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Title: SU-F-T-667: Development and Validation of Dose Calculation for An Open-Source KV Treatment Planning System for Small Animal Radiotherapy

Abstract

Purpose: An open-source, convolution/superposition based kV-treatment planning system(TPS) was developed for small animal radiotherapy from previously existed in-house MV-TPS. It is flexible and applicable to both step and shoot and helical tomotherapy treatment delivery. For initial commissioning process, the dose calculation from kV-TPS was compared with measurements and Monte Carlo(MC) simulations. Methods: High resolution, low energy kernels were simulated using EGSnrc user code EDKnrc, which was used as an input in kV-TPS together with MC-simulated x-ray beam spectrum. The Blue Water™ homogeneous phantom (with film inserts) and heterogeneous phantom (with film and TLD inserts) were fabricated. Phantom was placed at 100cm SSD, and was irradiated with 250 kVp beam for 10mins with 1.1cm × 1.1cm open field (at 100cm) created by newly designed binary micro-MLC assembly positioned at 90cm SSD. Gafchromic™ EBT3 film was calibrated in-phantom following AAPM TG-61 guidelines, and were used for measurement at 5 different depths in phantom. Calibrated TLD-100s were obtained from ADCL. EGS and MNCP5 simulation were used to model experimental irradiation set up calculation of dose in phantom. Results: Using the homogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was calculated: mean(x)=0.9%; maximum difference(MD)=3.1%; standard deviation(σ)=1.1%. Dose difference between MCNP5 and kV-TPS was: x=1.5%;more » MD=4.6%; σ=1.9%. Dose difference between EGS and kV-TPS was: x=0.8%; MD=1.9%; σ=0.8%. Using the heterogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was: x=2.6%; MD=3%; σ=1.1%; and dose difference between TLD and kV-TPS was: x=2.9%; MD=6.4%; σ=2.5%. Conclusion: The inhouse, open-source kV-TPS dose calculation system was comparable within 5% of measurements and MC simulations in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. The dose calculation system of the kV-TPS is validated as a part of initial commissioning process for small animal radiotherapy. The kV-TPS has the potential for accurate dose calculation for any kV treatment or imaging modalities.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
  2. University of Wisconsin- Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
  3. University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)
  4. University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649222
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMALS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; CT-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY; DOSES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; PLANNING; SIMULATION; X RADIATION; X-RAY SPECTRA

Citation Formats

Prajapati, S, Mo, X, Bednarz, B, Lawless, M, Hammer, C, Jeraj, R, Mackie, T, Flynn, R, and Westerly, D. SU-F-T-667: Development and Validation of Dose Calculation for An Open-Source KV Treatment Planning System for Small Animal Radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956853.
Prajapati, S, Mo, X, Bednarz, B, Lawless, M, Hammer, C, Jeraj, R, Mackie, T, Flynn, R, & Westerly, D. SU-F-T-667: Development and Validation of Dose Calculation for An Open-Source KV Treatment Planning System for Small Animal Radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956853.
Prajapati, S, Mo, X, Bednarz, B, Lawless, M, Hammer, C, Jeraj, R, Mackie, T, Flynn, R, and Westerly, D. 2016. "SU-F-T-667: Development and Validation of Dose Calculation for An Open-Source KV Treatment Planning System for Small Animal Radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956853.
