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Title: SU-F-T-549: Validation of a Method for in Vivo 3D Dose Reconstruction for SBRT Using a New Transmission Detector

Abstract

Purpose: Recently, there has been increased clinical use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. In vivo dose measurements, a commercially available quality assurance platform which is able to correlate the delivered dose to the patient’s anatomy and take into account tissue inhomogeneity, is the COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry). In this work, we evaluate a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT using a new transmission detector, which was developed for in vivo dose verification for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of measurement for SBRT using simple small fields (2×2−10×10 cm2), a multileaf collimator (MLC) test pattern, and clinical cases. The dose distributions from the COMPASS were compared with those of EDR2 films (Kodak, USA) and the Monte Carlo simulations (MC). For clinical cases, we compared MC using dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) and dose profiles. Results: The dose profiles from the COMPASS for small fields and the complicated MLC test pattern agreed with those of EDR2 films,more » and MC within 3%. This showed the COMPASS with Dolphin system showed good spatial resolution and can measure small fields which are required for SBRT. Those results also suggest that COMPASS with Dolphin is able to detect MLC leaf position errors for SBRT. In clinical cases, the COMPASS with Dolphin agreed well with MC. The Dolphin detector, which consists of ionization chambers, provided stable measurement. Conclusion: COMPASS with Dolphin detector showed a useful in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT. The accuracy of the results indicates that this approach is suitable for clinical implementation.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649125
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; CETACEANS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PATIENTS; QUALITY ASSURANCE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; TRANSMISSION

Citation Formats

Nakaguchi, Y, Shimohigashi, Y, Onizuka, R, and Ohno, T. SU-F-T-549: Validation of a Method for in Vivo 3D Dose Reconstruction for SBRT Using a New Transmission Detector. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956734.
Nakaguchi, Y, Shimohigashi, Y, Onizuka, R, & Ohno, T. SU-F-T-549: Validation of a Method for in Vivo 3D Dose Reconstruction for SBRT Using a New Transmission Detector. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956734.
Nakaguchi, Y, Shimohigashi, Y, Onizuka, R, and Ohno, T. 2016. "SU-F-T-549: Validation of a Method for in Vivo 3D Dose Reconstruction for SBRT Using a New Transmission Detector". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956734.
@article{osti_22649125,
title = {SU-F-T-549: Validation of a Method for in Vivo 3D Dose Reconstruction for SBRT Using a New Transmission Detector},
author = {Nakaguchi, Y and Shimohigashi, Y and Onizuka, R and Ohno, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Recently, there has been increased clinical use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. In vivo dose measurements, a commercially available quality assurance platform which is able to correlate the delivered dose to the patient’s anatomy and take into account tissue inhomogeneity, is the COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry). In this work, we evaluate a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT using a new transmission detector, which was developed for in vivo dose verification for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of measurement for SBRT using simple small fields (2×2−10×10 cm2), a multileaf collimator (MLC) test pattern, and clinical cases. The dose distributions from the COMPASS were compared with those of EDR2 films (Kodak, USA) and the Monte Carlo simulations (MC). For clinical cases, we compared MC using dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) and dose profiles. Results: The dose profiles from the COMPASS for small fields and the complicated MLC test pattern agreed with those of EDR2 films, and MC within 3%. This showed the COMPASS with Dolphin system showed good spatial resolution and can measure small fields which are required for SBRT. Those results also suggest that COMPASS with Dolphin is able to detect MLC leaf position errors for SBRT. In clinical cases, the COMPASS with Dolphin agreed well with MC. The Dolphin detector, which consists of ionization chambers, provided stable measurement. Conclusion: COMPASS with Dolphin detector showed a useful in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT. The accuracy of the results indicates that this approach is suitable for clinical implementation.