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Title: SU-F-T-533: Study of Dosimetric Properties of Cadmium Free Alloy Used in Compensator Based IMRT

Abstract

Purpose: To study the dosimetric properties of cadmium free alloy which is used in compensator based IMRT. Methods: A mixture of 30% of lead,52% of bismuth and 18% of tin was used to prepare alloy. We prepared slabs of different thicknesses ranging from 0.71 cm to 6.14 cm. Density of alloy was measured by Archimedes’ principle using SI-234 Denver instrument and water as buoyant liquid. Transmission, linear attenuation coefficient (µ), tissue phantom ration (TPR), beam hardening, surface dose (Ds), percentage depth dose (PDD) and effect of scatter were measured and analyze for different field size and different thickness of compensator for 6 MV photon beam. Measurements were carried out at 100 cm SSD and 160 cm SSD. Results: Density of alloy was found to be 9.5456 gm/cm3. Melting point of alloy is 90–95 °C. For a field size of 10×10 cm2 µ was 0.4253 cm-1 at 100 cm SSD. Calculated TPR was found to be within 3 % of measured TPR. Ds was found to be decreasing with increasing thickness of compensator. 1cm, 1.98 cm and 4.16 cm thick compensator slab decreased surface dose by 4.2%, 6.1% and 9.5% respectively for a field size of 10×10cm2 at 100 cm SSD.more » As field size increases Ds increases for a given compensator thickness. This is due to increase in amount of scattered dose from wider collimator opening. For smaller field size, PDDs are increased from 3.0% to 5.5% of open beam PDDs as compensator thickness increases from 1 cm to 6.14 cm at a depth of 10 cm in water. For larger field size variation in PDDs is not significant. Conclusion: High degree of modulation can be achieved from this compensator material, which is essential in compensator based IMRT. Dosimetric properties analyzed in this study establish this alloy as a reliable, cost effective, reusable compensator material.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Dr B L Kapoor Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi (India)
  2. (India)
  3. Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)
  4. MMH College, Ghaziabad, Utter Pradesh (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649116
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CADMIUM ALLOYS; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; MELTING POINTS; PHOTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY; THICKNESS; TIN ALLOYS

Citation Formats

Tyagi, A, Kaushik, S, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana, Punia, R, and Singh, M. SU-F-T-533: Study of Dosimetric Properties of Cadmium Free Alloy Used in Compensator Based IMRT. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956718.
Tyagi, A, Kaushik, S, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana, Punia, R, & Singh, M. SU-F-T-533: Study of Dosimetric Properties of Cadmium Free Alloy Used in Compensator Based IMRT. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956718.
Tyagi, A, Kaushik, S, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana, Punia, R, and Singh, M. 2016. "SU-F-T-533: Study of Dosimetric Properties of Cadmium Free Alloy Used in Compensator Based IMRT". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956718.
@article{osti_22649116,
title = {SU-F-T-533: Study of Dosimetric Properties of Cadmium Free Alloy Used in Compensator Based IMRT},
author = {Tyagi, A and Kaushik, S and Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana and Punia, R and Singh, M},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To study the dosimetric properties of cadmium free alloy which is used in compensator based IMRT. Methods: A mixture of 30% of lead,52% of bismuth and 18% of tin was used to prepare alloy. We prepared slabs of different thicknesses ranging from 0.71 cm to 6.14 cm. Density of alloy was measured by Archimedes’ principle using SI-234 Denver instrument and water as buoyant liquid. Transmission, linear attenuation coefficient (µ), tissue phantom ration (TPR), beam hardening, surface dose (Ds), percentage depth dose (PDD) and effect of scatter were measured and analyze for different field size and different thickness of compensator for 6 MV photon beam. Measurements were carried out at 100 cm SSD and 160 cm SSD. Results: Density of alloy was found to be 9.5456 gm/cm3. Melting point of alloy is 90–95 °C. For a field size of 10×10 cm2 µ was 0.4253 cm-1 at 100 cm SSD. Calculated TPR was found to be within 3 % of measured TPR. Ds was found to be decreasing with increasing thickness of compensator. 1cm, 1.98 cm and 4.16 cm thick compensator slab decreased surface dose by 4.2%, 6.1% and 9.5% respectively for a field size of 10×10cm2 at 100 cm SSD. As field size increases Ds increases for a given compensator thickness. This is due to increase in amount of scattered dose from wider collimator opening. For smaller field size, PDDs are increased from 3.0% to 5.5% of open beam PDDs as compensator thickness increases from 1 cm to 6.14 cm at a depth of 10 cm in water. For larger field size variation in PDDs is not significant. Conclusion: High degree of modulation can be achieved from this compensator material, which is essential in compensator based IMRT. Dosimetric properties analyzed in this study establish this alloy as a reliable, cost effective, reusable compensator material.