skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-T-366: Dosimetric Parameters Enhancement of 120-Leaf Millennium MLC Using EGSnrc and IAEA Phase-Space Data

Abstract

Purpose: Recently, the multileaf collimators (MLC) have become an important part of any LINAC collimation systems because they reduce the treatment planning time and improves the conformity. Important factors that affects the MLCs collimation performance are leaves material composition and their thickness. In this study, we investigate the main dosimetric parameters of 120-leaf Millennium MLC including dose in the buildup point, physical penumbra as well as average and end leaf leakages. Effects of the leaves geometry and density on these parameters are evaluated Methods: From EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc modules are used to evaluate the dosimetric parameters of a water phantom exposed to a Varian xi for 100cm SSD. Using IAEA phasespace data just above MLC (Z=46cm) and BEAMnrc, for the modified 120-leaf Millennium MLC a new phase space data at Z=52cm is produces. The MLC is modified both in leaf thickness and material composition. EGSgui code generates 521ICRU library for tungsten alloys. DOSXYZnrc with the new phase space evaluates the dose distribution in a water phantom of 60×60×20 cm3 with voxel size of 4×4×2 mm3. Using DOSXYZnrc dose distributions for open beam and closed beam as well as the leakages definition, end leakage, average leakage andmore » physical penumbra are evaluated. Results: A new MLC with improved dosimetric parameters is proposed. The physical penumbra for proposed MLC is 4.7mm compared to 5.16 mm for Millennium. Average leakage in our design is reduced to 1.16% compared to 1.73% for Millennium, the end leaf leakage suggested design is also reduced to 4.86% compared to 7.26% of Millennium. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed MLC with enhanced dosimetric parameters could improve the conformity of treatment planning.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648964
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; COLLIMATORS; IAEA; LEAVES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHASE SPACE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; TUNGSTEN ALLOYS

Citation Formats

Haddad, K, and Alopoor, H. SU-F-T-366: Dosimetric Parameters Enhancement of 120-Leaf Millennium MLC Using EGSnrc and IAEA Phase-Space Data. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956551.
Haddad, K, & Alopoor, H. SU-F-T-366: Dosimetric Parameters Enhancement of 120-Leaf Millennium MLC Using EGSnrc and IAEA Phase-Space Data. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956551.
Haddad, K, and Alopoor, H. 2016. "SU-F-T-366: Dosimetric Parameters Enhancement of 120-Leaf Millennium MLC Using EGSnrc and IAEA Phase-Space Data". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956551.
@article{osti_22648964,
title = {SU-F-T-366: Dosimetric Parameters Enhancement of 120-Leaf Millennium MLC Using EGSnrc and IAEA Phase-Space Data},
author = {Haddad, K and Alopoor, H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Recently, the multileaf collimators (MLC) have become an important part of any LINAC collimation systems because they reduce the treatment planning time and improves the conformity. Important factors that affects the MLCs collimation performance are leaves material composition and their thickness. In this study, we investigate the main dosimetric parameters of 120-leaf Millennium MLC including dose in the buildup point, physical penumbra as well as average and end leaf leakages. Effects of the leaves geometry and density on these parameters are evaluated Methods: From EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc modules are used to evaluate the dosimetric parameters of a water phantom exposed to a Varian xi for 100cm SSD. Using IAEA phasespace data just above MLC (Z=46cm) and BEAMnrc, for the modified 120-leaf Millennium MLC a new phase space data at Z=52cm is produces. The MLC is modified both in leaf thickness and material composition. EGSgui code generates 521ICRU library for tungsten alloys. DOSXYZnrc with the new phase space evaluates the dose distribution in a water phantom of 60×60×20 cm3 with voxel size of 4×4×2 mm3. Using DOSXYZnrc dose distributions for open beam and closed beam as well as the leakages definition, end leakage, average leakage and physical penumbra are evaluated. Results: A new MLC with improved dosimetric parameters is proposed. The physical penumbra for proposed MLC is 4.7mm compared to 5.16 mm for Millennium. Average leakage in our design is reduced to 1.16% compared to 1.73% for Millennium, the end leaf leakage suggested design is also reduced to 4.86% compared to 7.26% of Millennium. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed MLC with enhanced dosimetric parameters could improve the conformity of treatment planning.