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Title: SU-F-T-634: Feasibility Study of Respiratory Gated RapidArc SBRT Using a 6MV FFF Photon Beam

Abstract

Purpose: To conduct a feasibility study on retrospective respiratory gating and marker tracking for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with a gated RapidArc delivery using a 6MV flattened filter free photon mode. Methods: A CIRS dynamic thorax phantom Model 008A with different inserts was used for treatment planning and respiratory gating. 4D CT had a free breathing simulation followed by a respiration gated, ten phased CT using a Philips Brilliance CT with a Varian RPM respiratory gating system. The internal target volume was created from the ten phase gated CT images, followed by exporting to a Varian Eclipse TPS v11 for treatment planning on the free breath images. Both MIP and AIP were also generated for comparison of planning and target motion tracking. The planned dose was delivered with a 6MV FFF photon beam from a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. Gated target motion was also verified by tracking the implanted makers during delivery using continuous kV imaging in addition to CBCT, kV and MV localization and verification. Results: Gating was studied in three situations of lower, normal, and faster breathing at a respiratory cycle of 5, 15 and 25 breaths per minute, respectively. 4D treatment planning was performed at a normalmore » breathing of 15 breaths per minute. The gated patterns obtained using the TrueBeam IR camera were compared with the planned ones while gating operation was added prior to delivery . Gating was realized only when the measured respiratory patterns matched to the planned ones. The gated target motion was verified within the tolerance by kV and MV imaging. Either free breathing CT or averaged CT images were studied to be good for image guidance to align the target. Conclusion: Gated RapidArc SBRT delivered with a 6MV FFF photon beam is realized using a dynamic lung phantom.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. RadAmerica, MedStar Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  2. Mercy Medical Center Radiation Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649194
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; BREATH; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DELIVERY; FEASIBILITY STUDIES; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; PHOTON BEAMS; PLANNING; RESPIRATION

Citation Formats

Dou, K, Safaraz, M, Rodgers, J, Jacobs, M, and Laser, B. SU-F-T-634: Feasibility Study of Respiratory Gated RapidArc SBRT Using a 6MV FFF Photon Beam. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956819.
Dou, K, Safaraz, M, Rodgers, J, Jacobs, M, & Laser, B. SU-F-T-634: Feasibility Study of Respiratory Gated RapidArc SBRT Using a 6MV FFF Photon Beam. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956819.
Dou, K, Safaraz, M, Rodgers, J, Jacobs, M, and Laser, B. Wed . "SU-F-T-634: Feasibility Study of Respiratory Gated RapidArc SBRT Using a 6MV FFF Photon Beam". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956819.
@article{osti_22649194,
title = {SU-F-T-634: Feasibility Study of Respiratory Gated RapidArc SBRT Using a 6MV FFF Photon Beam},
author = {Dou, K and Safaraz, M and Rodgers, J and Jacobs, M and Laser, B},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To conduct a feasibility study on retrospective respiratory gating and marker tracking for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with a gated RapidArc delivery using a 6MV flattened filter free photon mode. Methods: A CIRS dynamic thorax phantom Model 008A with different inserts was used for treatment planning and respiratory gating. 4D CT had a free breathing simulation followed by a respiration gated, ten phased CT using a Philips Brilliance CT with a Varian RPM respiratory gating system. The internal target volume was created from the ten phase gated CT images, followed by exporting to a Varian Eclipse TPS v11 for treatment planning on the free breath images. Both MIP and AIP were also generated for comparison of planning and target motion tracking. The planned dose was delivered with a 6MV FFF photon beam from a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. Gated target motion was also verified by tracking the implanted makers during delivery using continuous kV imaging in addition to CBCT, kV and MV localization and verification. Results: Gating was studied in three situations of lower, normal, and faster breathing at a respiratory cycle of 5, 15 and 25 breaths per minute, respectively. 