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Title: SU-F-T-508: A Collimator-Based 3-Dimensional Grid Therapy Technique in a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform

Abstract

Purpose: Three dimensional (3D) Grid Therapy using MLC-based inverse-planning has been proposed to achieve the features of both conformal radiotherapy and spatially fractionated radiotherapy, which may deliver very high dose in a single fraction to portions of a large tumor with relatively low normal tissue dose. However, the technique requires relatively long delivery time. This study aims to develop a collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique. Here we report the development of the technique in a small animal radiation research platform. Methods: Similar as in the MLC-based technique, 9 non-coplanar beams in special channeling directions were used for the 3D grid therapy technique. Two specially designed grid collimators were fabricated, and one of them was selectively used to match the corresponding gantry/couch angles so that the grid opening of all 9 beams are met in the 3D space in the target. A stack of EBT3 films were used as 3D dosimetry to demonstrate the 3D grid-like dose distribution in the target. Three 1-mm beams were delivered to the stack of films in the area outside the target for alignment when all the films were scanned to reconstruct the 3D dosimtric image. Results: 3D film dosimetry showed a lattice-like dose distribution inmore » the 3D target as well as in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. The dose outside the target also showed a grid like dose distribution, and the average dose gradually decreased with the distance to the target. The peak to valley ratio was approximately 5:1. The delivery time was 7 minutes for 18 Gy peak dose, comparing to 6 minutes to deliver a 18-Gy 3D conformal plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the feasibility of the collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique which can significantly reduce delivery time comparing to MLC-based inverse planning technique.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649095
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMALS; BEAMS; COLLIMATORS; FILM DOSIMETRY; GRIDS; NEOPLASMS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Jin, J, Kong, V, and Zhang, H. SU-F-T-508: A Collimator-Based 3-Dimensional Grid Therapy Technique in a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956693.
Jin, J, Kong, V, & Zhang, H. SU-F-T-508: A Collimator-Based 3-Dimensional Grid Therapy Technique in a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956693.
Jin, J, Kong, V, and Zhang, H. 2016. "SU-F-T-508: A Collimator-Based 3-Dimensional Grid Therapy Technique in a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956693.
@article{osti_22649095,
title = {SU-F-T-508: A Collimator-Based 3-Dimensional Grid Therapy Technique in a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform},
author = {Jin, J and Kong, V and Zhang, H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Three dimensional (3D) Grid Therapy using MLC-based inverse-planning has been proposed to achieve the features of both conformal radiotherapy and spatially fractionated radiotherapy, which may deliver very high dose in a single fraction to portions of a large tumor with relatively low normal tissue dose. However, the technique requires relatively long delivery time. This study aims to develop a collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique. Here we report the development of the technique in a small animal radiation research platform. Methods: Similar as in the MLC-based technique, 9 non-coplanar beams in special channeling directions were used for the 3D grid therapy technique. Two specially designed grid collimators were fabricated, and one of them was selectively used to match the corresponding gantry/couch angles so that the grid opening of all 9 beams are met in the 3D space in the target. A stack of EBT3 films were used as 3D dosimetry to demonstrate the 3D grid-like dose distribution in the target. Three 1-mm beams were delivered to the stack of films in the area outside the target for alignment when all the films were scanned to reconstruct the 3D dosimtric image. Results: 3D film dosimetry showed a lattice-like dose distribution in the 3D target as well as in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. The dose outside the target also showed a grid like dose distribution, and the average dose gradually decreased with the distance to the target. The peak to valley ratio was approximately 5:1. The delivery time was 7 minutes for 18 Gy peak dose, comparing to 6 minutes to deliver a 18-Gy 3D conformal plan. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the feasibility of the collimator-based 3D grid therapy technique which can significantly reduce delivery time comparing to MLC-based inverse planning technique.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956693},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To demonstrate the computed tomography, conformal irradiation, and treatment planning capabilities of a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). Methods and Materials: The SARRP uses a dual-focal spot, constant voltage X-ray source mounted on a gantry with a source-to-isocenter distance of 35 cm. Gantry rotation is limited to 120{sup o} from vertical. X-rays of 80-100 kVp from the smaller 0.4-mm focal spot are used for imaging. Both 0.4-mm and 3.0-mm focal spots operate at 225 kVp for irradiation. Robotic translate/rotate stages are used to position the animal. Cone-beam computed tomography is achieved by rotating the horizontal animal between themore » stationary X-ray source and a flat-panel detector. The radiation beams range from 0.5 mm in diameter to 60 x 60 mm{sup 2}. Dosimetry is measured with radiochromic films. Monte Carlo dose calculations are used for treatment planning. The combination of gantry and robotic stage motions facilitate conformal irradiation. Results: The SARRP spans 3 ft x 4 ft x 6 ft (width x length x height). Depending on the filtration, the isocenter dose outputs at a 1-cm depth in water were 22-375 cGy/min from the smallest to the largest radiation fields. The 20-80% dose falloff spanned 0.16 mm. Cone-beam computed tomography with 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm{sup 3} voxel resolution was acquired with a dose of <1 cGy. Treatment planning was performed at submillimeter resolution. Conclusion: The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focal beams to multiple animal model systems provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation.« less
