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Title: SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to commission the Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) source and 10 mm diameter surface applicator with NIST traceability for targeted irradiations of mouse anal carcinomas. Methods: The Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) and 10 mm diameter surface applicator was chosen by the collaborating physician as a radiation delivery mechanism for mouse anal carcinomas. The target dose was 2 Gy at a depth of 3 mm in tissue to be delivered in a single fraction. To implement an accurate and reliable irradiation plan, the system was commissioned by first determining the eBT source output and corresponding dose rate at a depth of 3 mm in tissue. This was determined through parallel-plate ion chamber measurements and published conversion factors. Well-type ionization chamber measurements were used to determine a transfer coefficient, which correlates the measured dose rate at 3 mm to the NIST-traceable quantity, air-kerma rate at 50 cm in air, for eBT sources. By correlating these two quantities, daily monitoring in the well chamber becomes an accurate and efficient quality assurance technique. Once the dose-rate was determined, a treatment recipe was developed and confirmed with chamber measurements to deliver the requested dose. Radiochromic film wasmore » used to verify the dose distribution across the field. Results: Dose rates at 3 mm depth in tissue were determined for two different Xoft Axxent™ sources and correlated with NIST-traceable well-type ionization chamber measurements. Unique transfer coefficients were determined for each source and the treatment recipe was validated by measurements. Film profiles showed a uniform dose distribution across the field. Conclusion: A Xoft Axxent™ eBT system was successfully commissioned for use in the irradiation of mouse rectal tumors. Dose rates in tissue were determined as well as other pertinent parameters to ensure accurate delivery of dose to the target region.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Surgery, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649224
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMAL TISSUES; BRACHYTHERAPY; COMMISSIONING; DOSE RATES; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; IRRADIATION; KERMA; MICE; QUALITY ASSURANCE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RATS

Citation Formats

Culberson, W, Micka, J, and Carchman, E. SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956855.
Culberson, W, Micka, J, & Carchman, E. SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956855.
Culberson, W, Micka, J, and Carchman, E. Wed . "SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956855.
@article{osti_22649224,
title = {SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation},
author = {Culberson, W and Micka, J and Carchman, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The aim of this study was to commission the Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) source and 10 mm diameter surface applicator with NIST traceability for targeted irradiations of mouse anal carcinomas. Methods: The Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) and 10 mm diameter surface applicator was chosen by the collaborating physician as a radiation delivery mechanism for mouse anal carcinomas. The target dose was 2 Gy at a depth of 3 mm in tissue to be delivered in a single fraction. To implement an accurate and reliable irradiation plan, the system was commissioned by first determining the eBT source output and corresponding dose rate at a depth of 3 mm in tissue. This was determined through parallel-plate ion chamber measurements and published conversion factors. Well-type ionization chamber measurements were used to determine a transfer coefficient, which correlates the measured dose rate at 3 mm to the NIST-traceable quantity, air-kerma rate at 50 cm in air, for eBT sources. By correlating these two quantities, daily monitoring in the well chamber becomes an accurate and efficient quality assurance technique. Once the dose-rate was determined, a treatment recipe was developed and confirmed with chamber measurements to deliver the requested dose. Radiochromic film was used to verify the dose distribution across the field. Results: Dose rates at 3 mm depth in tissue were determined for two different Xoft Axxent™ sources and correlated with NIST-traceable well-type ionization chamber measurements. Unique transfer coefficients were determined for each source and the treatment recipe was validated by measurements. Film profiles showed a uniform dose distribution across the field. Conclusion: A Xoft Axxent™ eBT system was successfully commissioned for use in the irradiation of mouse rectal tumors. Dose rates in tissue were determined as well as other pertinent parameters to ensure accurate delivery of dose to the target region.