4D treatment planning was performed at a normal breathing of 15 breaths per minute. The gated patterns obtained using the TrueBeam IR camera were compared with the planned ones while gating operation was added prior to delivery . Gating was realized only when the measured respiratory patterns matched to the planned ones. The gated target motion was verified within the tolerance by kV and MV imaging. Either free breathing CT or averaged CT images were studied to be good for image guidance to align the target. Conclusion: Gated RapidArc SBRT delivered with a 6MV FFF photon beam is realized using a dynamic lung phantom.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956819},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To use end-to-end testing to validate a 6 MV high dose rate photon beam, configured for Eclipse AAA algorithm using Golden Beam Data (GBD), for SBRT treatments using RapidArc. Methods: Beam data was configured for Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm using the GBD provided by the vendor. Transverse and diagonals dose profiles, PDDs and output factors down to a field size of 2×2 cm2 were measured on a Varian Trilogy Linac and compared with GBD library using 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis. The MLC transmission factor and dosimetric leaf gap were determined to characterize the MLC in Eclipse. Mechanical andmore » dosimetric tests were performed combining different gantry rotation speeds, dose rates and leaf speeds to evaluate the delivery system performance according to VMAT accuracy requirements. An end-to-end test was implemented planning several SBRT RapidArc treatments on a CIRS 002LFC IMRT Thorax Phantom. The CT scanner calibration curve was acquired and loaded in Eclipse. PTW 31013 ionization chamber was used with Keithley 35617EBS electrometer for absolute point dose measurements in water and lung equivalent inserts. TPS calculated planar dose distributions were compared to those measured using EPID and MapCheck, as an independent verification method. Results were evaluated with gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2mm DTA for 95% of points. Results: GBD set vs. measured data passed 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis even for small fields. Machine performance tests show results are independent of machine delivery configuration, as expected. Absolute point dosimetry comparison resulted within 4% for the worst case scenario in lung. Over 97% of the points evaluated in dose distributions passed gamma index analysis. Conclusion: Eclipse AAA algorithm configuration of the 6 MV high dose rate photon beam using GBD proved efficient. End-to-end test dose calculation results indicate it can be used clinically for SBRT using RapidArc.« less
  • Purpose: For a give PTV dose, beam-on time is shorter in the FFF than the non-FFF mode because of higher MU/min. Larger tumors usually require more complex intensity modulation, which might affect plan quality and total MU. We investigated the relationship between PTV size and plan quality using FFF and non-FFF modes. Methods: Two different PTV volumes (PTV and PTV+1 cm margin) were drawn in brain, lung and liver. 3-full to 7-partial arc (Rapidarc) of 6 MV, 1400 MU/min were studied. Plan quality was evaluated by: (a) DVH for PTV and normal tissues, (b) total MU and beam-on time, andmore » (c) passing rate for IMRT plan QA. Results: For the same PTV coverage, DVH for normal tissue was the same or slightly lower in the FFF compared with non-FFF. Total MU was 13% higher in FFF than non-FFF in the 3-arc, 7 Gy treatment, but the difference became smaller when arc number increased to 6–7 for 10–24 Gy. Larger PTV did not affect the difference in the total MU. FFF required a short beam-on time and the ratio of FFF and non-FFF was 0.34 to 0.88 for 7- and 3-arc, respectively. For larger PTV, the ratio increased to 0.45–0.90. Ratio of total MU for large PTV was 3–8% lower in the non-FFF plans. Although the small difference in MU, beam-on time was 1.1 to-1.6 times longer in the 3- and 7-arc non-FFF plans. Plan verification showed the similar gamma index passing rate. Conclusion: While total MU was similar with FFF and non-FFF modes, the beam-on time was shorter in the FFF treatment. The advantage of FFF was greater in treatments with high dose per fraction using more arc numbers. For dose less than 10 Gy, using FFF and non-FFF modes, tumor size did not affect the relationship of total MU, beam-on time.« less