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956551},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • This paper presents the implementation of the bremsstrahlung cross-section enhancement (BCSE) variance-reduction technique into the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc system. BCSE makes the simulation of x-ray production from bremsstrahlung targets more efficient; it does so by artificially making the rare event of bremsstrahlung emission more abundant, which increases the number of statistically-independent photons that contribute to reducing the variance of the quantity of interest without increasing the CPU time appreciably. BCSE does not perturb the charged-particle transport in EGSnrc and it is made compatible with all other variance-reduction techniques already used in EGSnrc and BEAMnrc, including range rejection, uniform bremsstrahlung splitting, and directionalmore » bremsstrahlung splitting. When optimally combining BCSE with splitting to simulate typical situations of interest in medical physics research and in clinical practice, efficiencies can be up to five orders of magnitude larger than those obtained with analog simulations, and up to a full order of magnitude larger than those obtained with optimized splitting alone (which is the state-of-the-art of the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc system before this study was carried out). This study recommends that BCSE be combined with the existing splitting techniques for all EGSnrc/BEAMnrc simulations that involve bremsstrahlung targets, both in the kilovoltage and megavoltage range. Optimum cross-section enhancement factors for typical situations in diagnostic x-ray imaging and in radiotherapy are recommended, along with an easy algorithm for simulation optimization.« less
  • Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtainedmore » via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}. The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm{sup 3} water phantom was 4x4x4 mm{sup 3}. For the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm{sup 3} voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size for fields up to 30x30 cm{sup 2}, the agreement is within 2% for depths up to 10 cm. At 20 cm depth, the in-field maximum dose difference for the 30x30 cm{sup 2} open field is within 4%, while the smaller field sizes agree within 2%. Outside the field size, agreement within 1% of the maximum dose difference is obtained for all fields. The calculated output factors varied from 0.938{+-}0.015 for the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field to 1.088{+-}0.024 for the 40x40 cm{sup 2} field. Their agreement with the experimental output factors is within 1%. Conclusions: The authors have validated a geant4 simulated IAEA-compliant phase space of the TrueBeam linac for the 6 MV beam obtained using a high accuracy geometry implementation from cad. These files are publicly available and can be used for further research.« less
  • Purpose: To extend the capability of the EGSnrc C++ class library (egs++) to write and read IAEA phase-space files as a particle source, and to assess the relative efficiency gain in dose calculation using an IAEA phase-space source for modelling a miniature low energy x-ray source. Methods: We created a new ausgab object to score particles exiting a user-defined geometry and write them to an IAEA phase-space file. A new particle source was created to read from IAEA phase-space data. With these tools, a phase-space file was generated for particles exiting a miniature 50 kVp x-ray tube (The INTRABEAM System,more » Carl Zeiss). The phase-space source was validated by comparing calculated PDDs with a full electron source simulation of the INTRABEAM. The dose calculation efficiency gain of the phase-space source was determined relative to the full simulation. The efficiency gain as a function of i) depth in water, and ii) job parallelization was investigated. Results: The phase-space and electron source PDDs were found to agree to 0.5% RMS, comparable to statistical uncertainties. The use of a phase-space source for the INTRABEAM led to a relative efficiency gain of greater than 20 over the full electron source simulation, with an increase of up to a factor of 196. The efficiency gain was found to decrease with depth in water, due to the influence of scattering. Job parallelization (across 2 to 256 cores) was not found to have any detrimental effect on efficiency gain. Conclusion: A set of tools has been developed for writing and reading IAEA phase-space files, which can be used with any egs++ user code. For simulation of a low energy x-ray tube, the use of a phase-space source was found to increase the relative dose calculation efficiency by factor of up to 196. The authors acknowledge partial support by the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Grant No. 432290).« less
