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Title: SU-F-T-588: Asymmetries in the CyberKnife Iris 2 Collimator

Abstract

Purpose: The Iris 2 dodecahedral collimator in the CyberKnife unit can demonstrate visible asymmetry in the shaped radiation field, as seen on routine films. Specifically some edges of the collimator project longer than others. PDDs and output factors remain unaffected by this asymmetry. An in-house program was written to analyze the impact of this asymmetry on profiles. Methods: Two years of routine chromodynamic films were retrospectively analyzed using an in-house developed program. Films were obtained on a weekly basis in a plastic phantom on the vendor-provided mount. Profiles were obtained every degree. A dodecahedron was fitted to the 50% isodose line and the positions and sizes of the upper and lower hexagonal collimators were derived. The collimators’ profiles at every degree, symmetry and centering were calculated and trended over the months. Results: Asymmetries in the obtained profiles were apparent. The upper and lower collimators were off-centered (0.31 mm, p<10–8), they did not project the same field size at 80 cm (0.46 mm difference, p<10–31). Profiles as a function of angle demonstrate a periodicity, but short and long profiles are rarely 15° apart, but vary from 9° to 21°. In addition, a second, intermediate minimum is seen at every other shortmore » profile. A trend in the field size over time is noted and can be monitored to identify servicing needs. Conclusion: Despite its differences, the asymmetric Iris 2 collimator did not demonstrate large deviations in PDDs and output factors. Due to the asymmetry, the 15° apart profiles obtained at commissioning do not represent the true large and short blade profiles of the collimator. Averaging of the profiles in the commissioning process hides this difference.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Associates In Medical Physics, Lanham, MD and Virginia Hospital Center, Arlington VA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649163
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ASYMMETRY; COLLIMATORS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Cernica, G, Ji, H, and McRae, D. SU-F-T-588: Asymmetries in the CyberKnife Iris 2 Collimator. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956773.
Cernica, G, Ji, H, & McRae, D. SU-F-T-588: Asymmetries in the CyberKnife Iris 2 Collimator. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956773.
Cernica, G, Ji, H, and McRae, D. 2016. "SU-F-T-588: Asymmetries in the CyberKnife Iris 2 Collimator". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956773.
@article{osti_22649163,
title = {SU-F-T-588: Asymmetries in the CyberKnife Iris 2 Collimator},
author = {Cernica, G and Ji, H and McRae, D},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The Iris 2 dodecahedral collimator in the CyberKnife unit can demonstrate visible asymmetry in the shaped radiation field, as seen on routine films. Specifically some edges of the collimator project longer than others. PDDs and output factors remain unaffected by this asymmetry. An in-house program was written to analyze the impact of this asymmetry on profiles. Methods: Two years of routine chromodynamic films were retrospectively analyzed using an in-house developed program. Films were obtained on a weekly basis in a plastic phantom on the vendor-provided mount. Profiles were obtained every degree. A dodecahedron was fitted to the 50% isodose line and the positions and sizes of the upper and lower hexagonal collimators were derived. The collimators’ profiles at every degree, symmetry and centering were calculated and trended over the months. Results: Asymmetries in the obtained profiles were apparent. The upper and lower collimators were off-centered (0.31 mm, p<10–8), they did not project the same field size at 80 cm (0.46 mm difference, p<10–31). Profiles as a function of angle demonstrate a periodicity, but short and long profiles are rarely 15° apart, but vary from 9° to 21°. In addition, a second, intermediate minimum is seen at every other short profile. A trend in the field size over time is noted and can be monitored to identify servicing needs. Conclusion: Despite its differences, the asymmetric Iris 2 collimator did not demonstrate large deviations in PDDs and output factors. Due to the asymmetry, the 15° apart profiles obtained at commissioning do not represent the true large and short blade profiles of the collimator. Averaging of the profiles in the commissioning process hides this difference.