  • Purpose: To assess differences in treatment plan quality between VMAT stereotactic body plans generated using the 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV FFF modalities available in our clinic. Plans for lung, spine, and other sites were compared to see if there is any advantage of one modality over the other. Methods: Treatment plans done for actual SBRT patients were selected. Groups of ten lung plans, five spine plans, and five plans from other sites were selected. New treatment plans were generated for each plan using the Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm. The constraints were kept the same as usedmore » in the actual plans, but the same version of software was used to generate plans for the three modalities. In addition, because there are natural variations in plans re-done with the same dose constraints, one of the lung plans was repeated ten times to assess those differences. Volumes of the 100%, 90%, 50%, 20% and 10% isodose surfaces were compared. Maximum dose two centimeters from the PTV were compared, as well as the volume of the 105% isodose surface outside of the PTV. In addition, the 20 Gray lung volume was compared for the lung plans. The values of these parameters were divided by the values for the 6 MV plans for comparison. Average and standard deviations were obtained for quantities in each group. The Student t test was done to determine if differences were seen at the 95% confidence level. Results: Comparison of the treatment plans showed no significant differences when assessing these volumes and doses. There were not any trends seen when comparing modalities as a function of PTV volume either. Conclusion: There is no obvious dosimetric advantage in selection of one modality over another for these types of SBRT plans.« less
  • Purpose: Aim of the current study is to look plan quality, treatment beam ON time for IMRT using 6MV FB (Flatten Beam) and FFFB (Flattening Filter Free Beam) in left breast cancer cases. Methods: Ten left breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgical (BCS) procedure approach and adjuvant radiotherapy were selected from the department database. Simultaneous Integrated boost (SIB) technique was used to irradiate the total left breast (PTV) to a dose of 50.40Gy with concomitant enhance to the lumpectomy cavity known as gross tumour volume (GTV) to a dose of 59.40Gy in 28 fractions. Plans 6MV FB IMRTmore » and 6MV FFFB IMRT had been generated to achieve dose to 95% target volume (TV) and spare Organ at risks (OAR’s). Homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), treatment monitor unit (MU),normal tissues integral dose (NTID) and low dose volume of normal tissue were compared. Results: There was no statistically huge difference among the plans with respect to target volume coverage, CI HI, Ipsilateral Lung and Breast. But statistically significant difference (p< 0.05) as observed in Heart, V5Gy of Contralateral Lung, MU’s NTID and low dose volume of normal tissue. Conclusion: 6MV FB and FFF beam produce almost equivalent plans in IMRT modality with admire to target volume coverage, HI, CI. Beam on time and NTID was determined to be much less in 6MV FFFB IMRT. FFF beam leads to a time saving treatment delivery and fewer NTID in cancer of left breast cases.« less
  • Purpose: Various dosimetric benefits such as increased dose rate, and reduced leakage and out of field dose has led to the growth of FFF technology in the clinic. In this study, we concentrate on investigating the feasibility of using flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams to deliver conventional flat beams (CFB), since completely getting rid of the flattening-filter module from the gantry head can not only simplify the gantry design but also decrease the workload on machine maintain and quality assurance. Methods: The sliding window based IMRT technique was utilized to generate the CFB from the FFF beam for various beam configurations onmore » the Elekta Versa HD. The flat beam reproducibility and MU efficiency were compared for each beam configuration among FFF planning, delivery and CFB planning. Results: Compared to the CFB plan, the 3%3mm passing rates of the FFF beams from both measurement and plan are 100% and 95%(or better) for 15×15 cm{sup 2} or smaller field size and for any field size greater than 15×15 cm{sup 2}at 10 cm depth, respectively. The largest discrepancy is about 5% and typically appears at the field shoulder area. The MU increase average was 80% for FFF compared to CFB, however has a minimal impact on treatment delivery time. Conclusion: The ability to deliver conventional flat treatments is not absent when operating in FFF mode. With proper TPS manipulation and beam modulation, FFF mode can achieve reasonable flat profiles and comparable dose coverage as CFB does for various conventional treatment techniques, such as four field box, or long spine treatment techniques. The ability to deliver most clinical treatments from the same treatment unit, will allow for less quality assurance as well as maintenance, and completely eliminate the need for the flattening filter on modern linacs.« less