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Title: SU-F-T-679: Monte Carlo Simulation On Surface Dose in Preclinical Irradiation Using Monoenergetic Photon Beams

Abstract

Purpose: This study investigated the surface dose variation in preclinical irradiation using small animal, when monoenergetic photon beams with energy range from 50 keV to 1.25 MeV were used. Methods: Inhomogeneous, homogeneous and bone-tissue homogeneous mouse phantom based on the same CT image set were used. The homogeneous and bone-tissue homogeneous phantom were created with the relative electron density of all and only bone voxels of the mouse overridden to one, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation based on the EGSnrc-based code was used to calculate the surface dose, when the phantoms were irradiated by a 360° photon arc with energies ranging from 50 keV to 1.25 MeV. The mean surface doses of the three phantoms were calculated. In addition, the surface doses from partial arcs, 45°–315°, 125°–225°, 45°–125° and 225°–315° covering the anterior, posterior, right lateral and left lateral region of the mouse were determined using different photon beam energies. Results: When the prescribed dose at the isocenter of the mouse was 2 Gy, the maximum mean surface doses, found at the 50-keV photon beams, were 0.358 Gy, 0.363 Gy and 0.350 Gy for the inhomogeneous, homogeneous and bone-tissue homogeneous mouse phantom, respectively. The mean surface dose of the mouse wasmore » found decreasing with an increase of the photon beam energy. For surface dose in different orientations, the lateral regions of the mouse were receiving lower dose than the anterior and posterior regions. This may be due to the increase of beam attenuation along the horizontal (left-right) axis than the vertical (anterior-posterior) in the mouse. Conclusion: It is concluded that consideration of phantom inhomogeneity in the dose calculation resulted in a lower mean surface dose of the mouse. The mean surface dose also decreased with an increase of photon beam energy in the kilovoltage range.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Michener Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  2. Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649234
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BONE TISSUES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; IMAGE PROCESSING; IRRADIATION; KEV RANGE 10-100; MEV RANGE 01-10; MICE; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; PHOTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Vuong, A, and Chow, J. SU-F-T-679: Monte Carlo Simulation On Surface Dose in Preclinical Irradiation Using Monoenergetic Photon Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956865.
Vuong, A, & Chow, J. SU-F-T-679: Monte Carlo Simulation On Surface Dose in Preclinical Irradiation Using Monoenergetic Photon Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956865.
Vuong, A, and Chow, J. Wed . "SU-F-T-679: Monte Carlo Simulation On Surface Dose in Preclinical Irradiation Using Monoenergetic Photon Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956865.
@article{osti_22649234,
title = {SU-F-T-679: Monte Carlo Simulation On Surface Dose in Preclinical Irradiation Using Monoenergetic Photon Beams},
author = {Vuong, A and Chow, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: This study investigated the surface dose variation in preclinical irradiation using small animal, when monoenergetic photon beams with energy range from 50 keV to 1.25 MeV were used. Methods: Inhomogeneous, homogeneous and bone-tissue homogeneous mouse phantom based on the same CT image set were used. The homogeneous and bone-tissue homogeneous phantom were created with the relative electron density of all and only bone voxels of the mouse overridden to one, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation based on the EGSnrc-based code was used to calculate the surface dose, when the phantoms were irradiated by a 360° photon arc with energies ranging from 50 keV to 1.25 MeV. The mean surface doses of the three phantoms were calculated. In addition, the surface doses from partial arcs, 45°–315°, 125°–225°, 45°–125° and 225°–315° covering the anterior, posterior, right lateral and left lateral region of the mouse were determined using different photon beam energies. Results: When the prescribed dose at the isocenter of the mouse was 2 Gy, the maximum mean surface doses, found at the 50-keV photon beams, were 0.358 Gy, 0.363 Gy and 0.350 Gy for the inhomogeneous, homogeneous and bone-tissue homogeneous mouse phantom, respectively. The mean surface dose of the mouse was found decreasing with an increase of the photon beam energy. For surface dose in different orientations, the lateral regions of the mouse were receiving lower dose than the anterior and posterior regions. This may be due to the increase of beam attenuation along the horizontal (left-right) axis than the vertical (anterior-posterior) in the mouse. Conclusion: It is concluded that consideration of phantom inhomogeneity in the dose calculation resulted in a lower mean surface dose of the mouse. The mean surface dose also decreased with an increase of photon beam energy in the kilovoltage range.