last decade with standardized applicators. Utilizing 3D printing, the ability to make applicators specifically designed for each patient’s anatomy has become economically feasible. With this in mind it was the aim of this study to determine the dosimetric accuracy of a 3-D printed HDR brachytherapy applicator for the skin. Methods: A CT reference image was used to generate a custom applicator based on an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom. To create the applicator a 1cm expansion anteriorly with 0.5cmX0.5cm trenches on the outer surface that were spaced 1cm sup-inf to accommodate standard 6F flexible catheters. The applicator was printed using PLA material using a printrbot simple printer. A treatment plan optimized to deliver a clinically representative volume was created in Oncentra and delivered with a nucletron afterloader. Measurements were made using TLDs and EBT3 gafchromic film that were placed between the applicator and the phantom’s forehead. An additional piece of film was also used to qualitatively asses the dose distribution in the transverse plane. Using a standard vaginal cylinder and bolus, a standardized curve correlating TLD and film exposure-to-radiation dose was established bymore » irradiating film to known doses (200,500,700 cGy) at a 3.5 cm radius distance. Results: Evaluated TLDs showed the absolute dose delivered to the skin surface using the 3-D printed bolus was 615cGy±6%, with a mean predicted TPS value in the measured area of 617.5±7%. Additionally, planar dose distributions had good qualitative agreement with calculated TPS isodoses. Conclusion: This work demonstrates patient specific 3-D printed HDR brachytherapy applicators for skin cancer treatments are practical and accurate in TPS calculations but additional measurements are needed to verify additional sites and dose at depth.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ; ;  [2];  [3]
  1. University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)
  2. East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)
  3. Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649249
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BRACHYTHERAPY; DOSIMETRY; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; SKIN

Citation Formats

Rasmussen, K, Stanley, D, Eng, T, Kirby, N, Gutierrez, A, Stathakis, S, Papanikolaou, N, Baumgarten, A, Pelletier, C, Jung, J, Feng, Y, Huang, Z, Ju, A, and Corbett, M. SU-G-201-07: Dosimetric Verification of a 3D Printed HDR Skin Brachytherapy Applicator. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956880.
Rasmussen, K, Stanley, D, Eng, T, Kirby, N, Gutierrez, A, Stathakis, S, Papanikolaou, N, Baumgarten, A, Pelletier, C, Jung, J, Feng, Y, Huang, Z, Ju, A, & Corbett, M. SU-G-201-07: Dosimetric Verification of a 3D Printed HDR Skin Brachytherapy Applicator. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956880.
Rasmussen, K, Stanley, D, Eng, T, Kirby, N, Gutierrez, A, Stathakis, S, Papanikolaou, N, Baumgarten, A, Pelletier, C, Jung, J, Feng, Y, Huang, Z, Ju, A, and Corbett, M. 2016. "SU-G-201-07: Dosimetric Verification of a 3D Printed HDR Skin Brachytherapy Applicator". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956880.
@article{osti_22649249,
title = {SU-G-201-07: Dosimetric Verification of a 3D Printed HDR Skin Brachytherapy Applicator},
author = {Rasmussen, K and Stanley, D and Eng, T and Kirby, N and Gutierrez, A and Stathakis, S and Papanikolaou, N and Baumgarten, A and Pelletier, C and Jung, J and Feng, Y and Huang, Z and Ju, A and Corbett, M},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The use of radiation as a treatment modality for skin cancer has increased significantly over the last decade with standardized applicators. Utilizing 3D printing, the ability to make applicators specifically designed for each patient’s anatomy has become economically feasible. With this in mind it was the aim of this study to determine the dosimetric accuracy of a 3-D printed HDR brachytherapy applicator for the skin. Methods: A CT reference image was used to generate a custom applicator based on an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom. To create the applicator a 1cm expansion anteriorly with 0.5cmX0.5cm trenches on the outer surface that were spaced 1cm sup-inf to accommodate standard 6F flexible catheters. The applicator was printed using PLA material using a printrbot simple printer. A treatment plan optimized to deliver a clinically representative volume was created in Oncentra and delivered with a nucletron afterloader. Measurements were made using TLDs and EBT3 gafchromic film that were placed between the applicator and the phantom’s forehead. An additional piece of film was also used to qualitatively asses the dose distribution in the transverse plane. Using a standard vaginal cylinder and bolus, a standardized curve correlating TLD and film exposure-to-radiation dose was established by irradiating film to known doses (200,500,700 cGy) at a 3.5 cm radius distance. Results: Evaluated TLDs showed the absolute dose delivered to the skin surface using the 3-D printed bolus was 615cGy±6%, with a mean predicted TPS value in the measured area of 617.5±7%. Additionally, planar dose distributions had good qualitative agreement with calculated TPS isodoses. Conclusion: This work demonstrates patient specific 3-D printed HDR brachytherapy applicators for skin cancer treatments are practical and accurate in TPS calculations but additional measurements are needed to verify additional sites and dose at depth.