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956718},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Compensator-based IMRT coupled with the high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) beams offers an intriguing possibility of delivering an intensity modulated radiation field in just a few seconds. As a first step, the authors evaluate the dosimetric accuracy of the treatment planning system (TPS) FFF beam model with compensators. Methods: A 6 MV FFF beam from a TrueBeam accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto CA) was modeled in PINNACLE TPS (v. 9.0, Philips Radiation Oncology, Fitchburg WI). Flat brass slabs from 0.3 to 7 cm thick and an 18 deg. brass wedge were used to adjust the beammore » model. A 2D (MAPCHECK) and 3D (ARCCHECK) diode arrays (Sun Nuclear Corp, Melbourne FL), were investigated for use with the compensator FFF beams. Corrections for diode sensitivity caused by the spectral changes in the beam were introduced. Four compensator plans based on the AAPM TG-119 report were developed. A composite ion chamber measurement, beam by beam MAPCHECK measurements, and a composite ARCCHECK measurement were performed. The array results were analyzed with the same thresholds as in TG-119 report--3%/3 mm with global dose normalization--as well as with the more stringent combinations of the gamma analysis criteria. Results: The FFF beam shows a greater variation of the effective attenuation coefficient with brass thickness due to the prevalence of the low energy photons compared to the conventional 6X beam. As a result, a compromise had to be made while trying to achieve dose agreement for a combination of field sizes, brass thicknesses, and measurement depths ({>=}5 cm in water). An agreement of measured and calculated dose to within 1% was observed for brass thicknesses up to 2 cm. For the 3 cm slab, an error of up to 2.8% was noted for the field sizes above 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}, and up to 3.8% for the 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} field. Both diode arrays exhibit a substantial sensitivity drop as the compensator thickness increases, reaching 10% for a 7 cm brass slab. A simple correction based on the brass thickness along the ray was introduced to counteract this effect. Pooled for five profiles, the average ratio of uncorrected and corrected MAPCHECK to ion chamber readings are 0.966 and 1.008, respectively. With the proper correction, all MAPCHECK measurement to calculation comparisons exhibit 100%{gamma}(3%/3 mm) passing rates with global dose-error normalization. For the TG-119-type plans, the average {gamma}(2%/2 mm) passing rate with local normalization is 94% (range 87.8%-98.3%). The lower ARCCHECK{gamma}-analysis passing rates (corrected for diode sensitivity) are predictable based on the observed PDD discrepancies. However, with the 3%/3 mm thresholds and global normalization, the average {gamma}-analysis passing rate is 96.4% (range 89.9%-100%). Conclusions: MAPCHECK analysis demonstrates high passing rates with the stringent {gamma}(2%/2 mm) and local normalization criteria combination. The geometry of the ARCCHECK array creates a stress test for the FFF TPS model because of the shallow depth of the entrance diodes and large air cavity. Hence, the ARCCHECK{gamma}-analysis passing rates are lower than with the MAPCHECK, while still on par with TG-119.« less
  • Dosimetric properties of an amorphous-silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) operated in a real-time acquisition mode were investigated. This mode will be essential for time-resolved dose verification of dynamic (sliding window) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intensity modulated arc radiation therapy (arc-IMRT). The EPID was used in continuous acquisition mode (i.e., ''cine'' mode) where individual sequential image frames are acquired in real time. The properties studied include dose linearity, reproducibility of response, and image stability. Results of using the continuous acquisition mode with several example treatments including dynamic IMRT, arc treatment, and single-arc-IMRT are compared to results using themore » well-studied integrated acquisition mode (i.e., ''frame averaging'' or ''IMRT'' mode). Real-time EPID response was also compared to real-time ion-chamber data for selected points in the deliveries. The example treatment deliveries in both continuous and integrated acquisition modes were converted to arbitrary EPID dose units via a calibration field. The summation of all acquired continuous mode images was compared using percentage dose difference to the single image acquired in the integrated mode using in-field pixels only (defined as those pixels >10% of maximum, in-field signal). Using the continuous acquisition