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956773},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To measure the output factors (OFs) of the small fields formed by the variable aperture collimator system (iris) of a CyberKnife (CK) robotic radiosurgery system, and determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors for a microchamber and four diode detectors. Methods: OF measurements were performed using a PTW PinPoint 31014 microchamber, four diode detectors (PTW-60017, -60012, -60008, and the SunNuclear EDGE detector), TLD-100 microcubes, alanine dosimeters, EBT films, and polymer gels for the 5 mm, 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and 15 mm irismore » collimators at 650 mm, 800 mm, and 1000 mm source to detector distance (SDD). The alanine OF measurements were corrected for volume averaging effects using the 3D dose distributions registered in polymer gel dosimeters. k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors for the PinPoint microchamber and the diode dosimeters were calculated through comparison against corresponding polymer gel, EBT, alanine, and TLD results. Results: Experimental OF results are presented for the array of dosimetric systems used. The PinPoint microchamber was found to underestimate small field OFs, and a k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factor ranging from 1.127 {+-} 0.022 (for the 5 mm iris collimator) to 1.004 {+-} 0.010 (for the 15 mm iris collimator) was determined at the reference SDD of 800 mm. The PinPoint k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factor was also found to increase with decreasing SDD; k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} values equal to 1.220 {+-} 0.028 and 1.077 {+-} 0.016 were obtained for the 5 mm iris collimator at 650 mm and 1000 mm SDD, respectively. On the contrary, diode detectors were found to overestimate small field OFs and a correction factor equal to 0.973 {+-} 0.006, 0.954 {+-} 0.006, 0.937 {+-} 0.007, and 0.964 {+-} 0.006 was measured for the PTW-60017, -60012, -60008 and the EDGE diode detectors, respectively, for the 5 mm iris collimator at 800 mm SDD. The corresponding correction factors for the 15 mm iris collimator were found equal to 0.997 {+-} 0.010, 0.994 {+-} 0.009, 0.988 {+-} 0.010, and 0.986 {+-} 0.010, respectively. No correlation of the diode k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors with SDD was observed. Conclusions: This work demonstrates an experimental procedure for the determination of the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors required to obtain small field OF results of increased accuracy.« less
  • Purpose: A novel CCD camera and conical scintillator based phantom that is capable of measuring the targeting and field size accuracy of a robotic radiosurgery system has been developed. This work investigates its application in measuring the field sizes and beam divergence of the CyberKnife variable aperture collimator (Iris). Methods: The phantom was placed on the treatment couch and the robot position was adjusted to obtain an anterior -posterior beam perpendicular to the cone’s central axis. The FWHM of the 12 Iris apertures (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, and 60 mm) were measured frommore » the beam flux map on the conical scintillator surface as seen by the CCD camera. For each measurement 30 MU were delivered to the phantom at a dose rate of 1000 MU/min. The measurements were repeated at 4 SAD distances between 75 and 85 cm. These readings were used to project the aperture size as if the flux map on the scintillator were located 80 cm from the source (SSD). These projected FWHM beam diameters were then compared to the commissioning data. Results: A series of 12 beam divergence equations were obtained from the 4 sets of data using linear trend lines on Excel scatter plots. These equations were then used to project the FWHM measurements at 80 cm SSD. The average aperture accuracy for beams from 5 through 40 mm was 0.08 mm. The accuracy for the 50 and 60 mm beams were 0.33 and 0.58 mm when compared to film commissioning data. Conclusion: The experimental results for 10 apertures agree with the stated Iris accuracy of ±0.2 mm at 80 cm SAD. The results for the 50 and 60 mm aperture were repeatable and can serve as a reliable trend indicator of any deviations away from the commissioning values. Brett Nelson is President/CTO of Logos Systems.« less