  • Energy modulated electron therapy (EMET) based on Monte Carlo dose calculation is a promising technique that enhances the treatment planning and delivery of superficially located tumors. This study investigated the application of EMET using a novel few-leaf electron collimator (FLEC) in head and neck and breast sites in comparison with three-dimensional conventional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. Treatment planning was performed for two parotid cases and one breast case. Four plans were compared for each case: 3D-CRT, IMRT, 3D-CRT in conjunction with EMET (EMET-CRT), and IMRT in conjunction with EMET (EMET-IMRT), all of which weremore » performed and calculated with Monte Carlo techniques. For all patients, dose volume histograms (DVHs) were obtained for all organs of interest and the DVHs were used as a means of comparing the plans. Homogeneity and conformity of dose distributions were calculated, as well as a sparing index that compares the effect of the low isodose lines. In addition, the whole-body dose equivalent (WBDE) was estimated for each plan. Adding EMET delivered with the FLEC to 3D-CRT improves sparing of normal tissues. For the two head and neck cases, the mean dose to the contralateral parotid and brain stem was reduced relative to IMRT by 43% and 84%, and by 57% and 71%, respectively. Improved normal tissue sparing was quantified as an increase in sparing index of 47% and 30% for the head and neck and the breast cases, respectively. Adding EMET to either 3D-CRT or IMRT results in preservation of target conformity and dose homogeneity. When adding EMET to the treatment plan, the WBDE was reduced by between 6% and 19% for 3D-CRT and by between 21% and 33% for IMRT, while WBDE for EMET-CRT was reduced by up to 72% when compared with IMRT. FLEC offers a practical means of delivering modulated electron therapy. Although adding EMET delivered using the FLEC results in perturbation of target conformity when compared to IMRT, it significantly improves normal tissue sparing while offering enhanced target conformity to the 3D-CRT planning. The addition of EMET systematically leads to a reduction in WBDE especially when compared with IMRT.« less
  • Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of a prototype developed for breathing-synchronized irradiation by phantom measurement and report on the first clinical experience of 3 patients. Methods and Materials: Adaptations to a commercially available image-guidance technique (Novalis Body/ExacTrac4.0; BrainLAB AG, Heimstetten, Germany) were implemented, allowing breathing-synchronized irradiation with the Novalis system. A simple phantom simulating a breathing pattern of 16 cycles per minute and covering a distance of 4 cm was introduced to assess the system's performance to: (1) trigger the linac at the right moment (using a hidden target in the form of a 3-mm metal beads mounted tomore » the phantom); (2) assess the delivered dose in nongated and gated mode (using an ionization chamber mounted to the phantom); (3) evaluate dose blurring and interplay between organ motion and leaf motion when applying dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques (using radiographic film mounted to the phantom). The effect of motion was evaluated by importing the measured fluence maps generated by the linac into the treatment planning system and recalculating the resulting dose distribution from DMLC IMRT fluence patterns acquired in nongated and gated mode. The synchronized-breathing technique was applied to three clinical cases: one liver metastasis, one lung metastasis, and one primary lung tumor. Results: No measurable delay in the triggering of the linac can be observed based on the hidden target test. The ionization chamber measurements showed that the system is able to improve the dose absorption from 44% (in nongated mode) to 98% (in gated mode) for a small field irradiation (3 x 3 cm{sup 2}) of a moving target. Importing measured fluence maps generated for a realistic patient treatment and actually delivered by the linac into the treatment planning system yielded highly disturbed dose distributions in nongated delivery, whereas the gated delivery showed good agreement with the original theoretical dose distribution. These findings were confirmed by dose-volume histograms. The three different clinical cases revealed three different practical problems that could easily be resolved by minor adjustments to the system. The applied breathing-synchronization technique introduced an increased treatment time by a factor of 3 to 4. Conclusions: Initial tests with the prototype for breathing-synchronized irradiation showed promising results. The use of measured fluence fields, delivered by the linac in nongated and gated mode as imported fluence maps for the treatment planning system, revealed the dramatic impact of dose blurring and interplay between leaf motion and organ motion, as well as the advantage of breathing synchronization to resolve this issue. The latter should, however, be weighed against the increased treatment time.« less