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956865},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of bone dose on photon beam energy (keV – MeV) in small-animal irradiation. Dosimetry of homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms as per the same mouse computed tomography image set were calculated using the DOSCTP and DOSXYZnrc based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations for the homogeneous and inhomogeneous mouse phantom irradiated by a 360 degree photon arc were carried out. Mean doses of the bone tissue in the irradiated volumes were calculated at various photon beam energies, ranging from 50 keV to 1.25 MeV. The effectmore » of bone inhomogeneity was examined through the Inhomogeneous Correction Factor (ICF), a dose ratio of the inhomogeneous to the homogeneous medium. Results: From our Monte Carlo results, higher mean bone dose and ICF were found when using kilovoltage photon beams compared to megavoltage. In beam energies ranging from 50 keV to 200 keV, the bone dose was found maximum at 50 keV, and decreased significantly from 2.6 Gy to 0.55 Gy, when 2 Gy was delivered at the center of the phantom (isocenter). Similarly, the ICF were found decreasing from 4.5 to 1 when the photon beam energy was increased from 50 keV to 200 keV. Both mean bone dose and ICF remained at about 0.5 Gy and 1 from 200 keV to 1.25 MeV with insignificant variation, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that to avoid high bone dose in the small-animal irradiation, photon beam energy higher than 200 keV should be used with the ICF close to one, and bone dose comparable to the megavoltage beam where photoelectric effect is not dominant.« less
  • Purpose: This study investigated the dose enhancement due to addition of nanoparticles with different types and concentrations in skin radiotherapy using kilovoltage photon beams. Methods: An inhomogeneous water phantom (15×15×10 cm{sup 3}) having the skin target layer (0.5–5 mm), added with different concentrations (3–40 mg/ml) of nanoparticles (Au, Pt, I, Ag and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was irradiated by the 105 and 220 kVp photon beams produced by a Gulmay D3225 Orthovoltage unit. The circular cone of 5-cm diameter and source-to-surface distance of 20 cm were used. Doses in the skin target layer with and without adding the nanoparticles were calculatedmore » using Monte Carlo simulation (the EGSnrc code) through the macroscopic approach. Dose enhancement ratio (DER), defined as the ratio of dose at the target with nanoparticle addition to the dose without addition, was calculated for each type and concentration of nanoparticle in different target thickness. Results: For Au nanoparticle, DER dependence on target thickness for the 220 kVp photon beams was not significant. However, DER for Au nanoparticle was found decreasing with an increase of target thickness when the nanoparticle concentration was increased from 18 to 40 mg/ml using the 105 kVp photon beams. For nanoparticle concentration of 40 mg/ml, DER variation with target thickness was not significant for the 220 kVp photon beams, but DEF was found decreasing with the target thickness when lower energy of photon beam (105 kVp) was used. DEF was found increasing with an increase of nanoparticle concentration. The higher the DEF increasing rate, the higher the atomic number of the nanoparticle except I and Ag for the same target thickness. Conclusion: It is concluded that nanoparticle addition can result in dose enhancement in kilovoltage skin radiotherapy. Moreover, the DER is related to the photon beam energy, target thickness, atomic number and concentration of nanoparticles.« less