  • Purpose: Current methods of CK field shape QA is based on the use of radiochromic film. Though accurate results can be attained, these methods are prone to error, time consuming, and expensive. The techniques described herein perform similar QA using the FOIL Detector (Field, Output, and Image Localization). A key feature of this in-house QA solution, and central to this study, is an aSi flat-panel detector which provides the user with the means to perform accurate, immediate, and quantitative field analysis. Methods: The FOIL detector is automatically aligned in the CK beam using fiducial markers implanted within the detector case.more » Once the system is aligned, a treatment plan is delivered which irradiates the flat-panel imager using the field being tested. The current study tests each of the clinically-used fields shaped using the Iris variable-aperture collimation system using a plan which takes 6 minutes to deliver. The user is immediately provided with field diameter and beam profile, as well as a comparison to baseline values. Additionally, the detector is used to acquire and analyze leaf positions of the InCise multi-leaf collimation system. Results: Using a 6-minute plan consisting of 11 beams of 25MU-per-beam, the FOIL detector provided the user with a quantitative analysis of all clinically-used field shapes. The FOIL detector was also able to clearly resolve field edge junctions in a picket fence test, including slight over-travel of individual leaves as well as inter-leaf leakage. Conclusion: The FOIL system provided comparable field diameter and profile data when compared to methods using film; providing results much faster and with 5% of the MU used for film. When used with the MLC system, the FOIL detector provided the means for immediate quantification of the performance of the system through analysis of leaf positions in a picket fence test field. Author is the President/Owner of Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, a company which maintains contracts with Siemens Healthcare and Standard Imaging, Inc.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the impact of custom-made build-up caps for a diode detector in robotic radiosurgery radiation fields with variable collimator (IRIS) for collimator scatter factor (Sc) calculation. Methods: An acrylic cap was custom-made to fit our SFD (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) diode detector. The cap has thickness of 5 cm, corresponding to a depth beyond electron contamination. IAEA phase space data was used for beam modeling and DOSRZnrc code was used to model the detector. The detector was positioned at 80 cm source-to-detector distance. Calculations were performed with the SFD, with and without the build-up cap, for clinical IRIS settingsmore » ranging from 7.5 to 60 mm. Results: The collimator scatter factors were calculated with and without 5 cm build-up cap. They were agreed within 3% difference except 15 mm cone. The Sc factor for 15 mm cone without buildup was 13.2% lower than that with buildup. Conclusion: Sc data is a critical component in advanced algorithms for treatment planning in order to calculate the dose accurately. After incorporating build-up cap, we discovered differences of up to 13.2 % in Sc factors in the SFD detector, when compared against in-air measurements without build-up caps.« less
  • Purpose: The InCise™ Multileaf Collimator (MLC) of CyberKnife M6™ System has been released recently. The purpose of this study was to explore the dosimetric characteristics of the new MLC. In particular, the penumbra characteristics of MLC fields at varying locations are evaluated. Methods: EBT3-based film measurements were performed with varying MLC fields ranging from 7.5 mm to 27.5 mm. Seventeen regions of interests (ROIs) were identified for irradiation. These are regions located at the central area (denoted as reference field), at the left/right edge areas of reference open field, at an intermediate location between central and edge area. Single beammore » treatment plans were designed by using the MultiPlan and was delivered using the Blue Phantom. Gafchromic films were irradiated at 1.5 cm depth in the Blue Phantom and analyzed using the Film Pro software. Variation of maximum dose, penumbra of MLC-defined fields, and symmetry/flatness were calculated as a function of locations of MLC fields. Results: The InCise™ MLC System showed relatively consistent dose distribution and penumbra size with varying locations of MLC fields. The measured maximum dose varied within 5 % at different locations compared to that at the central location and agreed with the calculated data well within 2%. The measured penumbrae were in the range of 2.9 mm and 3.7 mm and were relatively consistent regardless of locations. However, dose profiles in the out-of-field and in-field regions varied with locations and field sizes. Strong variation was seen for all fields located at 55 mm away from the central field. The MLC leakage map showed that the leakage is dependent on position. Conclusion: The size of penumbra and normalized maximum dose for MLC-defined fields were consistent in different regions of MLC. However, dose profiles in the out-field region varied with locations and field sizes.« less