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Title: SU-F-T-306: Validation of Mobius 3D and FX for Elekta Linear Accelerators

Abstract

Purpose: Log file based IMRT and VMAT QA is a system that analyzes treatment log files and uses delivery parameters to compute the dose to the patient/phantom. This system was previously commissioned for Varian machines, the purpose of this work is to describe the process for commissioning Mobius for use with Elekta machines. Methods: Twelve IMRT and VMAT plans (6×) were planned and delivered and dose was measured using MapCheck, the results were compared to that computed by Mobius. For 10x and 18x, plans were generated, copied to a phantom and delivered, the dose was measured using a single ion chamber. The difference in measured dose to computed dose (Mobius) was used to adjust the dynamic leaf gap (DLG) in Mobius to achieve optimal agreement between measurements, Mobius and treatment plans. Results: For the measured dose comparison, the average 3%/3mm gamma 97.1% of pixels passed criteria using MapCheck where Mobius computed 96.9% of voxels passing. For 10×, a DLG of −5.5 was determined to achieve optimal results for TPS and measured ion chamber data with an average 0.1% difference and −1.7% respectively. For 18×, a DLG of −3 was determined to achieve optimal results from the TPS and measured datamore » with an average of −0.7% and −1.4% difference on average from a set of IMRT and VMAT plans. The 6x data needed no DLG correction to arrive at agreement with the TPS and the MapCheck measured data. Conclusion: We have validated with measurements for IMRT and VMAT cases the use of Mobius FX with Elekta treatment machines for IMRT and VMAT QA. For 6×, no adjustments to the DLG were required to obtain good results utilizing Mobius whereas for 10× and 18×, the DLG had to be adjusted to obtain optimum agreement with measured data and our TPS.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648914
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Nelson, C, Garcia, M, Calderon, E, and Kirsner, S. SU-F-T-306: Validation of Mobius 3D and FX for Elekta Linear Accelerators. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956491.
Nelson, C, Garcia, M, Calderon, E, & Kirsner, S. SU-F-T-306: Validation of Mobius 3D and FX for Elekta Linear Accelerators. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956491.
Nelson, C, Garcia, M, Calderon, E, and Kirsner, S. 2016. "SU-F-T-306: Validation of Mobius 3D and FX for Elekta Linear Accelerators". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956491.
@article{osti_22648914,
title = {SU-F-T-306: Validation of Mobius 3D and FX for Elekta Linear Accelerators},
author = {Nelson, C and Garcia, M and Calderon, E and Kirsner, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Log file based IMRT and VMAT QA is a system that analyzes treatment log files and uses delivery parameters to compute the dose to the patient/phantom. This system was previously commissioned for Varian machines, the purpose of this work is to describe the process for commissioning Mobius for use with Elekta machines. Methods: Twelve IMRT and VMAT plans (6×) were planned and delivered and dose was measured using MapCheck, the results were compared to that computed by Mobius. For 10x and 18x, plans were generated, copied to a phantom and delivered, the dose was measured using a single ion chamber. The difference in measured dose to computed dose (Mobius) was used to adjust the dynamic leaf gap (DLG) in Mobius to achieve optimal agreement between measurements, Mobius and treatment plans. Results: For the measured dose comparison, the average 3%/3mm gamma 97.1% of pixels passed criteria using MapCheck where Mobius computed 96.9% of voxels passing. For 10×, a DLG of −5.5 was determined to achieve optimal results for TPS and measured ion chamber data with an average 0.1% difference and −1.7% respectively. For 18×, a DLG of −3 was determined to achieve optimal results from the TPS and measured data with an average of −0.7% and −1.4% difference on average from a set of IMRT and VMAT plans. The 6x data needed no DLG correction to arrive at agreement with the TPS and the MapCheck measured data. Conclusion: We have validated with measurements for IMRT and VMAT cases the use of Mobius FX with Elekta treatment machines for IMRT and VMAT QA. For 6×, no adjustments to the DLG were required to obtain good results utilizing Mobius whereas for 10× and 18×, the DLG had to be adjusted to obtain optimum agreement with measured data and our TPS.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956491},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Elekta accelerators controlled by the current clinically used accelerator control system, Desktop 7.01 (D7), uses binned variable dose rate (BVDR) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The next version of the treatment control system (Integrity) supports continuously variable dose rate (CVDR) as well as BVDR. Using CVDR opposed to BVDR for VMAT has the potential of reducing the treatment time but may lead to lower dosimetric accuracy due to faster moving accelerator parts. Using D7 and a test version of Integrity, differences in ability to control the accelerator, treatment efficiency, and dosimetric accuracy between the two systems were investigated.more » Methods: Single parameter tests were designed to expose differences in the way the two systems control the movements of the accelerator. In these tests, either the jaws, multi leaf collimators (MLCs), or gantry moved at constant speed while the dose rate was changed in discrete steps. The positional errors of the moving component and dose rate were recorded using the control systems with a sampling frequency of 4 Hz. The clinical applicability of Integrity was tested using 15 clinically used VMAT plans (5 prostate, 5 H and N, and 5 lung) generated by the SmartArc algorithm in PINNACLE. The treatment time was measured from beam-on to beam-off and the accuracy of the dose delivery