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Title: SU-F-T-376: The Efficiency of Calculating Photonuclear Reaction On High-Energy Photon Therapy by Monte Carlo Method

Abstract

Purpose: Secondary-neutrons having harmful influences to a human body are generated by photonuclear reaction on high-energy photon therapy. Their characteristics are not known in detail since the calculation to evaluate them takes very long time. PHITS(Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System) Monte Carlo code since versions 2.80 has the new parameter “pnimul” raising the probability of occurring photonuclear reaction forcibly to make the efficiency of calculation. We investigated the optimum value of “pnimul” on high-energy photon therapy. Methods: The geometry of accelerator head based on the specification of a Varian Clinac 21EX was used for PHITS ver. 2.80. The phantom (30 cm * 30 cm * 30 cm) filled the composition defined by ICRU(International Commission on Radiation Units) was placed at source-surface distance 100 cm. We calculated the neutron energy spectra in the surface of ICRU phantom with “pnimal” setting 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000 and compared the total calculation time and the behavior of photon using PDD(Percentage Depth Dose) and OCR(Off-Center Ratio). Next, the cutoff energy of photon, electron and positron were investigated for the calculation efficiency with 4, 5, 6 and 7 MeV. Results: The calculation total time until the errors of neutron fluence become within 1%more » decreased as increasing “pnimul”. PDD and OCR showed no differences by the parameter. The calculation time setting the cutoff energy like 4, 5, 6 and 7 MeV decreased as increasing the cutoff energy. However, the errors of photon become within 1% did not decrease by the cutoff energy. Conclusion: The optimum values of “pnimul” and the cutoff energy were investigated on high-energy photon therapy. It is suggest that using the optimum “pnimul” makes the calculation efficiency. The study of the cutoff energy need more investigation.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan)
  2. Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648974
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY SPECTRA; HEAVY IONS; MEV RANGE 01-10; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEUTRON FLUENCE; PHOTONUCLEAR REACTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Hirayama, S, and Fujibuchi, T. SU-F-T-376: The Efficiency of Calculating Photonuclear Reaction On High-Energy Photon Therapy by Monte Carlo Method. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956561.
Hirayama, S, & Fujibuchi, T. SU-F-T-376: The Efficiency of Calculating Photonuclear Reaction On High-Energy Photon Therapy by Monte Carlo Method. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956561.
Hirayama, S, and Fujibuchi, T. Wed . "SU-F-T-376: The Efficiency of Calculating Photonuclear Reaction On High-Energy Photon Therapy by Monte Carlo Method". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956561.
@article{osti_22648974,
title = {SU-F-T-376: The Efficiency of Calculating Photonuclear Reaction On High-Energy Photon Therapy by Monte Carlo Method},
author = {Hirayama, S and Fujibuchi, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Secondary-neutrons having harmful influences to a human body are generated by photonuclear reaction on high-energy photon therapy. Their characteristics are not known in detail since the calculation to evaluate them takes very long time. PHITS(Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System) Monte Carlo code since versions 2.80 has the new parameter “pnimul” raising the probability of occurring photonuclear reaction forcibly to make the efficiency of calculation. We investigated the optimum value of “pnimul” on high-energy photon therapy. Methods: The geometry of accelerator head based on the specification of a Varian Clinac 21EX was used for PHITS ver. 2.80. The phantom (30 cm * 30 cm * 30 cm) filled the composition defined by ICRU(International Commission on Radiation Units) was placed at source-surface distance 100 cm. We calculated the neutron energy spectra in the surface of ICRU phantom with “pnimal” setting 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000 and compared the total calculation time and the behavior of photon using PDD(Percentage Depth Dose) and OCR(Off-Center Ratio). Next, the cutoff energy of photon, electron and positron were investigated for the calculation efficiency with 4, 5, 6 and 7 MeV. Results: The calculation total time until the errors of neutron fluence become within 1% decreased as increasing “pnimul”. PDD and OCR showed no differences by the parameter. The calculation time setting the cutoff energy like 4, 5, 6 and 7 MeV decreased as increasing the cutoff energy. However, the errors of photon become within 1% did not decrease by the cutoff energy. Conclusion: The optimum values of “pnimul” and the cutoff energy were investigated on high-energy photon therapy. It is suggest that using the optimum “pnimul” makes the calculation efficiency. The study of the cutoff energy need more investigation.