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956880},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Both the AccuBoost D-shaped and round applicators have been dosimetrically characterized and clinically used to treat patients with breast cancer. While the round applicators provide conformal dose coverage, under certain clinical circumstances the breast skin dose may be higher than preferred. The purpose of this study was to modify the round applicators to minimize skin dose while not substantially affecting dose uniformity within the target volume and reducing the treatment time. Methods: In order to irradiate the intended volume while sparing critical structures such as the skin, the current round applicator design has been augmented through the addition ofmore » an internal truncated cone (i.e., frustum) shield. Monte Carlo methods and clinical constraints were used to design the optimal cone applicator. With the cone applicator now defined as the entire assembly including the surrounding tungsten-alloy shell holding the HDR {sup 192}Ir source catheter, the applicator height was reduced to diminish the treatment time while minimizing skin dose. Monte Carlo simulation results were validated using both radiochromic film and ionization chamber measurements based on established techniques. Results: The optimal cone applicators diminished the maximum skin dose by 15%-32% (based on the applicator diameter and breast separation) with the tumor dose reduced by less than 3% for a constant exposure time. Furthermore, reduction in applicator height diminished the treatment time by up to 30%. Radiochromic film and ionization chamber dosimetric results in phantom agreed with Monte Carlo simulation results typically within 3%. Larger differences were outside the treatment volume in low dose regions or associated with differences between the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation environments. Conclusions: A new radiotherapy treatment device was developed and dosimetrically characterized. This set of applicators significantly reduces the skin dose and treatment time while retaining uniform target dose.« less
  • Purpose: The aim of this work is the dosimetric validation of a deterministic radiation transport based treatment planning system (BRACHYVISION v. 8.8, referred to as TPS in the following) for multiple {sup 192}Ir source dwell position brachytherapy applications employing a shielded applicator in homogeneous water geometries. Methods: TPS calculations for an irradiation plan employing seven VS2000 {sup 192}Ir high dose rate (HDR) source dwell positions and a partially shielded applicator (GM11004380) were compared to corresponding Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results, as well as experimental results obtained using the VIP polymer gel-magnetic resonance imaging three-dimensional dosimetry method with a custom mademore » phantom. Results: TPS and MC dose distributions were found in agreement which is mainly within {+-}2%. Considerable differences between TPS and MC results (greater than 2%) were observed at points in the penumbra of the shields (i.e., close to the edges of the ''shielded'' segment of the geometries). These differences were experimentally verified and therefore attributed to the TPS. Apart from these regions, experimental and TPS dose distributions were found in agreement within 2 mm distance to agreement and 5% dose difference criteria. As shown in this work, these results mark a significant improvement relative to dosimetry algorithms that disregard the presence of the shielded applicator since the use of the latter leads to dosimetry errors on the order of 20%-30% at the edge of the ''unshielded'' segment of the geometry and even 2%-6% at points corresponding to the potential location of the target volume in clinical applications using the applicator (points in the unshielded segment at short distances from the applicator). Conclusions: Results of this work attest the capability of the TPS to accurately account for the scatter conditions and the increased attenuation involved in HDR brachytherapy applications employing multiple source dwell positions and partially shielded applicators.« less
