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Title: SU-F-T-591: SBRT Treatment of Multiple Extracranial Oligometastases Using a Single-Isocenter with Distinct Optimizations (SIDO)

Abstract

Purpose: A new development in linac-based intracranial radiosurgery is treatment of multiple targets using single isocenter VMAT, which dramatically reduces treatment time while maintaining high conformality and dose gradient. Our purpose is to translate this technique to extracranial SBRT of oligometastases and address additional challenges such as interplay from motion and setup uncertainties. Methods: We propose SIDO (Single Isocenter with Distinct Optimizations) planning in which all VMAT arcs share an isocenter but each arc treats only one target. Setup uncertainties from rotations and deformations are mitigated by applying a couch translation between VMAT arcs, while interplay is minimized by using dynamic conformal arcs (DCAs) as the starting point for VMAT optimization. We compared SIDO to single (VMAT) and dual (VMAT & DCA) isocenter plans for phantom and patient (N=2) cases. Dose statistics included conformity index (CI), gradient index (GI), and modulation factor (MLC opening & total MU). Finally, we determined likelihood of needing a translational shift between SIDO arcs to correct rotational uncertainties using CBCTs from eleven previous SBRT cases. Results: For phantoms with target separations of 5–15cm, CI was 0.87±0.02, 0.89±0.05, and 0.91±0.02, for SIDO, single, and dual-isocenter VMAT respectively. GI was 6.83±1.0, 7.45±1.0 and 5.94±0.7 respectively. SIDO conformitymore » did not trend with increasing distance between PTVs, while gradient decreased for all planning techniques. Using DCAs as the starting point of VMAT optimization decreased modulation, with a 39.4% reduction in monitor units. SIDO had 4.9% and 39% less MU than single and dual-isocenter VMAT respectively. A translational shift between SIDO arcs would be required in 10–28% of cases due to rotational uncertainties to stay within a 5mm margin, for targets separated by ≥10cm. Conclusion: SIDO for extracranial oligometastases has comparable dosimetry to traditional VMAT with low modulation similar to DCAs. Future work will quantify decrease in dosimetric interplay.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649166
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; METASTASES; MODULATION; OPTIMIZATION; PLANNING; RADIOTHERAPY; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Trager, M, Adamson, J, and Salama, J. SU-F-T-591: SBRT Treatment of Multiple Extracranial Oligometastases Using a Single-Isocenter with Distinct Optimizations (SIDO). United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956776.
Trager, M, Adamson, J, & Salama, J. SU-F-T-591: SBRT Treatment of Multiple Extracranial Oligometastases Using a Single-Isocenter with Distinct Optimizations (SIDO). United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956776.
Trager, M, Adamson, J, and Salama, J. 2016. "SU-F-T-591: SBRT Treatment of Multiple Extracranial Oligometastases Using a Single-Isocenter with Distinct Optimizations (SIDO)". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956776.
@article{osti_22649166,
title = {SU-F-T-591: SBRT Treatment of Multiple Extracranial Oligometastases Using a Single-Isocenter with Distinct Optimizations (SIDO)},
author = {Trager, M and Adamson, J and Salama, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: A new development in linac-based intracranial radiosurgery is treatment of multiple targets using single isocenter VMAT, which dramatically reduces treatment time while maintaining high conformality and dose gradient. Our purpose is to translate this technique to extracranial SBRT of oligometastases and address additional challenges such as interplay from motion and setup uncertainties. Methods: We propose SIDO (Single Isocenter with Distinct Optimizations) planning in which all VMAT arcs share an isocenter but each arc treats only one target. Setup uncertainties from rotations and deformations are mitigated by applying a couch translation between VMAT arcs, while interplay is minimized by using dynamic conformal arcs (DCAs) as the starting point for VMAT optimization. We compared SIDO to single (VMAT) and dual (VMAT & DCA) isocenter plans for phantom and patient (N=2) cases. Dose statistics included conformity index (CI), gradient index (GI), and modulation factor (MLC opening & total MU). Finally, we determined likelihood of needing a translational shift between SIDO arcs to correct rotational uncertainties using CBCTs from eleven previous SBRT cases. Results: For phantoms with target separations of 5–15cm, CI was 0.87±0.02, 0.89±0.05, and 0.91±0.02, for SIDO, single, and dual-isocenter VMAT respectively. GI was 6.83±1.0, 7.45±1.0 and 5.94±0.7 respectively. SIDO conformity did not trend with increasing distance between PTVs, while gradient decreased for all planning techniques. Using DCAs as the starting point of VMAT optimization decreased modulation, with a 39.4% reduction in monitor units. SIDO had 4.9% and 39% less MU than single and dual-isocenter VMAT respectively. A translational shift between SIDO arcs would be required in 10–28% of cases due to rotational uncertainties to stay within a 5mm margin, for targets separated by ≥10cm. Conclusion: SIDO for extracranial oligometastases has comparable dosimetry to traditional VMAT with low modulation similar to DCAs. Future work will quantify decrease in dosimetric interplay.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956776},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied.more » The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the relative plan quality of single-isocenter vs. multi-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for radiosurgical treatment of multiple central nervous system metastases. Methods and Materials: VMAT plans were created using RapidArc technology for treatment of simulated patients with three brain metastases. The plans consisted of single-arc/single-isocenter, triple-arc (noncoplanar)/single-isocenter, and triple-arc (coplanar)/triple-isocenter configurations. All VMAT plans were normalized to deliver 100% of the 20-Gy prescription dose to all lesions. The plans were evaluated by calculation of Paddick and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conformity index scores, Paddick gradient index scores, and 12-Gy isodose volumes. Results: All plans were judgedmore » clinically acceptable, but differences were observed in the dosimetric parameters, with the use of multiple noncoplanar arcs showing small