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956561},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) – compared with conventional photon therapy – is routinely set to 1.1. However, experimental in vitro studies indicate evidence for the variability of the RBE. To clarify the impact on patient treatment, investigation of the RBE in a preclinical case study should be performed. Methods: The Monte Carlo software TOPAS was used to simulate the radiation field of an irradiation setup at the experimental beamline of the proton therapy facility (OncoRay) in Dresden, Germany. Simulations were performed on cone beam CT-data (CBCT) of a xenogeneous mouse with an orthotopic lung carcinomamore » obtained by an in-house developed small animal image-guided radiotherapy device. A homogeneous physical fraction dose of 1.8Gy was prescribed for the contoured tumor volume. Simulated dose and linear energy transfer distributions were used to estimate RBE values in the mouse based on an RBE model by Wedenberg et al. To characterize radiation sensitivity of normal and tumor tissue, α/β-ratios were taken from the literature for NB1RGB (10.1Gy) and human squamous lung cancer (6.2Gy) cell lines, respectively. Results: Good dose coverage of the target volume was achieved with a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The contra-lateral lung was completely spared from receiving radiation. An increase in RBE towards the distal end of the SOBP from 1.07 to 1.35 and from 1.05 to 1.3 was observed when considering normal tissue and tumor, respectively, with the highest RBE values located distal to the target volume. Conclusion: Modeled RBE values simulated on CBCT for experimental preclinical proton therapy varied with tissue type and depth in a mouse and differed therefore from a constant value of 1.1. Further translational work will include, first, conducting preclinical experiments and, second, analogous RBE studies in patients using experimentally verified simulation settings for our clinically used patient-specific beam conforming technique.« less
  • Purpose: To use the Attila deterministic solver as a supplement to Monte Carlo for calculating out-of-field organ dose in support of epidemiological studies looking at the risks of second cancers. Supplemental dosimetry tools are needed to speed up dose calculations for studies involving large-scale patient cohorts. Methods: Attila is a multi-group discrete ordinates code which can solve the 3D photon-electron coupled linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation on a finite-element mesh. Dose is computed by multiplying the calculated particle flux in each mesh element by a medium-specific energy deposition cross-section. The out-of-field dosimetry capability of Attila is investigated by comparing averagemore » organ dose to that which is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The test scenario consists of a 6 MV external beam treatment of a female patient with a tumor in the left breast. The patient is simulated by a whole-body adult reference female computational phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP6 and XVMC. Attila can export a tetrahedral mesh for MCNP6, allowing for a direct comparison between the two codes. The Attila and Monte Carlo methods were also compared in terms of calculation speed and complexity of simulation setup. A key perquisite for this work was the modeling of a Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator. Results: The solid mesh of the torso part of the adult female phantom for the Attila calculation was prepared using the CAD software SpaceClaim. Preliminary calculations suggest that Attila is a user-friendly software which shows great promise for our intended application. Computational performance is related to the number of tetrahedral elements included in the Attila calculation. Conclusion: Attila is being explored as a supplement to the conventional Monte Carlo radiation transport approach for performing retrospective patient dosimetry. The goal is for the dosimetry to be sufficiently accurate for use in retrospective epidemiological investigations.« less
  • Purpose: Electron arc therapy provides excellent dose distributions for treating superficial tumors along curved surfaces. However this modality has not received widespread application due to the lack of needed advancement in electron beam delivery, accurate electron dose calculation and treatment plan optimization. The aim of the current work is to investigate possible parameters that can be optimized for electron arc (eARC) therapy. Methods: The MCBEAM code was used to generate phase space files for 6 and 12MeV electron beam energies from a Varian trilogy machine. An Electron Multi-leaf collimator eMLC of 2cm thickness positioned at 82 cm source collimated distancemore » was used in the study. Dose distributions for electron arcs were calculated inside a cylindrical phantom using the MCSIM code. The Cylindrical phantom was constructed with 0.2cm voxels and a 15cm diameter. Electron arcs were delivered with two different approaches. The first approach was to deliver the arc as segments of very small field widths. In this approach we also tested the impact of the segment size and the arc increment angle. The second approach is to deliver the arc as a sum of large fields each covering the whole target as seen from the beam eye view. Results: In considering 90 % as the prescription isodose line, the first approach showed a region of buildup proceeding before the prescription zone. This build up is minimizing with the second approach neglecting need for bolus. The second approach also showed less x-ray contamination. In both approaches the variation of the segment size changed the size and location of the prescription isodose line. The optimization process for eARC could involve interplay between small and large segments to achieve desired coverage. Conclusion: An advanced modulation of eARCs will allow for tailored dose distribution for superficial curved target as with challenging scalp cases.« less
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