  • Purpose: Patient dose far from the treatment field is comprised of scatter from within the patient, and treatment head leakage. We quantify the treatment head leakage for TrueBeam linear accelerator for 6X and 6X-FFF beams by comparing measurements to Monte Carlo simulations for a variety of jaw sizes and collimator rotations. This work is conceptually similar to that of Kry et al. (Medical Physics 2006; 33: 4405), who considered a Clinac linear accelerator. Methods: Measurements were made using an EXRADIN A101 ion chamber positioned in the patient plane, at distances up to 100 cm from isocenter. Simulations were done usingmore » VirtuaLinac, the GEANT4-based Monte Carlo model of the TrueBeam treatment head, and an in-house (U. Virginia) GEANT4-based code. In-house code modelled an ion chamber with build-up, based on a CT scan of the chamber. VirtuaLinac included a detailed model of the treatment head shielding, and was run on the Amazon Web Services cloud to generate spherical phase space files surrounding the treatment head. These phase space files were imported into the in-house code. Results: Initial comparisons between measurements and simulation showed an excess of dose in the in-plane direction, away from the gantry, in the simulations. This was traced to an incomplete model of the shielding—specifically, the component holding the primary collimator was smaller in the model than in the TrueBeam. Modifications were made to VirtuaLinac to more closely match the engineering drawings. In the in-plane direction, the lowest out of field dose was away from gantry (negative abscissa values) at around 60 cm from isocenter, for fields smaller than 10×10 cm2. Out of field dose decreased with decreasing jaw size. Flattening-filter free beam produced out-of-field doses as low as 65% of those with flattened beam. Conclusion: Doses determined from simulation and measurement were in close agreement. Funding support from the Jefferson Trust Foundation.« less
  • Purpose: Treating nose skin with an electron beam is of a substantial challenge due to uneven nose surfaces and tissue heterogeneity, and consequently could have a great uncertainty of dose accuracy on the target. This work explored the method using Monte Carlo (MC)-based energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), which would be delivered with a photon MLC in a standard medical linac (Artiste). Methods: The traditional treatment on the nose skin involves the usage of a bolus, often with a single energy electron beam. This work avoided using the bolus, and utilized mixed energies of electron beams. An in-housemore » developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. A clinical case of the nose skin, which was previously treated with a single 9 MeV electron beam, was replanned with the MERT method. The resultant dose distributions were compared with the plan previously clinically used. The dose volume histogram of the MERT plan is calculated to examine the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) and critical structure doses. Results: The target coverage and conformality in the MERT plan are improved as compared to the conventional plan. The MERT can provide more sufficient target coverage and less normal tissue dose underneath the nose skin. Conclusion: Compared to the conventional treatment technique, using MERT for the nose skin treatment has shown the dosimetric advantages in the PTV coverage and conformality. In addition, this technique eliminates the necessity of the cutout and bolus, which makes the treatment more efficient and accurate.« less
  • Purpose: The introduction of the TrueBeam linac platform provides access to an in-air target assembly making it possible to apply novel treatments using multiple target designs. One such novel treatment uses multiple low-Z targets to enhance surface dose replacing the use of synthetic tissue equivalent material (bolus). This treatment technique will decrease the common dosimetric and set up errors prevalent in using physical treatment accessories like bolus. The groundwork for a novel treatment beam used to enhance surface dose to within 80-100% of the dose at dmax by utilizing low-Z (Carbon) targets of various percent CSDA range thickness operated atmore » 2.5–4 MeV used in conjunction with a clinical 6 MV beam is presented herein. Methods: A standard Monte Carlo model of a Varian Clinac accelerator was developed to manufacturers specifications. Simulations were performed using Be, C, AL, and C, as potential low-Z targets, placed in the secondary target position. The results determined C to be the target material of choice. Simulations of 15, 30 and 60% CSDA range C beams were propagated through slab phantoms. The resulting PDDs were weighted and combined with a standard 6 MV treatment beam. Versions of the experimental targets were installed into a 2100C Clinac and the models were validated. Results: Carbon was shown to be the low-Z material of choice for this project. Using combinations of 15, 30, 60% CSDA beams operated at 2.5 and 4 MeV in combination with a standard 6 MV treatment beam the surface dose was shown to be enhanced to within 80–100% the dose at dmax. Conclusion: The modeled low-Z beams were successfully validated using machined versions of the targets. Water phantom measurements and slab phantom simulations show excellent correlation. Patient simulations are now underway to compare the use of bolus with the proposed novel beams. NSERC.« less