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Title: SU-F-T-507: Modeling Cerenkov Emissions From Medical Linear Accelerators: A Monte Carlo Study

Abstract

Purpose: Cerenkov emissions are a natural byproduct of MV radiotherapy but are typically ignored as inconsequential. However, Cerenkov photons may be useful for activation of drugs such as psoralen. Here, we investigate Cerenkov radiation from common radiotherapy beams using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GAMOS, a GEANT4-based framework for Monte Carlo simulations, was used to model 6 and 18MV photon beams from a Varian medical linac. Simulations were run to track Cerenkov production from these beams when irradiating a 50cm radius sphere of water. Electron contamination was neglected. 2 million primary photon histories were run for each energy, and values scored included integral dose and total track length of Cerenkov photons between 100 and 400 nm wavelength. By lowering process energy thresholds, simulations included low energy Bremsstrahlung photons to ensure comprehensive evaluation of UV production in the medium. Results: For the same number of primary photons, UV Cerenkov production for 18MV was greater than 6MV by a factor of 3.72 as determined by total track length. The total integral dose was a factor of 2.31 greater for the 18MV beam. Bremsstrahlung photons were a negligibly small component of photons in the wavelength range of interest, comprising 0.02% of such photons. Conclusion:more » Cerenkov emissions in water are 1.6x greater for 18MV than 6MV for the same integral dose. Future work will expand the analysis to include optical properties of tissues, and to investigate strategies to maximize Cerenkov emission per unit dose for MV radiotherapy.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649094
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; EMISSION; EMISSIVITY; INTEGRAL DOSES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PARTICLE TRACKS; PHOTON BEAMS; PRODUCTIVITY; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Shrock, Z, Oldham, M, and Adamson, J. SU-F-T-507: Modeling Cerenkov Emissions From Medical Linear Accelerators: A Monte Carlo Study. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956692.
Shrock, Z, Oldham, M, & Adamson, J. SU-F-T-507: Modeling Cerenkov Emissions From Medical Linear Accelerators: A Monte Carlo Study. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956692.
Shrock, Z, Oldham, M, and Adamson, J. 2016. "SU-F-T-507: Modeling Cerenkov Emissions From Medical Linear Accelerators: A Monte Carlo Study". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956692.
@article{osti_22649094,
title = {SU-F-T-507: Modeling Cerenkov Emissions From Medical Linear Accelerators: A Monte Carlo Study},
author = {Shrock, Z and Oldham, M and Adamson, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Cerenkov emissions are a natural byproduct of MV radiotherapy but are typically ignored as inconsequential. However, Cerenkov photons may be useful for activation of drugs such as psoralen. Here, we investigate Cerenkov radiation from common radiotherapy beams using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GAMOS, a GEANT4-based framework for Monte Carlo simulations, was used to model 6 and 18MV photon beams from a Varian medical linac. Simulations were run to track Cerenkov production from these beams when irradiating a 50cm radius sphere of water. Electron contamination was neglected. 2 million primary photon histories were run for each energy, and values scored included integral dose and total track length of Cerenkov photons between 100 and 400 nm wavelength. By lowering process energy thresholds, simulations included low energy Bremsstrahlung photons to ensure comprehensive evaluation of UV production in the medium. Results: For the same number of primary photons, UV Cerenkov production for 18MV was greater than 6MV by a factor of 3.72 as determined by total track length. The total integral dose was a factor of 2.31 greater for the 18MV beam. Bremsstrahlung photons were a negligibly small component of photons in the wavelength range of interest, comprising 0.02% of such photons. Conclusion: Cerenkov emissions in water are 1.6x greater for 18MV than 6MV for the same integral dose. Future work will expand the analysis to include optical properties of tissues, and to investigate strategies to maximize Cerenkov emission per unit dose for MV radiotherapy.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956692},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To compare dosimetric characteristics of 6 MV photon fields originating from a linear accelerator operating with (FF) and without (FFF) a flattening-filter. The main objective is to establish a FFF model that results in similar depth-dose and build-up profiles as the original FF model, and subsequently estimate and compare out-of-field dose distributions. Methods: The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for photon beam simulations of an Elekta linear accelerator and dose calculations in a water phantom, respectively. Three beam models were analyzed: (1) the conventional linear accelerator with the flattening-filter in place and incident electronmore » energy 6.45 MeV (FF 6.45 MeV), (2) similar flattening-filter-free model (FFF 6.45 MeV), and (3) as (2) but with increased electron energy (FFF 8.0 MeV). The field size 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} was used for characterization of dose output, depth dose profiles, and photon spectrum. The field size 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was used for characterization of cross-field photon energy, photon fluence, and dose distributions. Out-of-field dose distributions were analyzed in both in-plane and cross-plane directions for 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} fields. Results: Comparable depth dose distributions, including the build-up region, for FF and FFF fields were achieved by increasing the electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV for the FFF beam. The FFF beams result in reduced out-of-field dose compared to the FF beam: the reduction was most apparent in the cross-plane direction and more pronounced by the FFF 8.0 MeV beam compared to the FFF 6.45 MeV beam. Differences in out-of-field dose due to direction (in-plane vs cross-plane) were up to 40% for the FF beam; this effect was significantly reduced for the FFF beams. As the flattening-filter is a major source of contaminating electrons, superficial out-of-field dose was expected, and was found to be, reduced for FFF beams. Conclusions: The build-up and depth-dose characteristics of a conventional '6 MV' beam can be maintained when changing to a flattening-filter-free modality by increasing the incident electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV. This will at the same time reduce the out-of-field dose for regions up to 20 cm from the central axis by 10%-30% compared to the original FF situation.« less