improvements in the conformity indexes compared with the single-arc/single-isocenter and triple-arc (coplanar)/triple-isocenter plans. Multiple arc plans (triple-arc [noncoplanar]/single-isocenter and triple-arc [coplanar]/triple-isocenter) showed smaller 12-Gy isodose volumes in scenarios involving three metastases spaced closely together, with only small differences noted among all plans involving lesions spaced further apart. Conclusion: Our initial results suggest that single-isocenter VMAT plans can be used to deliver conformity equivalent to that of multiple isocenter VMAT techniques. For targets that are closely spaced, multiple noncoplanar single-isocenter arcs might be required. VMAT radiosurgery for multiple targets using a single isocenter can be efficiently delivered, requiring less than one-half the beam time required for multiple isocenter set ups. VMAT radiosurgery will likely replace multi-isocenter techniques for linear accelerator-based treatment of multiple targets.« less
  • Purpose: To describe our clinical experience using a unique single-isocenter technique for frameless intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IM-SRS) to treat multiple brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with a median of 5 metastases (range, 2-13) underwent optically guided frameless IM-SRS using a single, centrally located isocenter. Median prescription dose was 18 Gy (range, 14-25). Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical examination occurred every 2-4 months. Results: Median follow-up for all patients was 3.3 months (range, 0.2-21.3), with 20 of 26 patients (77%) followed up until their death. For the remaining 6 patients alive at the time of analysis, medianmore » follow-up was 14.6 months (range, 9.3-18.0). Total treatment time ranged from 9.0 to 38.9 minutes (median, 21.0). Actuarial 6- and 12-month overall survivals were 50% (95% confidence interval [C.I.], 31-70%) and 38% (95% C.I., 19-56%), respectively. Actuarial 6- and 12-month local control (LC) rates were 97% (95% C.I., 93-100%) and 83% (95% C.I., 71-96%), respectively. Tumors {<=}1.5 cm had a better 6-month LC than those >1.5 cm (98% vs. 90%, p = 0.008). New intracranial metastatic disease occurring outside of the treatment volume was observed in 7 patients. Grade {>=}3 toxicity occurred in 2 patients (8%). Conclusion: Frameless IM-SRS using a single-isocenter approach for treating multiple intracranial metastases can produce clinical outcomes that compare favorably with those of conventional SRS in a much shorter treatment time (<40 minutes). Given its faster treatment time, this technique is appealing to both patients and personnel in busy clinics.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the spatial variations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment plan in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system (BrainLab AG). Methods: Five metallic ball bearing (BB) markers were placed sparsely in 3D off-axial locations (non-coplanar) inside a skull phantom as the representatives of multiple targets mimicking multiple brain metastases. The locations of the BB markers were carefully chosen to minimize overlapping of each other in a port imaging detector plane. The skull phantom was immobilized by a frameless mask and CT scanned with a BrainLab Head and Neck Localizer using a GE Optimamore » MDCT scanner. The CT images were exported to iPlan software (BrainLab AG) and a multiple target PTV was drawn by combining all the contours of the BBs. The margin of the MLC opening was selected as 3 mm expansion outward. Two coplanar arc beams were placed to generate a single isocenter SRS plan to treat the PTV. The arc beams were delivered using Novalis Tx system with portal imaging acquisition mode per 10% temporal resolution. The locations of the BBs were visualized and analyzed with respect to the MLC aperture in the treatment plan similar to the Winston-Lutz test. Results: All the BBs were clearly identified inside the MLC openings. The positional errors for the BBs were overall less than 1 mm along the rotational path of the two arcs. Conclusion: This study verified that the spatial deviations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter SRS treatment plan is within sub-millimeter range in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system. Accompanied with the Winston-Lutz test, this test will quality-assure the spatial accuracies of the isocenter as well as the positions of multiple off-axial targets for the SRS treatment using a single isocenter multiple target treatment plan.« less
  • Purpose: Comprehensive quality assurance (QA) of a single isocenter technique for the simultaneous treatment of multiple brain metastases is presently impractical due to the time consuming nature of measuring each lesion’s dose on film or with a micro-chamber. Three dimensional diode array and full field film measurements are sometimes used to evaluate these plans, but gamma analysis may not reveal local errors that have significant effects on one or a few of several targets. This work aimed to design, build and test a phantom to simplify comprehensive measurement and evaluation. Methods: A phantom was designed with 28 stackable slabs. Themore » top and bottom slabs are 1.5 centimeters (cm) in thickness, and central 26 slabs are 0.5 cm thick. When assembled with radiochromic film in all 27 gaps, the phantom measures 16.5 x 15 x 19 cm. Etchings were designed to aide in identification of specific film planes on computed tomography (CT) images and correlation of individual PTVs with closest bisecting planes. Patient verification plans with a total of 16 PTVs were calculated on the phantom CT, and test deliveries both with and without couch kicks were performed to test the ability to identify correct film placements and subsequent PTV specific dose distributions on the films. Results: Bisecting planes corresponding to PTV locations were easily identified, and PTV specific dose distributions were clear for all 16 targets. For deliveries with couch kicks, the phantom PTV dose distributions closely approximated those calculated on the patient’s CT. For deliveries without couch kicks, PTV specific dosimetry was also possible, although the distributions had ‘ghosts’ equaling the number of couch kicks, with distance between ghosts increasing with distance from the isocenter. Conclusion: A new phantom facilitates fast comprehensive commissioning validation and PTV specific dosimetry for a single isocenter technique for treating multiple brain metastases. This work was partially funded by CIRS, Inc.« less