skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-T-620: Development of a Convolution/Superposition Dose Engine for CyberKnife System

Abstract

Purpose: Current CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) provided two dose calculation algorithms: Ray-tracing and Monte Carlo. Ray-tracing algorithm is fast, but less accurate, and also can’t handle irregular fields since a multi-leaf collimator system was recently introduced to CyberKnife M6 system. Monte Carlo method has well-known accuracy, but the current version still takes a long time to finish dose calculations. The purpose of this paper is to develop a GPU-based fast C/S dose engine for CyberKnife system to achieve both accuracy and efficiency. Methods: The TERMA distribution from a poly-energetic source was calculated based on beam’s eye view coordinate system, which is GPU friendly and has linear complexity. The dose distribution was then computed by inversely collecting the energy depositions from all TERMA points along 192 collapsed-cone directions. EGSnrc user code was used to pre-calculate energy deposition kernels (EDKs) for a series of mono-energy photons The energy spectrum was reconstructed based on measured tissue maximum ratio (TMR) curve, the TERMA averaged cumulative kernels was then calculated. Beam hardening parameters and intensity profiles were optimized based on measurement data from CyberKnife system. Results: The difference between measured and calculated TMR are less than 1% for all collimators except in the build-upmore » regions. The calculated profiles also showed good agreements with the measured doses within 1% except in the penumbra regions. The developed C/S dose engine was also used to evaluate four clinical CyberKnife treatment plans, the results showed a better dose calculation accuracy than Ray-tracing algorithm compared with Monte Carlo method for heterogeneous cases. For the dose calculation time, it takes about several seconds for one beam depends on collimator size and dose calculation grids. Conclusion: A GPU-based C/S dose engine has been developed for CyberKnife system, which was proven to be efficient and accurate for clinical purpose, and can be easily implemented in TPS.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Beihang University, Beijing, Beijing (China)
  2. Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)
  3. PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)
  4. 302 Military Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649183
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; ALGORITHMS; BEAMS; COLLIMATORS; ENERGY ABSORPTION; ENERGY LOSSES; ENERGY SPECTRA; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Li, Y, Liu, B, Liang, B, Xu, X, Guo, B, Wei, R, Zhou, F, Song, T, Xu, S, and Piao, J. SU-F-T-620: Development of a Convolution/Superposition Dose Engine for CyberKnife System. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956805.
Li, Y, Liu, B, Liang, B, Xu, X, Guo, B, Wei, R, Zhou, F, Song, T, Xu, S, & Piao, J. SU-F-T-620: Development of a Convolution/Superposition Dose Engine for CyberKnife System. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956805.
Li, Y, Liu, B, Liang, B, Xu, X, Guo, B, Wei, R, Zhou, F, Song, T, Xu, S, and Piao, J. Wed . "SU-F-T-620: Development of a Convolution/Superposition Dose Engine for CyberKnife System". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956805.
@article{osti_22649183,
title = {SU-F-T-620: Development of a Convolution/Superposition Dose Engine for CyberKnife System},
author = {Li, Y and Liu, B and Liang, B and Xu, X and Guo, B and Wei, R and Zhou, F and Song, T and Xu, S and Piao, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Current CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) provided two dose calculation algorithms: Ray-tracing and Monte Carlo. Ray-tracing algorithm is fast, but less accurate, and also can’t handle irregular fields since a multi-leaf collimator system was recently introduced to CyberKnife M6 system. Monte Carlo method has well-known accuracy, but the current version still takes a long time to finish dose calculations. The purpose of this paper is to develop a GPU-based fast C/S dose engine for CyberKnife system to achieve both accuracy and efficiency. Methods: The TERMA distribution from a poly-energetic source was calculated based on beam’s eye view coordinate system, which is GPU friendly and has linear complexity. The dose distribution was then computed by inversely collecting the energy depositions from all TERMA points along 192 collapsed-cone directions. EGSnrc user code was used to pre-calculate energy deposition kernels (EDKs) for a series of mono-energy photons The energy spectrum was reconstructed based on measured tissue maximum ratio (TMR) curve, the TERMA averaged cumulative kernels was then calculated. Beam hardening parameters and intensity profiles were optimized based on measurement data from CyberKnife system. Results: The difference between measured and calculated TMR are less than 1% for all collimators except in the build-up regions. The calculated profiles also showed good agreements with the measured doses within 1% except in the penumbra regions. The developed C/S dose engine was also used to evaluate four clinical CyberKnife treatment plans, the results showed a better dose calculation accuracy than Ray-tracing algorithm compared with Monte Carlo method for heterogeneous cases. For the dose calculation time, it takes about several seconds for one beam depends on collimator size and dose calculation grids. Conclusion: A GPU-based C/S dose engine has been developed for CyberKnife system, which was proven to be efficient and accurate for clinical purpose, and can be easily implemented in TPS.