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Title: SU-F-T-360: Dosimetric Impacts On the Mucosa and Bone in Radiotherapy with Unflattened Photon Beams

Abstract

Purpose: This study investigated the dosimetric impacts on the mucosa and bone when using the unflattened photon beams in radiotherapy. Dose calculations were carried out by Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: Heterogeneous phantoms containing water (soft tissue and mucosa), air and bone, with mucosa thicknesses varying from 0.5 – 3 mm were irradiated by the 6 MV unflattened and flattened photon beams (field size = 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}), produced by a Varian TrueBEAM linear accelerator. The photon energy spectra of the beams, mean bone and mucosal doses with different mucosa thicknesses were calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Results: It is found that the flattened photon beams had higher mean bone doses (1.3% and 2% for upper and lower bone regarding the phantom geometry, respectively) than the unflattened beams, and the mean bone doses of both beams did not vary significantly with the mucosa thickness. Similarly, flattened photon beams had higher mucosal dose (0.9% and 1.6% for upper and lower mucosa, respectively) than the unflattened beams. This is due to the larger slope of the depth dose for the unflattened photon beams compared to the flattened. The mucosal doses of both beams were found increased with the mucosamore » thickness. Moreover, the mucosal dose differences between the unflattened and flattened beams increased with the mucosa thickness. For photon energy spectra on the mucosal layers, it is found that the unflattened photon beams contained a larger portion of lowenergy photons than the flattened beams. The photon energy spectra did not change significantly with the mucosa thickness. Conclusion: It is concluded that the mucosal and bone dose for the unflattened photon beams were not more than 2% lower than the flattened beams, though the flattening filter free beams contained larger portion of low-energy photons than the flattened beams.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  2. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648959
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; ENERGY SPECTRA; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; MUCOUS MEMBRANES; PHOTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY; SKELETON; THICKNESS

Citation Formats

Chow, J, and Owrangi, A. SU-F-T-360: Dosimetric Impacts On the Mucosa and Bone in Radiotherapy with Unflattened Photon Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956545.
Chow, J, & Owrangi, A. SU-F-T-360: Dosimetric Impacts On the Mucosa and Bone in Radiotherapy with Unflattened Photon Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956545.
Chow, J, and Owrangi, A. 2016. "SU-F-T-360: Dosimetric Impacts On the Mucosa and Bone in Radiotherapy with Unflattened Photon Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956545.
@article{osti_22648959,
title = {SU-F-T-360: Dosimetric Impacts On the Mucosa and Bone in Radiotherapy with Unflattened Photon Beams},
author = {Chow, J and Owrangi, A},
abstractNote = {Purpose: This study investigated the dosimetric impacts on the mucosa and bone when using the unflattened photon beams in radiotherapy. Dose calculations were carried out by Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: Heterogeneous phantoms containing water (soft tissue and mucosa), air and bone, with mucosa thicknesses varying from 0.5 – 3 mm were irradiated by the 6 MV unflattened and flattened photon beams (field size = 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}), produced by a Varian TrueBEAM linear accelerator. The photon energy spectra of the beams, mean bone and mucosal doses with different mucosa thicknesses were calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Results: It is found that the flattened photon beams had higher mean bone doses (1.3% and 2% for upper and lower bone regarding the phantom geometry, respectively) than the unflattened beams, and the mean bone doses of both beams did not vary significantly with the mucosa thickness. Similarly, flattened photon beams had higher mucosal dose (0.9% and 1.6% for upper and lower mucosa, respectively) than the unflattened beams. This is due to the larger slope of the depth dose for the unflattened photon beams compared to the flattened. The mucosal doses of both beams were found increased with the mucosa thickness. Moreover, the mucosal dose differences between the unflattened and flattened beams increased with the mucosa thickness. For photon energy spectra on the mucosal layers, it is found that the unflattened photon beams contained a larger portion of lowenergy photons than the flattened beams. The photon energy spectra did not change significantly with the mucosa thickness. Conclusion: It is concluded that the mucosal and bone dose for the unflattened photon beams were not more than 2% lower than the flattened beams, though the flattening filter free beams contained larger portion of low-energy photons than the flattened beams.