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Title: SU-F-T-475: An Evaluation of the Overlap Between the Acceptance Testing and Commissioning Processes for Conventional Medical Linear Accelerators

Abstract

Purpose: This work’s objective is to determine the overlap of processes, in terms of sub-processes and time, between acceptance testing and commissioning of a conventional medical linear accelerator and to evaluate the time saved by consolidating the two processes. Method: A process map for acceptance testing for medical linear accelerators was created from vendor documentation (Varian and Elekta). Using AAPM TG-106 and inhouse commissioning procedures, a process map was created for commissioning of said accelerators. The time to complete each sub-process in each process map was evaluated. Redundancies in the processes were found and the time spent on each were calculated. Results: Mechanical testing significantly overlaps between the two processes - redundant work here amounts to 9.5 hours. Many beam non-scanning dosimetry tests overlap resulting in another 6 hours of overlap. Beam scanning overlaps somewhat - acceptance tests include evaluating PDDs and multiple profiles but for only one field size while commissioning beam scanning includes multiple field sizes and depths of profiles. This overlap results in another 6 hours of rework. Absolute dosimetry, field outputs, and end to end tests are not done at all in acceptance testing. Finally, all imaging tests done in acceptance are repeated in commissioning, resultingmore » in about 8 hours of rework. The total time overlap between the two processes is about 30 hours. Conclusion: The process mapping done in this study shows that there are no tests done in acceptance testing that are not also recommended to do for commissioning. This results in about 30 hours of redundant work when preparing a conventional linear accelerator for clinical use. Considering these findings in the context of the 5000 linacs in the United states, consolidating acceptance testing and commissioning would have allowed for the treatment of an additional 25000 patients using no additional resources.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Scott & White Hospital Temple, TX (United States)
  2. Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, TX (United States)
  3. University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)
  4. Baylor Scott & White Healthcare, Temple, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22649065
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BEAMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMMISSIONING; EVALUATION; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MECHANICAL TESTS; REDUNDANCY

