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Title: SU-F-T-343: Dosimetric Investigation for Fluence Smoothing On VMAT Plans in Monaco for Head - Neck Cancers

Abstract

Purpose: The study investigates the effect of fluence smoothing parameter on VMAT plans for ten head-neck cancer patients using Monaco5.00.04. Methods: VMAT plans were created using Monaco5.00.04 planning system for 10 head-neck patients. Four plans were generated for each patient using available smoothing parameters i.e. high, medium, low and off. The number of monitor units required to deliver 1 cGy was defined as a modulation degree; and was taken as a measure of plan complexity. Routinely used plan quality parameters Conformity index (CI) and Homogeneity index (HI) were used in the study. As a protocol our center, practices “medium” smoothing for clinical implementation. Plans with medium smoothing were opted as reference plans due to the clinical acceptance and dosimetric verifications made on these plans. Plans were generated by varying the smoothing parameter and re-optimization was done. The PTV was evaluated for D98%, D95%, D50%, D1% and prescription isodose volume (PIV). For critical organs; spine and parotids the parameters recorded were D1cc and Dmean respectively. Results: The cohort had the median prescription as 6000 cGy in the range of 6600 cGy - 4500 cGy. The modulation degree was observed to increase up to 6% from reference to the most complex plan.more » High smoothing had about 11% increase in segments which marginally (0.5 to 1%) increased the homogeneity index while conformity index remains constant. For spine the maximum D1cc was observed in medium smoothing as 4639.8 cGy, this plan was clinically accepted and dosimetrically verified. Similarly for parotids, the Dmean was 2011.9 cGy and 1817.05 cGy. Conclusion: The sensitivity of plan quality in terms of smoothing options (high, medium, low and off) available in Monaco 5.00.04 was resulted in minimal difference in terms of target coverage, conformity index and homogeneity index. Similarly changing smoothing did not result in any enhanced advantage in sparing of critical organs.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. FORTIS Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648945
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; CRITICAL ORGANS; MONACO; NEOPLASMS; OPTIMIZATION; PATIENTS; PLANNING; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Jassal, K, Sarkar, B, Ganesh, T, Kaur, H, Giri, U, Mohanti, B, and Munshi, A. SU-F-T-343: Dosimetric Investigation for Fluence Smoothing On VMAT Plans in Monaco for Head - Neck Cancers. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956528.
Jassal, K, Sarkar, B, Ganesh, T, Kaur, H, Giri, U, Mohanti, B, & Munshi, A. SU-F-T-343: Dosimetric Investigation for Fluence Smoothing On VMAT Plans in Monaco for Head - Neck Cancers. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956528.
Jassal, K, Sarkar, B, Ganesh, T, Kaur, H, Giri, U, Mohanti, B, and Munshi, A. Wed . "SU-F-T-343: Dosimetric Investigation for Fluence Smoothing On VMAT Plans in Monaco for Head - Neck Cancers". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956528.
@article{osti_22648945,
title = {SU-F-T-343: Dosimetric Investigation for Fluence Smoothing On VMAT Plans in Monaco for Head - Neck Cancers},
author = {Jassal, K and Sarkar, B and Ganesh, T and Kaur, H and Giri, U and Mohanti, B and Munshi, A},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The study investigates the effect of fluence smoothing parameter on VMAT plans for ten head-neck cancer patients using Monaco5.00.04. Methods: VMAT plans were created using Monaco5.00.04 planning system for 10 head-neck patients. Four plans were generated for each patient using available smoothing parameters i.e. high, medium, low and off. The number of monitor units required to deliver 1 cGy was defined as a modulation degree; and was taken as a measure of plan complexity. Routinely used plan quality parameters Conformity index (CI) and Homogeneity index (HI) were used in the study. As a protocol our center, practices “medium” smoothing for clinical implementation. Plans with medium smoothing were opted as reference plans due to the clinical acceptance and dosimetric verifications made on these plans. Plans were generated by varying the smoothing parameter and re-optimization was done. The PTV was evaluated for D98%, D95%, D50%, D1% and prescription isodose volume (PIV). For critical organs; spine and parotids the parameters recorded were D1cc and Dmean respectively. Results: The cohort had the median prescription as 6000 cGy in the range of 6600 cGy - 4500 cGy. The modulation degree was observed to increase up to 6% from reference to the most complex plan. High smoothing had about 11% increase in segments which marginally (0.5 to 1%) increased the homogeneity index while conformity index remains constant. For spine the maximum D1cc was observed in medium smoothing as 4639.8 cGy, this plan was clinically accepted and dosimetrically verified. Similarly for parotids, the Dmean was 2011.9 cGy and 1817.05 cGy. Conclusion: The sensitivity of plan quality in terms of smoothing options (high, medium, low and off) available in Monaco 5.00.04 was resulted in minimal difference in terms of target coverage, conformity index and homogeneity index. Similarly changing smoothing did not result in any enhanced advantage in sparing of critical organs.