@article{osti_22649222,
title = {SU-F-T-667: Development and Validation of Dose Calculation for An Open-Source KV Treatment Planning System for Small Animal Radiotherapy},
author = {Prajapati, S and Mo, X and Bednarz, B and Lawless, M and Hammer, C and Jeraj, R and Mackie, T and Flynn, R and Westerly, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: An open-source, convolution/superposition based kV-treatment planning system(TPS) was developed for small animal radiotherapy from previously existed in-house MV-TPS. It is flexible and applicable to both step and shoot and helical tomotherapy treatment delivery. For initial commissioning process, the dose calculation from kV-TPS was compared with measurements and Monte Carlo(MC) simulations. Methods: High resolution, low energy kernels were simulated using EGSnrc user code EDKnrc, which was used as an input in kV-TPS together with MC-simulated x-ray beam spectrum. The Blue Water™ homogeneous phantom (with film inserts) and heterogeneous phantom (with film and TLD inserts) were fabricated. Phantom was placed at 100cm SSD, and was irradiated with 250 kVp beam for 10mins with 1.1cm × 1.1cm open field (at 100cm) created by newly designed binary micro-MLC assembly positioned at 90cm SSD. Gafchromic™ EBT3 film was calibrated in-phantom following AAPM TG-61 guidelines, and were used for measurement at 5 different depths in phantom. Calibrated TLD-100s were obtained from ADCL. EGS and MNCP5 simulation were used to model experimental irradiation set up calculation of dose in phantom. Results: Using the homogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was calculated: mean(x)=0.9%; maximum difference(MD)=3.1%; standard deviation(σ)=1.1%. Dose difference between MCNP5 and kV-TPS was: x=1.5%; MD=4.6%; σ=1.9%. Dose difference between EGS and kV-TPS was: x=0.8%; MD=1.9%; σ=0.8%. Using the heterogeneous phantom, dose difference between film and kV-TPS was: x=2.6%; MD=3%; σ=1.1%; and dose difference between TLD and kV-TPS was: x=2.9%; MD=6.4%; σ=2.5%. Conclusion: The inhouse, open-source kV-TPS dose calculation system was comparable within 5% of measurements and MC simulations in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. The dose calculation system of the kV-TPS is validated as a part of initial commissioning process for small animal radiotherapy. The kV-TPS has the potential for accurate dose calculation for any kV treatment or imaging modalities.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956853},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the performance of the electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in RayStation v4.0 for an Elekta machine with Agility™ treatment head. Methods: The machine has five electron energies (6–8 MeV) and five applicators (6×6 to 25×25 cm {sup 2}). The dose (cGy/MU at d{sub max}), depth dose and profiles were measured in water using an electron diode at 100 cm SSD for nine square fields ≥2×2 cm{sup 2} and four complex fields at normal incidence, and a 14×14 cm{sup 2} field at 15° and 30° incidence. The dose was also measured for three square fields ≥4×4more » cm{sup 2} at 98, 105 and 110 cm SSD. Using selected energies, the EBT3 radiochromic film was used for dose measurements in slab-shaped inhomogeneous phantoms and a breast phantom with surface curvature. The measured and calculated doses were analyzed using a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm. Results: The calculated and measured doses varied by <3% for 116 of the 120 points, and <5% for the 4×4 cm{sup 2} field at 110 cm SSD at 9–18 MeV. The gamma analysis comparing the 105 pairs of in-water isodoses passed by >98.1%. The planar doses measured from films placed at 0.5 cm below a lung/tissue layer (12 MeV) and 1.0 cm below a bone/air layer (15 MeV) showed excellent agreement with calculations, with gamma passing by 99.9% and 98.5%, respectively. At the breast-tissue interface, the gamma passing rate is >98.8% at 12–18 MeV. The film results directly validated the accuracy of MU calculation and spatial dose distribution in presence of tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature - situations challenging for simpler pencil-beam algorithms. Conclusion: The electron Monte Carlo algorithm in RayStation v4.0 is fully validated for clinical use for the Elekta Agility™ machine. The comprehensive validation included small fields, complex fields, oblique beams, extended distance, tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature.« less
  • This work presents the beam data commissioning and dose calculation validation of the first Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment planning system (TPS) installed in Mexico. According to the manufacturer specifications, the beam data commissioning needed for this model includes: several in-air and water profiles, depth dose curves, head-scatter factors and output factors (6x6, 12x12, 18x18, 24x24, 42x42, 60x60, 80x80 and 100x100 mm{sup 2}). Radiographic and radiochromic films, diode and ionization chambers were used for data acquisition. MC dose calculations in a water phantom were used to validate the MC simulations using comparisons with measured data. Gamma index criteria 2%/2 mmmore » were used to evaluate the accuracy of MC calculations. MC calculated data show an excellent agreement for field sizes from 18x18 to 100x100 mm{sup 2}. Gamma analysis shows that in average, 95% and 100% of the data passes the gamma index criteria for these fields, respectively. For smaller fields (12x12 and 6x6 mm{sup 2}) only 92% of the data meet the criteria. Total scatter factors show a good agreement (<2.6%) between MC calculated and measured data, except for the smaller fields (12x12 and 6x6 mm{sup 2}) that show a error of 4.7%. MC dose calculations are accurate and precise for clinical treatment planning up to a field size of 18x18 mm{sup 2}. Special care must be taken for smaller fields.