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956855},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the dosimetric impact of differing breast tissue compositions for electronic brachytherapy source for high dose rate accelerated partial breast irradiation. Methods: A series of Monte Carlo Simulation were created using the GEANT4 toolkit (version 10.0). The breast phantom was modeled as a semi-circle with a radius of 5.0 cm. A water balloon with a radius of 1.5 cm was located in the phantom with the Xoft AxxentTM EBT source placed at center as a point source. A mixed of two tissue types (adipose and glandular tissue) was assigned as the materials for the breast phantom withmore » different weight ratios. The proportionality of glandular and adipose tissue was simulated in four different fashions, 80/20, 70/30, 50/50 and 30/70 respectively. The custom energy spectrum for the 50 kVp XOFT source was provided via the manufacturer and used to generate incident photons. The dose distributions were recorded using a parallel three dimensional mesh with a size of 30 × 30 × 30 cm3 with 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 voxels. The simulated doses absorbed along the transverse axis were normalized at the distance of 1 cm and then compared with the calculations using standard TG-43 formalism. Results: All simulations showed underestimation of dose beyond balloon surface compared to standard TG-43 calculations. The maximum percentage differences within 2 cm distance from balloon surface were found to be 18%, 11%, 10% and 8% for the fat breast (30/70), standard breast (50/50), dense breast (70/30 and 80/20), respectively. Conclusion: The accuracy of dose calculations for low energy EBT source was limited when considering tissue heterogeneous composition. The impact of atomic number on photo-electric effect for lower energy Brachytherapy source is not accounted for and resulting in significant errors in dose calculation.« less
  • Purpose: A prototype actives scanning beam delivery system was designed, manufactured and installed as a part of the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Project. The prototype system includes the most components for steering, modulating, detecting incident beam to patient. The system was installed in MC-50 cyclotron beam line and tested to extract the normal operation conditions. Methods: The commissioning process was completed by using 45 MeV of proton beam. To measure the beam position accuracy along the scanning magnet power supply current, 25 different spots were scanning and measured. The scanning results on GaF film were compared with the irradiationmore » plan. Also, the beam size variation and the intensity reduction using range shifter were measured and analyzed. The results will be used for creating a conversion factors for asymmetric behavior of scanning magnets and a dose compensation factor for longitudinal direction. Results: The results show asymmetry operations on both scanning × and y magnet. In case of scanning magnet × operation, the current to position conversion factors were measured 1.69 mm/A for positive direction and 1.74 mm/A for negative direction. The scanning magnet y operation shows 1.38mm/A and 1.48 mm/A for both directions. The size of incoming beam which was 18 mm as sigma becomes larger up to 55 mm as sigma while using 10 mm of the range shifter plate. As the beam size becomes large, the maximum intensity of the was decreased. In case of using 10 mm of range shifter, the maximum intensity was only 52% compared with no range shifter insertion. Conclusion: For the appropriate operation of the prototype active scanning system, the commissioning process were performed to measure the beam characteristics variation. The obtained results would be applied on the irradiation planning software for more precise dose delivery using the active scanning system.« less