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956528},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: The presence of high density dental amalgam in patient CT image data sets causes dose calculation errors for head and neck (HN) treatment planning. This study assesses and compares dosimetric variations in IMRT and VMAT treatment plans due to dental artifacts. Methods: Sixteen HN patients with similar treatment sites (oropharynx), tumor volume and extensive dental artifacts were divided into two groups: IMRT (n=8, 6 to 9 beams) and VMAT (n=8, 2 arcs with 352° rotation). All cases were planned with the Pinnacle 9.2 treatment planning software using the collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm and a range of prescription dosemore » from 60 to 72Gy. Two different treatment plans were produced, each based on one of two image sets: (a)uncorrected; (b)dental artifacts density overridden (set to 1.0g/cm{sup 3}). Differences between the two treatment plans for each of the IMRT and VMAT techniques were quantified by the following dosimetric parameters: maximum point dose, maximum spinal cord and brainstem dose, mean left and right parotid dose, and PTV coverage (V95%Rx). Average differences generated for these dosimetric parameters were compared between IMRT and VMAT plans. Results: The average absolute dose differences (plan a minus plan b) for the VMAT and IMRT techniques, respectively, caused by dental artifacts were: 2.2±3.3cGy vs. 37.6±57.5cGy (maximum point dose, P=0.15); 1.2±0.9cGy vs. 7.9±6.7cGy (maximum spinal cord dose, P=0.026); 2.2±2.4cGy vs. 12.1±13.0cGy (maximum brainstem dose, P=0.077); 0.9±1.1cGy vs. 4.1±3.5cGy (mean left parotid dose, P=0.038); 0.9±0.8cGy vs. 7.8±11.9cGy (mean right parotid dose, P=0.136); 0.021%±0.014% vs. 0.803%±1.44% (PTV coverage, P=0.17). Conclusion: For the HN plans studied, dental artifacts demonstrated a greater dose calculation error for IMRT plans compared to VMAT plans. Rotational arcs appear on the average to compensate dose calculation errors induced by dental artifacts. Thus, compared to VMAT, density overrides for dental artifacts are more important when planning IMRT of HN.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric and practical effects of the Monaco treatment planning system “max arcs-per-beam” optimization parameter in pelvic radiotherapy treatments. Methods: A total of 17 previously treated patients were selected for this study with a range of pelvic disease site including prostate(9), bladder(1), uterus(3), rectum(3), and cervix(1). For each patient, two plans were generated, one using a arc-per-beam setting of ‘1’ and another with setting of ‘2’. The setting allows the optimizer to add a gantry direction change, creating multiple arc passes per beam sequence. Volumes and constraints established from the initialmore » clinical treatments were used for planning. All constraints and dose coverage objects were kept the same between plans, and all plans were normalized to 99.7% to ensure 100% of the PTV received 95% of the prescription dose. We evaluated the PTV conformity index, homogeneity index, total monitor units, number of control points, and various dose volume histogram (DVH) points for statistical comparison (alpha=0.05). Results: We found for the 10 complex shaped target volumes (small central volumes with extending bilateral ‘arms’ to cover nodal regions) that the use of 2 arcs-per-beam achieved significantly lower average DVH values for the bladder V20 (p=0.036) and rectum V30 (p=0.001) while still meeting the high dose target constraints. DVH values for the simpler, more spherical PTVs were not found significantly different. Additionally, we found a beam delivery time reduction of approximately 25%. Conclusion: In summary, the dosimetric benefit, while moderate, was improved over a 1 arc-per-beam setting for complex PTVs, and equivalent in other cases. The overall reduced delivery time suggests that the use of multiple arcs-per-beam could lead to reduced patient on table time, increased clinical throughput, and reduced medical physics quality assurance effort.« less
  • Purpose: To examine the impact of image smoothing and noise on the robustness of textural information extracted from CBCT images for prediction of radiotherapy response for patients with head/neck (H/N) cancers. Methods: CBCT image datasets for 14 patients with H/N cancer treated with radiation (70 Gy in 35 fractions) were investigated. A deformable registration algorithm was used to fuse planning CT’s to CBCT’s. Tumor volume was automatically segmented on each CBCT image dataset. Local control at 1-year was used to classify 8 patients as responders (R), and 6 as non-responders (NR). A smoothing filter [2D Adaptive Weiner (2DAW) with 3more » different windows (ψ=3, 5, and 7)], and two noise models (Poisson and Gaussian, SNR=25) were implemented, and independently applied to CBCT images. Twenty-two