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions for different Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services, Australia (ROPES) type eye plaques loaded with I-125 (model 6711) seeds using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films, in order to verify the dose distributions in the Plaque Simulator™ (PS) ophthalmic 3D treatment planning system. The brachytherapy module of RADCALC{sup ®} was used to independently check the dose distributions calculated by PS. Correction factors were derived from the measured data to be used in PS to account for the effect of the stainless steel ROPES plaque backing on the 3D dose distribution.Methods:more » Using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films inserted in a specially designed Solid Water™ eye ball phantom, dose distributions were measured three-dimensionally both along and perpendicular to I-125 (model 6711) loaded ROPES eye plaque's central axis (CAX) with 2 mm depth increments. Each measurement was performed in full scatter conditions both with and without the stainless steel plaque backing attached to the eye plaque, to assess its effect on the dose distributions. Results were compared to the dose distributions calculated by Plaque Simulator™ and checked independently with RADCALC{sup ®}.Results: The EBT3 film measurements without the stainless steel backing were found to agree with PS and RADCALC{sup ®} to within 2% and 4%, respectively, on the plaque CAX. Also, RADCALC{sup ®} was found to agree with PS to within 2%. The CAX depth doses measured using EBT3 film with the stainless steel backing were observed to result in a 4% decrease relative to when the backing was not present. Within experimental uncertainty, the 4% decrease was found to be constant with depth and independent of plaque size. Using a constant dose correction factor of T= 0.96 in PS, where the calculated dose for the full water scattering medium is reduced by 4% in every voxel in the dose grid, the effect of the plaque backing was accurately modeled in the planning system. Off-axis profiles were also modeled in PS by taking into account the three-dimensional model of the plaque backing.Conclusions: The doses calculated by PS and RADCALC{sup ®} for uniformly loaded ROPES plaques in full and uniform scattering conditions were validated by the EBT3 film measurements. The stainless steel plaque backing was observed to decrease the measured dose by 4%. Through the introduction of a scalar correction factor (0.96) in PS, the dose homogeneity effect of the stainless steel plaque backing was found to agree with the measured EBT3 film measurements.« less
  • Purpose: Validation of iBEAM™ evo couch-top for different relative electron density (RED) combination during photon beam dose calculation in Monaco− TPS. Methods: The iBEAM™ evo couch-top has two layers:outer carbon fiber (CF) and inner foam core (FC). To study the beam intensity attenuation of couch-top, measured doses were compared with doses calculated for different REDs. Measurements were performed in solid water phantom with PTW-0.125cc ion-chamber positioned at center of the phantom with 5.3cm thickness slabs placed above and below the chamber. Similarly, in TPS, iBEAM™ evo couch-top was simulated and doses were calculated for different RED combinations (0.2CF-0.2FC, 0.4CF-0.2FC, 0.6CF-0.2FC,more » 0.8CF-0.2FC, and 1.0CF-0.2FC) by using Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in Monaco TPS (V5.1). Doses were measured for every 10 degree gantry angle separation, 10×10cm{sup 2} field size and 6MV photons. Then, attenuation is defined as the ratio of output at posterior gantry angle to output of its opposed anterior gantry angle (e.g.225°/45°). output fluctuation with different gantry angle was within ±0.21%. To confirm above results, dose-planes were measured for five pelvic VMAT plans (360°arc) in PTW two-dimensional array and compared with different calculated dose-planes of above-mentioned couch REDs. Gamma pass rates<1.00) were analyzed for 3%/2mm criteria. Results: Measured and calculated attenuation was in good agreement for the RED combination of 0.2CF-0.2FC and difference was within ±0.515%. However, other density combination showed difference of ±0.9841%, ±1.667%, ±2.9241% and ±2.8832% for 0.4CF-0.2FC, 0.6CF-0.2FC, 0.8CF-0.2FC, and 1.0CF-0.2FC, respectively. Maximum couch-top attenuation was observed at 110°–120° and 240°–250° and decreases linearly as the gantry angle approaches 180°. Moreover, gamma pass rate confirmed the above results and showed maximum pass rate of 96.23% for 0.2CF-0.2FC, whereas others were 95.72%, 95.12%, 94.31% and 93.24%. Conclusion: RED value of 0.2CF-0.2FC was found to be suitable for accurate couch-top modeling for 6MV photon beam Monte Carlo calculations in Monaco TPS.« less
  • Purpose: In this study, the comparison of dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries Methods: Small open fields of Truebeam 2.0 unit (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 fields) were used for this study. The fields were incident on homogeneous phantom and in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtaine dusing Trubeam 2.0 for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF, 15 MV energies by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48more » hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement betweent wo algorithms and measurement. For Acuros XB, minimum gamma analysis passin grates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.3% and 98.1% for homogeneousand inhomogeneous fields in thecase of lung and bone respectively. For AAA, minimum gamma analysis passingrates were 99.1% and 96.5% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for all used energies and field sizes.In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculations algorithms. Over all, when compared to measurement, theAcuros XB had beter agreement than AAA. Conclusion: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the TPS is an improvemen tover theexisting AAA algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.« less