Citation Formats

Morrow, A, Rangaraj, D, Perez-Andujar, A, and Krishnamurthy, N. SU-F-T-475: An Evaluation of the Overlap Between the Acceptance Testing and Commissioning Processes for Conventional Medical Linear Accelerators. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956660.
Morrow, A, Rangaraj, D, Perez-Andujar, A, & Krishnamurthy, N. SU-F-T-475: An Evaluation of the Overlap Between the Acceptance Testing and Commissioning Processes for Conventional Medical Linear Accelerators. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956660.
Morrow, A, Rangaraj, D, Perez-Andujar, A, and Krishnamurthy, N. Wed . "SU-F-T-475: An Evaluation of the Overlap Between the Acceptance Testing and Commissioning Processes for Conventional Medical Linear Accelerators". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956660.
@article{osti_22649065,
title = {SU-F-T-475: An Evaluation of the Overlap Between the Acceptance Testing and Commissioning Processes for Conventional Medical Linear Accelerators},
author = {Morrow, A and Rangaraj, D and Perez-Andujar, A and Krishnamurthy, N},
abstractNote = {Purpose: This work’s objective is to determine the overlap of processes, in terms of sub-processes and time, between acceptance testing and commissioning of a conventional medical linear accelerator and to evaluate the time saved by consolidating the two processes. Method: A process map for acceptance testing for medical linear accelerators was created from vendor documentation (Varian and Elekta). Using AAPM TG-106 and inhouse commissioning procedures, a process map was created for commissioning of said accelerators. The time to complete each sub-process in each process map was evaluated. Redundancies in the processes were found and the time spent on each were calculated. Results: Mechanical testing significantly overlaps between the two processes - redundant work here amounts to 9.5 hours. Many beam non-scanning dosimetry tests overlap resulting in another 6 hours of overlap. Beam scanning overlaps somewhat - acceptance tests include evaluating PDDs and multiple profiles but for only one field size while commissioning beam scanning includes multiple field sizes and depths of profiles. This overlap results in another 6 hours of rework. Absolute dosimetry, field outputs, and end to end tests are not done at all in acceptance testing. Finally, all imaging tests done in acceptance are repeated in commissioning, resulting in about 8 hours of rework. The total time overlap between the two processes is about 30 hours. Conclusion: The process mapping done in this study shows that there are no tests done in acceptance testing that are not also recommended to do for commissioning. This results in about 30 hours of redundant work when preparing a conventional linear accelerator for clinical use. Considering these findings in the context of the 5000 linacs in the United states, consolidating acceptance testing and commissioning would have allowed for the treatment of an additional 25000 patients using no additional resources.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956660},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: Cerenkov emissions are a natural byproduct of MV radiotherapy but are typically ignored as inconsequential. However, Cerenkov photons may be useful for activation of drugs such as psoralen. Here, we investigate Cerenkov radiation from common radiotherapy beams using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GAMOS, a GEANT4-based framework for Monte Carlo simulations, was used to model 6 and 18MV photon beams from a Varian medical linac. Simulations were run to track Cerenkov production from these beams when irradiating a 50cm radius sphere of water. Electron contamination was neglected. 2 million primary photon histories were run for each energy, and values scoredmore » included integral dose and total track length of Cerenkov photons between 100 and 400 nm wavelength. By lowering process energy thresholds, simulations included low energy Bremsstrahlung photons to ensure comprehensive evaluation of UV production in the medium. Results: For the same number of primary photons, UV Cerenkov production for 18MV was greater than 6MV by a factor of 3.72 as determined by total track length. The total integral dose was a factor of 2.31 greater for the 18MV beam. Bremsstrahlung photons were a negligibly small component of photons in the wavelength range of interest, comprising 0.02% of such photons. Conclusion: Cerenkov emissions in water are 1.6x greater for 18MV than 6MV for the same integral dose. Future work will expand the analysis to include optical properties of tissues, and to investigate strategies to maximize Cerenkov emission per unit dose for MV radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: To test the performance of a commercial scintillating screen detector for acceptance testing and Quality Assurance of a proton pencil beam scanning system. Method: The detector (Lexitek DRD 400) has 40cm × 40cm field, uses a thin scintillator imaged onto a 16-bit scientific CCD with ∼0.5mm resolution. A grid target and LED illuminators are provided for spatial calibration and relative gain correction. The detector mounts to the nozzle with micron precision. Tools are provided for image processing and analysis of single or multiple Gaussian spots. Results: The bias and gain of the detector were studied to measure repeatability andmore » accuracy. Gain measurements were taken with the LED illuminators to measure repeatability and variation of the lens-CCD pair as a function with f-stop. Overall system gain was measured with a passive scattering (broad) beam whose shape is calibrated with EDR film placed in front of the scintillator. To create a large uniform field, overlapping small fields were recorded with the detector translated laterally and stitched together to cover the full field. Due to the long exposures required to obtain multiple spills of the synchrotron and very high detector sensitivity, borated polyethylene shielding was added to reduce direct radiation events hitting the CCD. Measurements with a micro ion chamber were compared to the detector’s spot profile. Software was developed to process arrays of Gaussian spots and to correct for radiation events. Conclusion: The detector background has a fixed bias, a small component linear in time, and is easily corrected. The gain correction method was validated with 2% accuracy. The detector spot profile matches the micro ion chamber data over 4 orders of magnitude. The multiple spot analyses can be easily used with plan data for measuring pencil beam uniformity and for regular QA comparison.« less
  • Introduction: With the increasing use of surface-based, nonionizing image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems, a comprehensive set of clinical acceptance and commissioning procedures are needed to ensure correct functionality and proper clinical integration. Although TG-147 provides a specific set of parameters, measurement methodologies have yet to be described. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the commissioning and acceptance analysis performed for the C-Rad CatalystHD imaging system. Methods and Materials: Methodology for the commissioning and acceptance of the C-Rad CatalystHD imaging system was developed using commercially available clinical equipment. Following TG-147 guidelines, the following tests were performed:more » integration of peripheral equipment, system drift, static spatial reproducibility and localization accuracy, static end-to-end analysis, static rotational accuracy, dynamic spatial accuracy, dynamic temporal accuracy, dynamic radiation delivery and a comprehensive end-to-end analysis. Results: The field of view (FOV) of the CatalystHD was 105×109×83 cm3 in the lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions. For thermal equilibrium and system drift, a thermal drift of 1.0mm was noted. A 45 min warmup time is recommended if the system has been shut off an extended period of time (>24 hours) before the QA procedure to eliminate any thermal drift. Spatial reproducibility was found to be 0.05±0.03 mm using a rigid phantom. For the static localization accuracy, system agreement with couch shifts was within 0.1±0.1 mm and positioning agreement with kV-CBCT was 0.16±0.10 mm. For static rotational accuracy, system agreement with a high precision rotational stage (0.01 deg precision) was within 0.10±0.07 deg. Dynamic spatial and temporal localization accuracy was found to be within 0.2±0.1 mm. Conclusion: A comprehensive commissioning and acceptance study was performed using commercially available phantoms and in-house methodologies to provide a performance evaluation of the CatalystHD imaging system.« less
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