textural features, describing the spatial arrangement of voxel intensities calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices, were extracted for all tumor volumes. Results: Relative to CBCT images without smoothing, none of 22 textural features extracted showed any significant differences when smoothing was applied (using the 2DAW with filtering parameters of ψ=3 and 5), in the responder and non-responder groups. When smoothing, 2DAW with ψ=7 was applied, one textural feature, Information Measure of Correlation, was significantly different relative to no smoothing. Only 4 features (Energy, Entropy, Homogeneity, and Maximum-Probability) were found to be statistically different between the R and NR groups (Table 1). These features remained statistically significant discriminators for R and NR groups in presence of noise and smoothing. Conclusion: This preliminary work suggests that textural classifiers for response prediction, extracted from H&N CBCT images, are robust to low-power noise and low-pass filtering. While other types of filters will alter the spatial frequencies differently, these results are promising. The current study is subject to Type II errors. A much larger cohort of patients is needed to confirm these results. This work was supported in part by a grant from Varian Medical Systems (Palo Alto, CA)« less
  • Purpose: The advent of the MR-Linac enables real-time and high soft tissue contrast image guidance in radiation therapy (RT) delivery. Potential hot-spots at air-tissue interfaces, such as the sphenoid sinus, in RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), could potentially occur due to the electron return effect (ERE). In this study, we investigate the dosimetric effects of ERE on the dose distribution at air-tissues interfaces in HNC IMRT treatment planning. Methods: IMRT plans were generated based on planning CT’s acquired for HNC cases (nasopharynx, base of skull and paranasal sinus) using a research planning system (Monaco, v5.09.06, Elekta) employing Montemore » Carlo dose calculations with or without the presence of a transverse magnetic field (TMF). The dose in the air cavity was calculated in a 1 & 2 mm thick tissue layer, while the dose to the skin was calculated in a 1, 3 and 5 mm thick tissue layer. The maximum dose received in 1 cc volume, D1cc, were collected at different TMF strengths. Plan qualities generated with or without TMF or with increasing TMF were compared in terms of commonly-used dose-volume parameters (DVPs). Results: Variations in DVPs between plans with and without a TMF present were found to be within 5% of the planning CT. The presence of a TMF results in <5% changes in sinus air tissue interface. The largest skin dose differences with and without TMF were found within 1 mm of the skin surface Conclusion: The presence of a TMF results in practically insignificant changes in HNC IMRT plan quality, except for skin dose. Planning optimization with skin DV constraints could reduce the skin doses. This research was partially supported by Elekta Inc. (Crowley, U.K.)« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of metallic implant that correlates with the size of targets and metallic implants and distance in between on volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for head and neck (H&N) cancer patients with dental metallic implant. Methods: CT images of H&N cancer patients with dental metallic implant were used. Target volumes with different sizes and locations were contoured. Metal artifact regions excluding surrounding critical organs were outlined and assigned with CT numbers close to water (0HU). VMAT plans with half-arc, one-full-arc and two-full-arcs were constructed and same plans were applied to structure sets with and withoutmore » CT number assignment of metal artifact regions and compared. D95% was utilized to investigate PTV dose coverage and SNC Patient− Software was used for the analysis of dose distribution difference slice by slice. Results: For different targets sizes, variation of PTV dose coverage (Delta-D95%) with and without CT number replacement reduced with larger target volume for all half-arc, one-arc and two-arc VMAT plans even though there were no clinically significant differences. Additionally, there were no significant variations of the maximum percent difference (max.%diff) of dose distribution. With regard to the target location, Delta-D95% and max. %diff dropped with increasing distance between target and metallic implant. Furthermore, half-arc plans showed greater impact than one-arc plans, and two-arc plans had smallest influence for PTV dose coverage and dose distribution. Conclusion: The target size has less correlation of doseimetric impact than the target location relative to metallic implants. Plans with more arcs alleviate the dosimetric effect of metal artifact because of less contribution to the target dose from beams going through the regions with metallic artifacts. Incorrect CT number causes inaccurate dose distribution, therefore appropriately overwriting metallic artifact regions with reasonable CT numbers is recommended. More patient data are collected and under further analysis.« less