  • Purpose: The Valencia applicators have recently been introduced for HDR treatment of small and shallow superficial skin lesions (< 20 mm diameter and 3-mm depth). Per AAPM TG 56, any HDR applicator internal dimensions must be verified prior to clinical use. However radiographic and tomographic imaging to validate the Valencia applicators is impractical due to the Tungsten alloy housing and flattening filter. In this study, we propose to use EBT3 film to indirectly confirm the physical integrity of the Valencia applicators. Methods: Treatment plans were created using the Oncentra MasterPlan TPS v4.5 for the H2 (20-mm dia.) and H3 (30-mmmore » dia.) Valencia Applicators. A virtual CT phantom (2-mm slice thickness) was created with one source position in water. The published effective depth method was used for each applicator to delivery 500 cGy to a 3-mm depth using the TG-43 formalism. Film measurements (n=3) at 3-mm depth and vertical plane in solid water were performed for each applicator to verify the prescribed dose calculated by the TPS. Percent depth dose curves and off-axis profiles (phantom surface and 3-mm depth) were measured and compared to published data. Films were analyzed using an in-house written program and RIT113 v6 software. Film calibration was performed per TG-55 protocol using the Ir-192 source with NIST-traceable calibration. Results: The prescription absolute dose difference was 1% for the Valencia H2 applicator and 4% for the Valencia H3 applicator. The measured percent depth dose curves and off-axis dose profiles measured for the H2 and H2 Valencia applicators are in excellent agreement with the Granero et al. Monte Carlo results{sup 1}. Conclusion: Gafchromic EBT3 film can be used to indirectly verify the internal components of special HDR skin applicators constructed from high Z materials.{sup 1}Granero et al. “Design and evaluation of a HDR skin applicator with flattening filter”, Med. Phys. 35(2), 495–503, 2008.« less
  • Purpose: AccuBoost is a noninvasive image-guided technique for the delivery of partial breast irradiation to the tumor bed and currently serves as an alternate to conventional electron beam boost. To irradiate the target volume while providing dose sparing to the skin, the round applicator design was augmented through the addition of an internally truncated conical shield and the reduction of the source to skin distance. Methods: Brachytherapy dose distributions for two types of conical applicators were simulated and estimated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods for radiation transport and a conventional treatment planning system (TPS). MC-derived and TPS-generated dose volume histogramsmore » (DVHs) and dose distribution data were compared for both the conical and round applicators for benchmarking purposes. Results: Agreement using the gamma-index test was {>=}99.95% for distance to agreement and dose accuracy criteria of 2 mm and 2%, respectively. After observing good agreement, TPS DVHs and dose distributions for the conical and round applicators were obtained and compared. Brachytherapy dose distributions generated using Pinnacle{sup 3} for ten CT data sets showed that the parallel-opposed beams of the conical applicators provided similar PTV coverage to the round applicators and reduced the maximum dose to skin, chest wall, and lung by up to 27%, 42%, and 43%, respectively. Conclusions: Brachytherapy dose distributions for the conical applicators have been generated using MC methods and entered into the Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS via the Tufts technique. Treatment planning metrics for the conical AccuBoost applicators were significantly improved in comparison to those for conventional electron beam breast boost.« less
  • In nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) intracavitary brachytherapy, an anatomical dose reference point (in line with that for gynecology work), e.g., at the sphenoid floor, is more precise than the empirical point of 1 cm from the source. However, such increases of the single-source-plan treatment distances may deliver excessive doses inferiorly, to the soft palate. As shielding may help, its efficacy was studied by Monte Carlo simulations in water for 20 and 30 mm diameter spherical NP applicators (representing extremes of sizes for the small NP cavity), with/without lead shielding inferiorly, using a single linear Ir-192, 2 mm steps, equal dwell timesmore » for 5 (5DP) and 9 dwell positions (9DP). Dose reductions of the selected points of interest ranged from 1.2% to 40.5% for the 20 mm shielded applicator and a range of 2.9% to 17.9%, for the 30 mm shielded applicator. Dose volume histograms of the 'region of interest' (ROI) - a cuboid of 4x4x0.5 cm{sup 3} at the most inferior aspect of the applicator, also differed significantly. The highest doses of the 50% (D{sub 50}) and 20% (D{sub 20}) volumes of ROI (for 5DP and 9DP plans) were reduced by 11.9% to 17.9% for the 20 mm applicator and a range of 9.0% to 11.5% for the 30 mm shielded applicator. Doses in unshielded directions were insignificantly changed, for example, with a 20 mm applicator simulated in a 5DP plan, the dose distribution close to the source in the unshielded direction has less than 4% difference at the 50% isodose relative to the dose prescription point. For the 30 mm shielded applicator, despite smaller dose reduction percentages, a more pronounced effective dose reduction was obtained than nominal values when considering radiobiological equivalent doses. Our system was demonstrated to be ready for clinical assessment.« less