  • Purpose: The CivaSheet is a new LDR Pd-103 brachytherapy device offering directional-radiation for preferentially irradiating malignancies with healthy-tissue sparing. Observations are presented on dosimetric characterization, TPS commissioning, and evaluation of the dosesuperposition- principle for summing individual elements comprising a planar CivaSheet Methods: The CivaSheet comprises individual sources (CivaDots, 0.05cm thick and 0.25cm diam.) inside a flexible bioabsorbable substrate with a 0.8cm center-to-center rectangular array. All non-radioactive components were measured to ensure accuracy of manufacturer-provided dimensional information. The Pd spatial distribution was gleaned from radioactive and inert samples, then modeled with the MCNP6 radiation-transport-code. A 6×6 array CivaSheet was modeled tomore » evaluate the dose superposition principle for treatment planning. Air-kerma-strength was estimated using the NIST WAFAC geometry. Absorbed dose was estimated in water with polar sampling covering 0.05≤r≤15cm in 0.05cm increments and 0°≤θ≤180° in 1° increments. These data were entered into VariSeed9.0 and tested for the dose-superposition-principle. Results: The dose-rate-constant was 0.579 cGy/h/U with g(r) determined along the rotational-axis of symmetry (0°) instead of 90°. gP(r) values at 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, and 10cm were 1.884, 1.344, 0.558, 0.088, and 0.0046. F(r,θ) decreased between 0° and 180° by factors of 270, 23, and 5.1 at 0.1, 1, and 10cm. The highest dose-gradient was at 92°, changing by a factor of 3 within 1° due to Au-foil shielding. TPS commissioning from 0.1≤r≤11cm and 0°≤θ≤180° demonstrated 2% reproducibility of input data except at the high-dose-gradient where interpolations caused 3% differences. Dose superposition of CivaDots replicated a multi-source CivaSheet array within 2% except where another CivaDot was present. Following implantation, the device is not perfectly planar. TPS accuracy utilizing the dose-superposition-principle through geometric repositioning of CivaDots supersedes TPS limitations of intersource shielding effects Conclusion: Dosimetric characterization, source commissioning, and evaluation of the dose-superposition-principle with VariSeed9.0 permits treatment planning for the CivaSheet brachytherapy device. Research supported in part by CivaTech Oncology, Inc.« less
  • Purpose: To implement a 3D dose verification procedure of Model-Based Dose Calculation Algorithms (MBDCAs) for {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy, based on a novel Ferrous Xylenol-orange gel (FXG) and optical CT read-out. Methods: The TruView gel was employed for absolute dosimetry in conjunction with cone-beam optical CT read-out with the VISTA scanner (both from Modus Medical Inc, London, ON, Canada). A multi-catheter skin flap was attached to a cylindrical PETE jar (d=9.6cm, h=16cm) filled with FXG, which served as both the dosimeter and the water equivalent phantom of bounded dimensions. X- ray CT image series of the jar with flap attachedmore » was imported to Oncentra Brachy v.4.5. A treatment plan consisting of 8 catheters and 56 dwell positions was generated, and Oncentra-ACE MBDCA as well as TG43 dose results were exported for further evaluation. The irradiation was carried out with a microSelecton v2 source. The FXG dose-response, measured via an electron irradiation of a second dosimeter from the same batch, was linear (R2>0.999) at least up to 12Gy. A MCNP6 input file was prepared from the DICOM-RT plan data using BrachyGuide to facilitate Monte Carlo (MC) simulation dosimetry in the actual experimental geometry. Agreement between experimental (reference) and calculated dose distributions was evaluated using the 3D gamma index (GI) method with criteria (5%-2mm applied locally) determined from uncertainty analysis. Results: The TG-43 GI failed, as expected, in the majority of voxels away from the flap (pass rate 59% for D>0.8Gy, corresponding to 10% of prescribed dose). ACE performed significantly better (corresponding pass rate 92%). The GI evaluation for the MC data (corresponding pass rate 97%) failed mainly at low dose points of increased uncertainty. Conclusion: FXG gel/optical CT is an efficient method for level-2 commissioning of brachytherapy MBDCAs. Target dosimetry is not affected from uncertainty introduced by TG43 assumptions in 192Ir skin brachytherapy. Research co-financed by the ESF and Greek funds through the Operational Program Education and Lifelong Learning Investing in Knowledge Society of the NSRF. Research Funding Program: Aristeia. Modus Medical Devices Inc. provided a TruView dosimeter batch and Nucletron, and Elekta company, provided access to Oncentra Brachy v4.5, for research purposes.« less
  • Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for amore » single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p < 0.0527), 126 ± 43% (p < 0.0354), and 112 ± 32% (p < 0.0265) higher than those of I125-BT, respectively. The BED and EQD2 doses of the opposite retina were 52 ± 9% lower than I125-BT. The tumor SFED values were 25.2 ± 3.3 Gy and 29.1 ± 2.5 Gy when using USC and LQ models which can be delivered within 1 hour. All BED and EQD2 values using L-Q model were significantly larger when compared to the USC model (p < 0.0274) due to its large single fraction size (> 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.« less