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Title: SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to commission the Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) source and 10 mm diameter surface applicator with NIST traceability for targeted irradiations of mouse anal carcinomas. Methods: The Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) and 10 mm diameter surface applicator was chosen by the collaborating physician as a radiation delivery mechanism for mouse anal carcinomas. The target dose was 2 Gy at a depth of 3 mm in tissue to be delivered in a single fraction. To implement an accurate and reliable irradiation plan, the system was commissioned by first determining the eBT source output and corresponding dose rate at a depth of 3 mm in tissue. This was determined through parallel-plate ion chamber measurements and published conversion factors. Well-type ionization chamber measurements were used to determine a transfer coefficient, which correlates the measured dose rate at 3 mm to the NIST-traceable quantity, air-kerma rate at 50 cm in air, for eBT sources. By correlating these two quantities, daily monitoring in the well chamber becomes an accurate and efficient quality assurance technique. Once the dose-rate was determined, a treatment recipe was developed and confirmed with chamber measurements to deliver the requested dose. Radiochromic film wasmore » used to verify the dose distribution across the field. Results: Dose rates at 3 mm depth in tissue were determined for two different Xoft Axxent™ sources and correlated with NIST-traceable well-type ionization chamber measurements. Unique transfer coefficients were determined for each source and the treatment recipe was validated by measurements. Film profiles showed a uniform dose distribution across the field. Conclusion: A Xoft Axxent™ eBT system was successfully commissioned for use in the irradiation of mouse rectal tumors. Dose rates in tissue were determined as well as other pertinent parameters to ensure accurate delivery of dose to the target region.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Surgery, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649224
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMAL TISSUES; BRACHYTHERAPY; COMMISSIONING; DOSE RATES; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; IRRADIATION; KERMA; MICE; QUALITY ASSURANCE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RATS

Citation Formats

Culberson, W, Micka, J, and Carchman, E. SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956855.
Culberson, W, Micka, J, & Carchman, E. SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956855.
Culberson, W, Micka, J, and Carchman, E. 2016. "SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956855.
@article{osti_22649224,
title = {SU-F-T-669: Commissioning of An Electronic Brachytherapy System for Targeted Mouse Irradiation},
author = {Culberson, W and Micka, J and Carchman, E},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The aim of this study was to commission the Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) source and 10 mm diameter surface applicator with NIST traceability for targeted irradiations of mouse anal carcinomas. Methods: The Xoft Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (eBT) and 10 mm diameter surface applicator was chosen by the collaborating physician as a radiation delivery mechanism for mouse anal carcinomas. The target dose was 2 Gy at a depth of 3 mm in tissue to be delivered in a single fraction. To implement an accurate and reliable irradiation plan, the system was commissioned by first determining the eBT source output and corresponding dose rate at a depth of 3 mm in tissue. This was determined through parallel-plate ion chamber measurements and published conversion factors. Well-type ionization chamber measurements were used to determine a transfer coefficient, which correlates the measured dose rate at 3 mm to the NIST-traceable quantity, air-kerma rate at 50 cm in air, for eBT sources. By correlating these two quantities, daily monitoring in the well chamber becomes an accurate and efficient quality assurance technique. Once the dose-rate was determined, a treatment recipe was developed and confirmed with chamber measurements to deliver the requested dose. Radiochromic film was used to verify the dose distribution across the field. Results: Dose rates at 3 mm depth in tissue were determined for two different Xoft Axxent™ sources and correlated with NIST-traceable well-type ionization chamber measurements. Unique transfer coefficients were determined for each source and the treatment recipe was validated by measurements. Film profiles showed a uniform dose distribution across the field. Conclusion: A Xoft Axxent™ eBT system was successfully commissioned for use in the irradiation of mouse rectal tumors. Dose rates in tissue were determined as well as other pertinent parameters to ensure accurate delivery of dose to the target region.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956855},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The Xoft Axxent x-ray source has been used for treating nonmelanoma skin cancer since the surface applicators became clinically available in 2009. The authors report comprehensive calibration procedures for the electronic brachytherapy (eBx) system with the surface applicators. Methods: The Xoft miniature tube (model S700) generates 50 kVp low-energy x rays. The new surface applicators are available in four sizes of 10, 20, 35, and 50 mm in diameter. The authors' tests include measurements of dose rate, air-gap factor, output stability, depth dose verification, beam flatness and symmetry, and treatment planning with patient specific cutout factors. The TG-61 in-airmore » method was used as a guideline for acquiring nominal dose-rate output at the skin surface. A soft x-ray parallel-plate chamber (PTW T34013) and electrometer was used for the output commissioning. GafChromic EBT films were used for testing the properties of the treatment fields with the skin applicators. Solid water slabs were used to verify the depth dose and cutout factors. Patients with basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma were treated with eBx using a calibrated Xoft system with the low-energy x-ray source and the skin applicators. Results: The average nominal dose-rate output at the skin surface for the 35 mm applicator is 1.35 Gy/min with {+-}5% variation for 16 sources. The dose-rate output and stability (within {+-}5% variation) were also measured for the remaining three applicators. For the same source, the output variation is within 2%. The effective source-surface distance was calculated based on the air-gap measurements for four applicator sizes. The field flatness and symmetry are well within 5%. Percentage depth dose in water was provided by factory measurements and can be verified using solid water slabs. Treatment duration was calculated based on the nominal dose rate, the prescription fraction size, the depth dose percentage, and the cutout factor. The output factor needs to be measured for each case with varying shapes of cutouts. Conclusions: Together with TG-61, the authors' methodology provides comprehensive calibration procedures for medical physicists for using the Xoft eBx system and skin applicators for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatments.« less
  • Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014,more » a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic brachytherapy and the various applications for which it is being used. To understand the physics of the calibration and commissioning for electronic brachytherapy sources To understand the unique radiobiology and clinical implementation of electronic brachytherapy systems for skin and IORT techniques Xoft, Inc. contributed funding toward development of the NIST electronic brachytherapy facility (Michael Mitch).The University of Wisconsin (Wesley Culberson) has received research support funding from Xoft, Inc. Zoubir Ouhib has received partial funding from Elekta Esteya.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro radioprotective effect of the mitochondria-targeted hemigramicidin S-conjugated 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (hemi-GS-TEMPO) 5-125 in {gamma}-irradiated mouse embryonic cells and adenovirus-12 SV40 hybrid virus transformed human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B and explore the mechanisms involved in its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Cells were incubated with 5-125 before (10 minutes) or after (1 hour) {gamma}-irradiation. Superoxide generation was determined by using dihydroethidium assay, and lipid oxidation was quantitated by using a fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography-based Amplex Red assay. Apoptosis was characterized by evaluating the accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol and externalization of phosphatidylserine on the cellmore » surface. Cell survival was measured by means of a clonogenic assay. Results: Treatment (before and after irradiation) of cells with 5-125 at low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 {mu}M) effectively suppressed {gamma}-irradiation-induced superoxide generation, cardiolipin oxidation, and delayed irradiation-induced apoptosis, evaluated by using cytochrome c release and phosphatidylserine externalization. Importantly, treatment with 5-125 increased the clonogenic survival rate of {gamma}-irradiated cells. In addition, 5-125 enhanced and prolonged {gamma}-irradiation-induced G{sub 2}/M phase arrest. Conclusions: Radioprotection/mitigation by hemi-GS-TEMPO likely is caused by its ability to act as an electron scavenger and prevent superoxide generation, attenuate cardiolipin oxidation in mitochondria, and hence prevent the release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria. Other mechanisms, including cell-cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M phase, may contribute to the protection.« less
  • Purpose: To implement a 3D dose verification procedure of Model-Based Dose Calculation Algorithms (MBDCAs) for {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy, based on a novel Ferrous Xylenol-orange gel (FXG) and optical CT read-out. Methods: The TruView gel was employed for absolute dosimetry in conjunction with cone-beam optical CT read-out with the VISTA scanner (both from Modus Medical Inc, London, ON, Canada). A multi-catheter skin flap was attached to a cylindrical PETE jar (d=9.6cm, h=16cm) filled with FXG, which served as both the dosimeter and the water equivalent phantom of bounded dimensions. X- ray CT image series of the jar with flap attachedmore » was imported to Oncentra Brachy v.4.5. A treatment plan consisting of 8 catheters and 56 dwell positions was generated, and Oncentra-ACE MBDCA as well as TG43 dose results were exported for further evaluation. The irradiation was carried out with a microSelecton v2 source. The FXG dose-response, measured via an electron irradiation of a second dosimeter from the same batch, was linear (R2>0.999) at least up to 12Gy. A MCNP6 input file was prepared from the DICOM-RT plan data using BrachyGuide to facilitate Monte Carlo (MC) simulation dosimetry in the actual experimental geometry. Agreement between experimental (reference) and calculated dose distributions was evaluated using the 3D gamma index (GI) method with criteria (5%-2mm applied locally) determined from uncertainty analysis. Results: The TG-43 GI failed, as expected, in the majority of voxels away from the flap (pass rate 59% for D>0.8Gy, corresponding to 10% of prescribed dose). ACE performed significantly better (corresponding pass rate 92%). The GI evaluation for the MC data (corresponding pass rate 97%) failed mainly at low dose points of increased uncertainty. Conclusion: FXG gel/optical CT is an efficient method for level-2 commissioning of brachytherapy MBDCAs. Target dosimetry is not affected from uncertainty introduced by TG43 assumptions in 192Ir skin brachytherapy. Research co-financed by the ESF and Greek funds through the Operational Program Education and Lifelong Learning Investing in Knowledge Society of the NSRF. Research Funding Program: Aristeia. Modus Medical Devices Inc. provided a TruView dosimeter batch and Nucletron, and Elekta company, provided access to Oncentra Brachy v4.5, for research purposes.« less
  • Ultrasound (US) is one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medical practice. Since US imaging offers real-time imaging capability, it has becomes an excellent option to provide image guidance for brachytherapy (IGBT). (1) The physics and the fundamental principles of US imaging are presented, and the typical steps required to commission an US system for IGBT is provided for illustration. (2) Application of US for prostate HDR brachytherapy, including partial prostate treatments using MR-ultrasound co-registration to enable a focused treatment on the disease within the prostate is also presented. Prostate HDR with US image guidance planning can benefitmore » from real time visualization of the needles, and fusion of the ultrasound images with T2 weighted MR allows the focusing of the treatment to the specific areas of disease within the prostate, so that the entire gland need not be treated. Finally, (3) ultrasound guidance for an eye plaque program is presented. US can be a key component of placement and QA for episcleral plaque brachytherapy for ocular cancer, and the UCLA eye plaque program with US for image guidance is presented to demonstrate the utility of US verification of plaque placement in improving the methods and QA in episcleral plaque brachytherapy. Learning Objectives: To understand the physics of an US system and the necessary aspects of commissioning US for image guided brachytherapy (IGBT). To understand real time planning of prostate HDR using ultrasound, and its application in partial prostate treatments using MR-ultrasound fusion to focus treatment on disease within the prostate. To understand the methods and QA in applying US for localizing the target and the implant during a episcleral plaque brachytherapy procedures.« less