mode, the EPID response was not linear with dose. It was found that the continuous mode dose response corresponded approximately to dropping one image per acquisition session. Reproducibility of EPID response to low monitor units (MUs) was found to be poor but greatly improved with increasing MU. Open field profiles were found to be stable in the cross-plane direction but required several frames to become stable in the in-plane direction. However, both of these issues are clinically insignificant due to arc-IMRT deliveries requiring relatively large monitor units (>100 MU). Analysis of the five IMRT, arc, and arc-IMRT tests revealed that all examples compared to within 2% of maximum dose for more than 95% of in-field pixels. The continuous acquisition mode is suited to time-resolved dosimetry applications including arc-IMRT and dynamic IMRT, giving comparable dose results to the well-studied integrated acquisition mode, although caution should be used in low MU applications. Time-resolved EPID dose information also compared well to time-resolved ion-chamber measurements.« less
  • Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric accuracy of junction dose in double isocenter flattened and flatten filter free(FFF) intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) plan delivery using pelvis phantom. Methods: Five large field pelvis patients were selected for this study. Double isocenter IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated in Eclipse Treatment planning System (V.11.0) using 6MV FB and FFF beams. For all the plans same distance 17.0cm was kept between one isocenter to another isocenter. IMRT Plans were made with 7 coplanar fields and VMAT plans were made with full double arcs. Dose calculation was performed usingmore » AAA algorithms with dose grid size of 0.25 cm. Verification plans were calculated on Scanditronix Wellhofer pelvis slab phantom. Measurement point was selected and calculated, where two isocenter plan fields are overlapping, this measurement point was kept at distance 8.5cm from both isocenter. The plans were delivered using Varian TrueBeamTM machine on pelvis slab phantom. Point dose measurements was carried out using CC13 ion chamber volume of 0.13cm3. Results: The measured junction point dose are compared with TPS calculated dose. The mean difference observed was 4.5%, 6.0%, 4.0% and 7.0% for IMRT-FB,IMRT-FFF, VMAT-FB and VMAT-FFF respectively. The measured dose results shows closer agreement with calculated dose in Flatten beam planning in both IMRT and VMAT, whereas in FFF beam plan dose difference are more compared with flatten beam plan. Conclusion: Dosimetry accuracy of Large Field junction dose difference was found less in Flatten beam compared with FFF beam plan delivery. Even though more dosimetric studies are required to analyse junction dose for FFF beam planning using multiple point dose measurements and fluence map verification in field junction area.« less
  • Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. Wemore » have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.« less
  • Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) beams produce higher dose rates. Combined with compensator IMRT techniques, the dose delivery for each beam can be much shorter compared to the flattened beam MLC-based or compensator-based IMRT. This ‘snap shot’ IMRT delivery is beneficial to patients for tumor motion management. Due to softer energy, surface doses in FFF beam treatment are usually higher than those from flattened beams. Because of less scattering due to no flattening filter, peripheral doses are usually lower in FFF beam treatment. However, in compensator-based IMRT using FFF beams, the compensator is in the beam pathway. Does it introducemore » beam hardening effects and scattering such that the surface dose is lower and peripheral dose is higher compared to FFF beam MLC-based IMRT? Methods: This study applied Monte Carlo techniques to investigate the surface and peripheral doses in compensator-based IMRT using FFF beams and compared it to the MLC-based IMRT using FFF beams and flattened beams. Besides various thicknesses of copper slabs to simulate various thicknesses of compensators, a simple cone-shaped compensator was simulated to mimic a clinical application. The dose distribution in water phantom by the cone-shaped compensator was then simulated by multiple MLC defined FFF and flattened beams with various openings. After normalized to Dmax, the surface and peripheral dose was compared between the FFF beam compensator-based IMRT and FFF/flattened beam MLC-based IMRT. Results: The surface dose at the central 0.5mm depth was close between the compensator and 6FFF MLC dose distributions, and about 8% (of Dmax) higher than the flattened 6MV MLC dose. At 8cm off axis at dmax, the peripheral dose between the 6FFF and flattened 6MV MLC demonstrated similar doses, while the compensator dose was about 1% higher. Conclusion: Compensator does not reduce the surface doses but slightly increases the peripheral doses due to scatter inside compensator.« less