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956734},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Radiation treatments are trending toward delivering higher doses per fraction under stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated treatment regimens. There is a need for accurate 3D in vivo patient dose verification using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. This work presents a model-based technique to compute full three-dimensional patient dose reconstructed from on-treatment EPID portal images (i.e., transmission images). Methods: EPID dose is converted to incident fluence entering the patient using a series of steps which include converting measured EPID dose to fluence at the detector plane and then back-projecting the primary source component of the EPID fluence upstream of themore » patient. Incident fluence is then recombined with predicted extra-focal fluence and used to calculate 3D patient dose via a collapsed-cone convolution method. This method is implemented in an iterative manner, although in practice it provides accurate results in a single iteration. The robustness of the dose reconstruction technique is demonstrated with several simple slab phantom and nine anthropomorphic phantom cases. Prostate, head and neck, and lung treatments are all included as well as a range of delivery techniques including VMAT and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results: Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For simple phantom and square field tests, agreement was excellent with a 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rate ≥98.9%. On anthropomorphic phantoms, the 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rates ranged from 79.9% to 99.9% in the planning target volume (PTV) region and 96.5% to 100% in the low dose region (>20% of prescription, excluding PTV and skin build-up region). Conclusions: An algorithm to reconstruct delivered patient 3D doses from EPID exit dosimetry measurements was presented. The method was applied to phantom and patient data sets, as well as for dynamic IMRT and VMAT delivery techniques. Results indicate that the EPID dose reconstruction algorithm presented in this work is suitable for clinical implementation.« less
  • Purpose: Radiation treatments have become increasingly more complex with the development of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and the use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT involves the delivery of substantially larger doses over fewer fractions than conventional therapy. SBRT–VMAT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are available on most commercial linear accelerators (Linacs) and their documented use for dosimetry makes them valuable tools for patient dose verification. In thismore » work, the authors customize and validate a physics-based model which utilizes on-treatment EPID images to reconstruct the 3D dose delivered to the patient during SBRT–VMAT delivery. Methods: The SBRT Linac head, including jaws, multileaf collimators, and flattening filter, were modeled using Monte Carlo methods and verified with measured data. The simulation provides energy spectrum data that are used by their “forward” model to then accurately predict fluence generated by a SBRT beam at a plane above the patient. This fluence is then transported through the patient and then the dose to the phosphor layer in the EPID is calculated. Their “inverse” model back-projects the EPID measured focal fluence to a plane upstream of the patient and recombines it with the extra-focal fluence predicted by the forward model. This estimate of total delivered fluence is then forward projected onto the patient’s density matrix and a collapsed cone convolution algorithm calculates the dose delivered to the patient. The model was tested by reconstructing the dose for two prostate, three lung, and two spine SBRT–VMAT treatment fractions delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom. It was further validated against actual patient data for a lung and spine SBRT–VMAT plan. The results were verified with the treatment planning system (TPS) (ECLIPSE AAA) dose calculation. Results: The SBRT–VMAT reconstruction model performed very well when compared to the TPS. A stringent 2%/2 mm χ-comparison calculation gave pass rates better than 91% for the prostate plans, 88% for the lung plans, and 86% for the spine plans for voxels containing 80% or more of the prescribed dose. Patient data were 86% for the lung and 95% for the spine. A 3%/3 mm χ-comparison was also performed and gave pass rates better than 93% for all plan types. Conclusions: The authors have customized and validated a robust, physics-based model that calculates the delivered dose to a patient for SBRT–VMAT delivery using on-treatment EPID images. The accuracy of the results indicates that this approach is suitable for clinical implementation. Future work will incorporate this model into both offline and real-time clinical adaptive radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: In-vivo dosimetry and beam range verification in proton therapy could play significant role in proton treatment validation and improvements. In-vivo beam range verification, in particular, could enable new treatment techniques one of which could be the use of anterior fields for prostate treatment instead of opposed lateral fields as in current practice. This paper reports validation study of an in-vivo range verification method which can reduce the range uncertainty to submillimeter levels and potentially allow for in-vivo dosimetry. Methods: An anthropomorphic pelvic phantom is used to validate the clinical potential of the time-resolved dose method for range verification inmore » the case of prostrate treatment using range modulated anterior proton beams. The method uses a 3 × 4 matrix of 1 mm diodes mounted in water balloon which are read by an ADC system at 100 kHz. The method is first validated against beam