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956805},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: This study will use Monte Carlo to simulate the Cyberknife system, and intend to develop the third-party tool to evaluate the dose verification of specific patient plans in TPS. Methods: By simulating the treatment head using the BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc software, the comparison between the calculated and measured data will be done to determine the beam parameters. The dose distribution calculated in the Raytracing, Monte Carlo algorithms of TPS (Multiplan Ver4.0.2) and in-house Monte Carlo simulation method for 30 patient plans, which included 10 head, lung and liver cases in each, were analyzed. The γ analysis with the combinedmore » 3mm/3% criteria would be introduced to quantitatively evaluate the difference of the accuracy between three algorithms. Results: More than 90% of the global error points were less than 2% for the comparison of the PDD and OAR curves after determining the mean energy and FWHM.The relative ideal Monte Carlo beam model had been established. Based on the quantitative evaluation of dose accuracy for three algorithms, the results of γ analysis shows that the passing rates (84.88±9.67% for head,98.83±1.05% for liver,98.26±1.87% for lung) of PTV in 30 plans between Monte Carlo simulation and TPS Monte Carlo algorithms were good. And the passing rates (95.93±3.12%,99.84±0.33% in each) of PTV in head and liver plans between Monte Carlo simulation and TPS Ray-tracing algorithms were also good. But the difference of DVHs in lung plans between Monte Carlo simulation and Ray-tracing algorithms was obvious, and the passing rate (51.263±38.964%) of γ criteria was not good. It is feasible that Monte Carlo simulation was used for verifying the dose distribution of patient plans. Conclusion: Monte Carlo simulation algorithm developed in the CyberKnife system of this study can be used as a reference tool for the third-party tool, which plays an important role in dose verification of patient plans. This work was supported in part by the grant from Chinese Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 11275105). Thanks for the support from Accuray Corp.« less
  • Background: Commercial treatment planning system Pinnacle3 (Philips, Fitchburg, WI, USA) employs a convolution-superposition algorithm for volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) optimization and dose calculation. Study of Monte Carlo (MC) dose recalculation of VMAT plans for advanced-stage nasopharyngeal cancers (NPC) is currently limited. Methods: Twenty-nine VMAT prescribed 70Gy, 60Gy, and 54Gy to the planning target volumes (PTVs) were included. These clinical plans achieved with a CS dose engine on Pinnacle3 v9.0 were recalculated by the Monaco TPS v5.0 (Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO, USA) with a XVMC-based MC dose engine. The MC virtual source model was built using the same measurement beam datasetmore » as for the Pinnacle beam model. All MC recalculation were based on absorbed dose to medium in medium (Dm,m). Differences in dose constraint parameters per our institution protocol (Supplementary Table 1) were analyzed. Results: Only differences in maximum dose to left brachial plexus, left temporal lobe and PTV54Gy were found to be statistically insignificant (p> 0.05). Dosimetric differences of other tumor targets and normal organs are found in supplementary Table 1. Generally, doses outside the PTV in the normal organs are lower with MC than with CS. This is also true in the PTV54-70Gy doses but higher dose in the nasal cavity near the bone interfaces is consistently predicted by MC, possibly due to the increased backscattering of short-range scattered photons and the secondary electrons that is not properly modeled by the CS. The straight shoulders of the PTV dose volume histograms (DVH) initially resulted from the CS optimization are merely preserved after MC recalculation. Conclusion: Significant dosimetric differences in VMAT NPC plans were observed between CS and MC calculations. Adjustments of the planning dose constraints to incorporate the physics differences from conventional CS algorithm should be made when VMAT optimization is carried out directly with MC dose engine.« less