  • Purpose: A recent publication has shown that by delivering titanium dioxide nanoparticles (titania) as a photosensitizer into tumors, Cerenkov radiation (CR) produced by radionuclides could be used for substantially boosting damage to cancer cells. The present work compares CR production by various clinically relevant radiation sources including internal radionuclides and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and provides preliminarily computational results of CR absorption by titania. Methods: 1) Geant4.10.1 was used to simulate ionizing radiation-induced CR production in a 1cm diameter spherical volume using external radiotherapy sources: Varian Clinac IX 6MV and Eldorado {sup 60}Co, both with 10*10 cm{sup 2} field size.more » In each case the volume was placed at the maximum dose depth (1.5cm for 6MV source and 0.5cm for {sup 60}Co). In addition, {sup 18}F, {sup 192}Ir and {sup 60}Co were simulated using Geant4 radioactive decay models as internal sources. Dose deposition and CR production spectra in 200nm-400nm range were calculated as it is the excitation range of titania. 2) Using 6MV external source, the absorption by titania was calculated via the track length of CR in the spherical volume. The nanoparticle concentration was varied from 0.25 to 5µg/g. Results: Among different radioactive sources, results showed that {sup 18}F induced the highest amount of CR per disintegration, but {sup 60}Co had the highest yield per unit dose. When compared with external sources, 6MV source was shown to be the most efficient for the the same delivered dose. Simulations indicated increased absorption for increasing concentrations, with up to 68% absorption of generated CR for 5µg/g titania concentration. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that 6MV beam is favored with a higher CR yield, compared to radionuclides, and that the use of higher concentrations of titania may increase photosensitization. From the findings, we propose that if sufficiently potent concentrations of titania are delivered to tumors this could substantially boost EBRT.« less
  • The focal spot size and shape of a medical linac are important parameters that determine the dose profiles, especially in the penumbral region. A relationship between the focal spot size and the dose profile penumbra has been studied and established from simulation results of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. A simple method is proposed to estimate the size and the shape of a linac's focal spot from the measured dose profile data.
  • Purpose: The scope of this study was to determine a complete set of correction factors for several detectors in static small photon fields for two linear accelerators (linacs) and for several detectors. Methods: Measurements for Monte Carlo (MC) commissioning were performed for two linacs, Siemens Primus and Elekta Synergy. After having determined the source parameters that best fit the measurements of field specific output factors, profiles, and tissue-phantom ratio, the generalized version of the classical beam quality correction factor for static small fields, k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}},more » were determined for several types of detectors by using the egs{sub c}hamber Monte Carlo user code which can accurately reproduce the geometry and the material composition of the detector. The influence of many parameters (energy and radial FWHM of the electron beam source, field dimensions, type of accelerator) on the value of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was evaluated. Moreover, a MC analysis of the parameters that influence the change of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} as a function of field dimension was performed. A detailed analysis of uncertainties related to the measurements of the field specific output factor and to the Monte Carlo calculation of k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was done. Results: The simulations demonstrated that the correction factor k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} can be considered independent from the quality beam factor Q in the range 0.68 {+-} 0.01 for all the detectors analyzed. The k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} of PTW 60012 and EDGE diodes can be assumed dependent only on the field size, for fields down to 0.5 x 0.5 cm{sup 2}. The microLion, and the microchambers, instead, must be used with some caution because they exhibit a slight dependence on the radial FWHM of the electron source, and therefore, a correction factor only dependent on field size can be used for fields {>=}0.75 x 0.75 and {>=}1.0 x 1.0 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The analysis of uncertainties gave an estimate of uncertainty for the 0.5 x 0.5 cm{sup 2} field of about 0.7% (1{sigma}) for k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} factor and of about 1.0% (1{sigma}) for the field output factor, {Omega}{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}, of diodes, microchambers, and microLion. Conclusions: Stereotactic diodes with the appropriate k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} are recommended for determining {Omega}{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} of small photon beams.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the Raystation v4.51 Electron Monte Carlo algorithm for Varian Trilogy, IX and 2100 series linear accelerators and commission for clinical use. Methods: Seventy two water and forty air scans were acquired with a water tank in the form of profiles and depth doses, as requested by vendor. Data was imported into Rayphysics beam modeling module. Energy spectrum was modeled using seven parameters. Contamination photons were modeled using five parameters. Source phase space was modeled using six parameters. Calculations were performed in clinical version 4.51 and percent depth dose curves and profiles were extracted to be compared tomore » water tank measurements. Sensitivity tests were performed for all parameters. Grid size and particle histories were evaluated per energy for statistical uncertainty performance. Results: Model accuracy for air profiles is poor in the shoulder and penumbra region. However, model accuracy for water scans is acceptable. All energies and cones are within 2%/2mm for 90% of the points evaluated. Source phase space parameters have a cumulative effect. To achieve distributions with satisfactory smoothness level a 0.1cm grid and 3,000,000 particle histories were used for commissioning calculations. Calculation time was approximately 3 hours per energy. Conclusion: Raystation electron Monte Carlo is acceptable for clinical use for the Varian accelerators listed. Results are inferior to Elekta Electron Monte Carlo modeling. Known issues were reported to Raysearch and will be resolved in upcoming releases. Auto-modeling is limited to open cone depth dose curves and needs expansion.« less