range measurements by dose extinction measurements. The validation is first completed in water phantom and then in pelvic phantom for both open field and treatment field configurations. Later, the beam range results are compared with the water equivalent path length (WEPL) values computed from the treatment planning system XIO. Results: Beam range measurements from both time-resolved dose method and the dose extinction method agree with submillimeter precision in water phantom. For the pelvic phantom, when discarding two of the diodes that show sign of significant range mixing, the two methods agree with ±1 mm. Only a dose of 7 mGy is sufficient to achieve this result. The comparison to the computed WEPL by the treatment planning system (XIO) shows that XIO underestimates the protons beam range. Quantifying the exact XIO range underestimation depends on the strategy used to evaluate the WEPL results. To our best evaluation, XIO underestimates the treatment beam range between a minimum of 1.7% and maximum of 4.1%. Conclusions: Time-resolved dose measurement method satisfies the two basic requirements, WEPL accuracy and minimum dose, necessary for clinical use, thus, its potential for in-vivo protons range verification. Further development is needed, namely, devising a workflow that takes into account the limits imposed by proton range mixing and the susceptibility of the comparison of measured and expected WEPLs to errors on the detector positions. The methods may also be used for in-vivo dosimetry and could benefit various proton therapy treatments.« less
  • Purpose: To use end-to-end testing to validate a 6 MV high dose rate photon beam, configured for Eclipse AAA algorithm using Golden Beam Data (GBD), for SBRT treatments using RapidArc. Methods: Beam data was configured for Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm using the GBD provided by the vendor. Transverse and diagonals dose profiles, PDDs and output factors down to a field size of 2×2 cm2 were measured on a Varian Trilogy Linac and compared with GBD library using 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis. The MLC transmission factor and dosimetric leaf gap were determined to characterize the MLC in Eclipse. Mechanical andmore » dosimetric tests were performed combining different gantry rotation speeds, dose rates and leaf speeds to evaluate the delivery system performance according to VMAT accuracy requirements. An end-to-end test was implemented planning several SBRT RapidArc treatments on a CIRS 002LFC IMRT Thorax Phantom. The CT scanner calibration curve was acquired and loaded in Eclipse. PTW 31013 ionization chamber was used with Keithley 35617EBS electrometer for absolute point dose measurements in water and lung equivalent inserts. TPS calculated planar dose distributions were compared to those measured using EPID and MapCheck, as an independent verification method. Results were evaluated with gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2mm DTA for 95% of points. Results: GBD set vs. measured data passed 2% 2mm 1D gamma analysis even for small fields. Machine performance tests show results are independent of machine delivery configuration, as expected. Absolute point dosimetry comparison resulted within 4% for the worst case scenario in lung. Over 97% of the points evaluated in dose distributions passed gamma index analysis. Conclusion: Eclipse AAA algorithm configuration of the 6 MV high dose rate photon beam using GBD proved efficient. End-to-end test dose calculation results indicate it can be used clinically for SBRT using RapidArc.« less
  • Purpose: Lung SBRT is being used by an increasing number of clinics, including our center which recently treated its first patient. In order to validate this technique, the 3D dose distribution of the SBRT plan was measured using a previously developed 3D detector based on plenoptic camera and plastic scintillator technology. The excellent agreement between the detector measurement and the expected dose from the treatment planning system Pinnacle{sup 3} shows great promise and amply justify the development of the technique. Methods: The SBRT treatment comprised 8 non-coplanar 6MV photon fields with a mean field size of 12 cm{sup 2} atmore » isocentre and a total prescription dose of 12Gy per fraction for a total of 48Gy. The 3D detector was composed of a 10×10×10 cm{sup 2} EJ-260 water-equivalent plastic scintillator embedded inside a truncated cylindrical acrylic phantom of 10cm radius. The scintillation light was recorded using a static R5 light-field camera and the 3D dose was reconstructed at a 2mm resolution in all 3 dimensions using an iterative backprojection algorithm. Results: The whole 3D dose distribution was recorded at a rate of one acquisition per second. The mean absolute dose difference between the detector and Pinnacle{sup 3} was 1.3% over the region with more than 10% of the maximum dose. 3D gamma tests performed over the same region yield passing rates of 98.8% and 96.6% with criteria of 3%/1mm and 2%/1mm, respectively. Conclusion: Experimental results showed that our beam modeling and treatment planning system calculation was adequate for the safe administration of small field/high dose techniques such as SBRT. Moreover, because of the real-time capability of the detector, further validation of small field rotational, dynamic or gated technique can be monitored or verified by this system.« less