  • Purpose: In small field geometries, the electronic equilibrium can be lost, making it challenging for the dose-calculation algorithm to accurately predict the dose, especially in the presence of tissue heterogeneities. In this study, dosimetric accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) advanced dose calculation and sequential algorithms of Multiplan treatment planning system were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Methods: Small open fields of fixed cones of Cyberknife M6 unit 100 to 500 mm2 were used for this study. The fields were incident on in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities and also homogeneous phantom.more » Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using CK with the 60 mm fixed cone by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of MC and sequential algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement between two algorithms and film measurement For MC algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.7% and 98.3% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields in the case of lung and bone respectively. For sequential algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 92.5% for for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for used all cone sizes. In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculation algorithms. Overall, when compared to measurement, the MC had better agreement than sequential algorithm. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo calculation algorithm in the Multiplan treatment planning system is an improvement over the existing sequential algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.« less
  • Purpose: This work reports the results of the physics evaluation of a newly released InCise™2 Multileaf Collimator (MLC) installed in our institution. Methods: Beam property data was measured with unshielded diode and EBT2 films. The measurements included MLC leaf transmission, beam profiles, output factors and tissue-phantom ratios. MLC performance was evaluated for one month after commissioning. Weekly Garden Fence tests were performed for leaf / bank positioning in standard (A/P) and clinically relevant non-standard positions, before and after MLC driving exercises of 10+ minutes. Daily Picket Fence test and AQA test, End-to-End tests and dosimetric quality assurance were performed tomore » evaluate the overall system performance. Results: All measurements including beam energy, flatness and symmetry, were within manufacture specifications. Leaf transmission was 0.4% <0.5% specification. The values of output factors ranged from 0.825 (7.6 mm × 7.5 mm) to 1.026 (115.0 mm × 100.1 mm). Average beam penumbra at 10 cm depth ranged from 2.7mm/2.7mm(7.6 mm × 7.5 mm) to 6.0 mm/6.2mm(84.6 mm × 84.7 mm). Slight penumbra difference (<10% from average penumbra for fields >20 mm) was observed in the direction perpendicular to leaf motion due to the tilting of the leaf housing. Mean leaf position offsets was −0.08±0.07mm and −0.13 ± 0.08 for X1 and X2 leaf banks in 13 Garden Fence tests. No significant difference on average leaf positioning offsets was observed between different leaf orientations and before/after MLC driving exercises. Six End-to-End tests showed 0.43±0.23mm overall targeting accuracy. Picket-Fence and AQA showed stable performance of MLC during the test period. Dosimetric point dose measurements for test cases agreed with calculation within 3%. All film measurements on relative dose had Gamma (2%, 2mm) passing rate of >95%. Conclusion: The Incise™2 MLC for CyberKnife M6™ was proven to be accurate and reliable, and it is currently in clinical use. Stanford was one of the physics evaluation sites for the newly released InCise 2 MLC for Accuray Inc.« less
  • Purpose: By attaching an adapter plate with fiducial markers to the QA BeamChecker+ (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI), the output of the CyberKnife can be accurately, efficiently, and consistently evaluated. The adapter plate, known as the Cutting Board, allows for automated alignment of the QABC+ using the CK’s stereoscopic kV image-based treatment localization system (TLS). Described herein is an evaluation of the system following a year of clinical utilization. Methods: Based on a CT scan of the QABC+ and CB, a treatment plan is generated which delivers a beam to each of the 5 plane-parallel ionization chambers. Following absolute calibrationmore » of the CK, the QA plan is delivered, and baseline measurements are acquired (and automatically corrected for temperature and pressure). This test was performed at the beginning of each treatment day for a year. A calibration evaluation (using a water-equivalent slab and short thimble chamber) is performed every four weeks, or whenever the QABC+ detects a deviation of more than 1.0%. Results: During baseline evaluation, repeat measurements (n=10) were performed, with an average output of 0.25% with an SD of 0.11%. As a test of the reposition of the QABC+ and CB, ten additional measurements were performed where between each acquisition, the entire system was removed and re-positioned using the TLS. The average output deviation was 0.30% with a SD of 0.13%. During the course of the year, 187 QABC+ measurements and 13 slab-based measurements were performed. The output measurements of the QABC+ correlated well with slab-based measurements (R2=0.909). Conclusion: By using the QABC+ and CB, daily output was evaluated accurately, efficiently, and consistently. From setup to break-down (including analysis), this test required 5 minutes instead of approximately 15 using traditional techniques (collimator-mounted ionization chambers). Additionally, by automatically saving resultant output deviation to a database, trend analysis was simplified. Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC of Greenville, SC has a consulting contract with Standard Imaging of Middleton, WI.« less