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956545},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To compare contribution and accuracy of delivery for two flattening filter free (FFF) beams of the nominal energy 6 and 10 MV and a 6 MV flattened beam for early stage lung cancer. Methods: For each of 11 patients with stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer three volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were prepared utilizing a 6 MV flattened photon beam (X6FF) and two nonflattened beams of nominal energy 6 and 10 MV (X6FFF, X10FFF). Optimization constraints were set to produce dose distributions that meet the criteria of the RTOG-0915 protocol. The radiation schedule used for plan comparison inmore » all patients was 50 Gy in five fractions. Dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk and delivery times were assessed and compared. All plans were subject to verification using Delta{sup 4} unit (Scandidos, Sweden) and absolutely calibrated gafchromic films in a thorax phantom. Results: All plans had a qualitatively comparable outcome. Obtained dose distributions were conformal (CI < 1.17) and exhibited a steep dose fall-off outside the PTV. The ratio of monitor units for FFF versus FF plans in the authors' study ranged from 0.95 to 1.21 and from 0.93 to 1.25 for X6FFF/X6FF and X10FFF/X6FF comparisons, respectively. The ratio systematically increased with increasing size of the PTV (up to +25% for 150 cm{sup 3} PTV). Yet the integral dose to healthy tissue did not follow this trend. Comparison of cumulative dose volume histograms for a patient's body showed that X6FFF plans exhibit improved conformity and reduced the volume of tissue that received more than 50% of the prescription dose. Parameters related to dose gradient showed statistically significant improvement. CI{sub 50%}, CI{sub 60%}, CI{sub 80%}, and CI{sub 100%} were on average reduced by 4.6% (p < 0.001), 4.6% (p = 0.002), 3.1% (p = 0.002), and 1.2% (p = 0.039), respectively. Gradient measure was on average reduced by 4.2% (p < 0.001). Due to dose reduction in the surrounding lung tissue, the V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and V{sub 12.5} {sub Gy} were reduced by 5.5% (p = 0.002) and 4.5% (p < 0.001). These dosimetric improvements in the fall-off were not observed for the X10FFF plans. Differences in sparing of normal tissues were not found to be statistically significant for either of the two FFF beams. Mean beam-on times were 111 s (2SD = 11 s) for X10FFF, 128 s (2SD = 19 s) for X6FFF, and X6FF plans required on average 269 s (2SD = 71 s). While the mean dose rate was 1555 ± 264 and 1368 ± 63 MU/min, for X10FFF and X6FFF, plans using the conventional X6FF were delivered with the constant maximum dose rate of 600 MU/min. Verification of all plans showed acceptable and comparable results for all plans in homogeneous as well as heterogeneous phantoms. Mean GS (3%, 2 mm) using the Delta{sup 4} phantom were 98.9% (2SD = 3.2%), 99.2% (2SD = 2.3%), and 99.2% (2SD = 2.3%) for X6FFF, X6FF, and X10FFF modalities. Verification using a thorax phantom showed GS > 98% in all cases. Conclusions: The use of FFF beams for stereotactic radiation therapy of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients yielded dose distributions qualitatively comparable to flattened beams and significantly reduced treatment delivery time. Utilizing the X6FFF beam improved conformity of dose distribution. On the other hand, X10FFF beam offered a slight improvement in treatment efficiency, and lower skin and peripheral dose. All effects were relatively small.« less
  • Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been linked with an increased risk of secondary cancer induction due to the extra leakage radiation associated with delivery of these techniques. Removal of the flattening filter offers a simple way of reducing head leakage, and it may be possible to generate equivalent IMRT plans and to deliver these on a standard linear accelerator operating in unflattened mode. Methods and Materials: An Elekta Precise linear accelerator has been commissioned to operate in both conventional and unflattened modes (energy matched at 6 MV) and a direct comparison made between the treatment planning and delivery ofmore » pediatric intracranial treatments using both approaches. These plans have been evaluated and delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom. Results: Plans generated in unflattened mode are clinically identical to those for conventional IMRT but can be delivered with greatly reduced leakage radiation. Measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom at clinically relevant positions including the thyroid, lung, ovaries, and testes show an average reduction in peripheral doses of 23.7%, 29.9%, 64.9%, and 70.0%, respectively, for identical plan delivery compared to conventional IMRT. Conclusions: IMRT delivery in unflattened mode removes an unwanted and unnecessary source of scatter from the treatment head and lowers leakage doses by up to 70%, thereby reducing the risk of radiation-induced second cancers. Removal of the flattening filter is recommended for IMRT treatments.« less