  • Purpose: Use of Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) systems for conducting state-of-the-art image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) research on small animals has become more common over the past years. The purpose of this work is to develop and test the suitability and performance of a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) phantom for the SARRP. Methods: A QA phantom was developed for carrying out daily, monthly and annual QA tasks including imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning system (TPS) performance evaluation of the SARRP. The QA phantom consists of nine (60×60×5 mm3) KV-energy tissue equivalent solid water slabs that can be employed formore » annual dosimetry QA with film. Three of the top slabs are replaceable with ones incorporating Mosfets or OSLDs arranged in a quincunx pattern, or a slab drilled to accommodate an ion chamber insert. These top slabs are designed to facilitate routine daily and monthly QA tasks such as output constancy, isocenter congruency test, treatment planning system (TPS) QA, etc. One slab is designed with inserts for image QA. A prototype of the phantom was applied to test the performance of the imaging, planning and treatment delivery systems. Results: Output constancy test results showed daily variations within 3%. For isocenter congruency test, the phantom could be used to detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Using the Mosfet in phantom as target, the difference between TPS calculations and measurements was within 5%. Image-quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity, etc. Conclusion: The developed phantom can be employed as a simple tool for comprehensive performance evaluation of the SARRP. The study provides a reference for development of a comprehensive quality assurance program for the SARRP, with proposed tolerances and frequency of required tests.« less
  • Purpose: We present a newly developed on-board optical tomography system for SARRP. Innovative features include the compact design and fast acquisition optical method to perform 3D soft tissue radiation guidance. Because of the on-board feature and the combination of the CBCT, diffusive optical tomography (DOT), bioluminescence and fluorescence tomography (BLT and FT), this integrated system is expected to provide more accurate soft tissue guidance than an off-line system as well as highly sensitive functional imaging in preclinical research. Methods: Images are acquired in the order of CBCT, DOT and then BLT/FT, where the SARRP CBCT and DOT are used tomore » provide the anatomical and optical properties information to enhance the subsequent BLT/FT optical reconstruction. The SARRP stage is redesigned to include 9 imbedded optical fibers in contact with the animal's skin. These fibers, connected to a white light lamp or laser, serve as the light sources for the DOT or FT, respectively. A CCD camera with f/1.4 lens and multi-spectral filter set is used as the optical detector and is mounted on a portable cart ready to dock into the SARRP. No radiation is delivered during optical image acquisition. A 3-way mirror system capable of 180 degree rotation around the animal reflects the optical signal to the camera at multiple projection angles. A special black-painted dome covers the stage and provides the light shielding. Results: Spontaneous metastatic bioluminescent liver and lung tumor models will be used to validate the 3D BLT reconstruction. To demonstrate the capability of our FT system, GastroSense750 fluorescence agent will be used to imaging the mouse stomach and intestinal region in 3D. Conclusion: We expect that this integrated CBCT and optical tomography on-board a SARRP will present new research opportunities for pre-clinical radiation research. Supported by NCI RO1-CA 158100.« less
  • Purpose: To support radiobiological research with the Xstrahl small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) by developing a simple and effective method using commercially available optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) that ensures dose output consistency. Methods: The SARRP output is calibrated according to the vendor standards and TG-61 protocol utilizing an ADCL calibrated ion chamber and electrometer at 2 cm depth of solid water. A cross calibration is performed by replacing the ion chamber with five OSLDs at the 2 cm depth. The OSLDs are irradiated to 500 cGy with 220 keV at 13 mA (78s delivery time) with a coppermore » filter for an uncollimated 17×17 cm{sup 2} aperture. Instead of the absolute dose, the total amount of raw counts are collected from the OSLD reader and used for analysis. This constancy procedure was performed two more times over the course of three weeks with two OLSDs for validity. Results: The average reading for all OSLDs is 494939 with a 1-sigma standard deviation of the 5.8%. With an acceptable dose output range of ±10%, the OSLD readings have a counts range of [445445, 544433]. Conclusion: This method of using nanoDot™ OSLDs to perform output constancy checks for the SARRP ensures the output of the device is within 10% from the time of calibration and is convenient as well as time efficient. Because this, the frequency of output checks can be increased, which can improve the output stability for research with this device. The output trend of the SARRP will continue to be monitored in the future to establish a timeline for constancy checks and recalibration.« less
  • Purpose: We develop a novel dual-use configuration for a tri-modality, CBCT/bioluminescence tomography(BLT)/fluorescence tomography(FT), imaging system with the SARRP that can function as a standalone system for longitudinal imaging research and on-board the SARRP to guide irradiation. BLT provides radiation guidance for soft tissue target, while FT offers functional information allowing mechanistic investigations. Methods: The optical assembly includes CCD camera, lens, filter wheel, 3-way mirrors, scanning fiber system and light-tight enclosure. The rotating mirror system directs the optical signal from the animal surface to the camera at multiple projection over 180 degree. The fiber-laser system serves as the external light sourcemore » for the FT application. Multiple filters are used for multispectral imaging to enhance localization accuracy using BLT. SARRP CBCT provides anatomical information and geometric mesh for BLT/FT reconstruction. To facilitate dual use, the 3-way mirror system is cantilevered in front of the camera. The entire optical assembly is driven by a 1D linear stage to dock onto an independent mouse support bed for standalone application. After completion of on-board optical imaging, the system is retracted from the SARRP to allow irradiation of the mouse. Results: A tissue-simulating phantom and a mouse model with a luminescence light source are used to demonstrate the function of the dual-use optical system. Feasibility data have been obtained based on a manual-docking prototype. The center of mass of light source determined in living mouse with on-board BLT is within 1±0.2mm of that with CBCT. The performance of the motorized system is expected to be the same and will be presented. Conclusion: We anticipate the motorized dual use system provide significant efficiency gain over our manual docking and off-line system. By also supporting off-line longitudinal studies independent of the SARRP, the dual-use system is a highly efficient and cost-effective platform to facilitate optical imaging for pre-clinical radiation research. The work is supported by NIH R01CA158100 and Xstrahl Ltd. Drs. John Wong and Iulian Iordachita receive royalty payment from a licensing agreement between Xstrahl Ltd and Johns Hopkins University. John Wong also has a consultant agreement with Xstrahl Ltd.« less