  • This study investigated dosimetric impact due to the bone backscatter in orthovoltage radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate depth doses and photon fluence spectra using the EGSnrc-based code. Inhomogeneous bone phantom containing a thin water layer (1–3 mm) on top of a bone (1 cm) to mimic the treatment sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap was irradiated by the 220 kVp photon beam produced by the Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine. Percentage depth doses and photon energy spectra were determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Results of percentage depth doses showed that the maximum bone dose was about 210–230%more » larger than the surface dose in the phantoms with different water thicknesses. Surface dose was found to be increased from 2.3 to 3.5%, when the distance between the phantom surface and bone was increased from 1 to 3 mm. This increase of surface dose on top of a bone was due to the increase of photon fluence intensity, resulting from the bone backscatter in the energy range of 30 – 120 keV, when the water thickness was increased. This was also supported by the increase of the intensity of the photon energy spectral curves at the phantom and bone surface as the water thickness was increased. It is concluded that if the bone inhomogeneity during the dose prescription in the sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap with soft tissue thickness = 1–3 mm is not considered, there would be an uncertainty in the dose delivery.« less
  • Purpose: This study compared the dependence of depth dose on bone heterogeneity of unflattened photon beams to that of flattened beams. Monte Carlo simulations (the EGSnrc-based codes) were used to calculate depth doses in phantom with a bone layer in the buildup region of the 6 MV photon beams. Methods: Heterogeneous phantom containing a bone layer of 2 cm thick at a depth of 1 cm in water was irradiated by the unflattened and flattened 6 MV photon beams (field size = 10×10 cm{sup 2}). Phase-space files of the photon beams based on the Varian TrueBeam linac were generated bymore » the Geant4 and BEAMnrc codes, and verified by measurements. Depth doses were calculated using the DOSXYZnrc code with beam angles set to 0° and 30°. For dosimetric comparison, the above simulations were repeated in a water phantom using the same beam geometry with the bone layer replaced by water. Results: Our results showed that the beam output of unflattened photon beams was about 2.1 times larger than the flattened beams in water. Comparing the water phantom to the bone phantom, larger doses were found in water above and below the bone layer for both the unflattened and flattened photon beams. When both beams were turned 30°, the deviation of depth dose between the bone and water phantom became larger compared to that with beam angle equal to 0°. Dose ratio of the unflattened and flattened photon beams showed that the unflattened beam has larger depth dose in the buildup region compared to the flattened beam. Conclusion: Although the unflattened photon beam had different beam output and quality compared to the flattened, dose enhancements due to the bone scatter were found similar. However, we discovered that depth dose deviation due to the presence of bone was sensitive to the beam obliquity.« less
  • Purpose: This study investigates the spectra of surface photon energy and energy fluence in the bone heterogeneity and beam obliquity using flattened and unflattened photon beams. The spectra were calculated in a bone and water phantom using Monte Carlo simulation (the EGSnrc code). Methods: Spectra of energy, energy fluence and mean energy of the 6 MV flattened and unflattened photon beams (field size = 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}) produced by a Varian TrueBEAM linear accelerator were calculated at the surfaces of a bone and water phantom using Monte Carlo simulations. The spectral calculations were repeated with the beam anglesmore » turned from 0° to 15°, 30° and 45° in the phantoms. Results: It is found that the unflattened photon beams contained more photons in the low-energy range of 0 – 2 MeV than the flattened beams with a flattening filter. Compared to the water phantom, both the flattened and unflattened beams had slightly less photons in the energy range < 0.4 MeV when a bone layer of 1 cm is present under the phantom surface. This shows that the presence of the bone decreased the low-energy photons backscattered to the phantom surface. When the photon beams were rotated from 0° to 45°, the number of photon and mean photon energy increased with the beam angle. This is because both the flattened and unflattened beams became more hardened when the beam angle increased. With the bone heterogeneity, the mean energies of both photon beams increased correspondingly. This is due to the absorption of low-energy photons by the bone, resulting in more significant beam hardening. Conclusion: The photon spectral information is important in studies on the patient’s surface dose enhancement when using unflattened photon beams in radiotherapy.« less