was assessed by comparing DELTA4 measurements and PINNACLE calculated doses using gamma evaluation. Results: The single parameter tests showed that Integrity had an improved feedback between gantry motion and dose rate at the slight expense of MLC control compared to D7. The single parameter test did not reveal any significant differences in the control of either jaws or backup jaws between the two systems. These differences in gantry and MLC control together with the use of CVDR gives a smoother Integrity VMAT delivery compared to D7 with less abrupt changes in accelerator motion. Gamma evaluation (2% of 2 Gy and 2 mm) of the calculated doses and DELTA4 measured doses corrected for systematic errors showed an average pass rate of more than 97.8% for both D7, Integrity BVDR, and Integrity CVDR deliveries. Direct comparisons between the measured doses using strict gamma criteria of 0.5% and 0.5 mm showed excellent agreement between D7 and Integrity delivered doses with average pass rates above 95.7%. Finally, the Integrity control system resulted in a significant 35% (55 {+-} 13 s) reduction in treatment time, on average. Conclusions: Single parameter tests showed that the two control systems differed in their feedback loops between MLC, gantry, and dose rate. These differences made the VMAT deliveries more smooth using the new Integrity treatment control system, compared to the current Desktop 7.01. Together with the use of CVDR, which results in less abrupt changes in dose rate, this further increases the smoothness of the delivery. The use of CVDR for VMAT with the Integrity desktop results in a significant reduction in treatment time compared to BVDR with an average reduction of 35%. This decrease in delivery time was achieved without compromising the dosimetric accuracy.« less
  • Purpose: Accurately determining out-of-field doses when using electron beam radiotherapy is of importance when treating pregnant patients or patients with implanted electronic devices. Scattered doses outside of the applicator field in electron beams have not been broadly investigated, especially since manufacturers have taken different approaches in applicator designs. Methods: In this study, doses outside of the applicator field were measured for electron beams produced by a 10×10 applicator on two Varian 21iXs operating at 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, a Varian TrueBeam operating at 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, and an Elekta Versa HD operating atmore » 6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV. Peripheral dose profiles and percent depth doses were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom at 100 cm SSD with a Farmer ion chamber. Doses were compared to peripheral photon doses from AAPM’s Task Group #36 report. Results: Doses were highest for the highest electron energies. Doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. Substantial dose differences were observed between different accelerators; the Elekta accelerator had much higher doses than any Varian unit examined. Surprisingly, doses were often similar to, and could be much higher than, doses from photon therapy. Doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that proper shielding may be very important when utilizing electron beams, particularly on a Versa HD, while treating pregnant patients or those with implanted electronic devices. Applying a water equivalent bolus of Emax(MeV)/4 thickness (cm) on the patient would reduce fetal dose drastically for all clinical energies and is a practical solution to manage the potentially high peripheral doses seen from modern electron beams. Funding from NIH Grant number: #CA180803.« less
  • Purpose: To verify the similarity of the dosimetric characteristics between two Elekta linear accelerators (linacs) in order to treat patients interchangeably on these two machines without re-planning. Methods: To investigate the viability of matching the 6 MV flattened beam on an existing linac (Elekta Synergy with Agility head) with a recently installed new linca (Elekta Versa HD), percent depth doses (PDD), flatness and symmetry output factors were compared for both machines. To validate the beam matching among machines, we carried out two approaches to cross-check the dosimetrical equivalence: 1) the prior treatment plans were re-computed based on the newly builtmore » Versa HD treatment planning system (TPS) model without changing the beam control points; 2) The same plans were delivered on both machines and the radiation dose measurements on a MapCheck2 were compared with TPS calculations. Three VMAT plans (Head and neck, lung, and prostate) were used in the study. Results: The difference between the PDDs for 10×10 cm{sup 2} field at all depths was less than 0.8%. The difference of flatness and symmetry for 30×30 cm{sup 2} field was less than 0.8%, and the measured output factors varies by less than 1% for each field size ranging from 2×2 cm2 to 40×40 cm{sup 2}. For the same plans, the maximum difference of the two calculated dose distributions is 2% of prescription. For the QA measurements, the gamma index passing rates were above 99% for 3%/3mm criteria with 10% threshold for all three clinical plans. Conclusion: A beam modality matching between two Elekta linacs is demonstrated with a cross-checking approach.« less
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the performance of the electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in RayStation v4.0 for an Elekta machine with Agility™ treatment head. Methods: The machine has five electron energies (6–8 MeV) and five applicators (6×6 to 25×25 cm {sup 2}). The dose (cGy/MU at d{sub max}), depth dose and profiles were measured in water using an electron diode at 100 cm SSD for nine square fields ≥2×2 cm{sup 2} and four complex fields at normal incidence, and a 14×14 cm{sup 2} field at 15° and 30° incidence. The dose was also measured for three square fields ≥4×4more » cm{sup 2} at 98, 105 and 110 cm SSD. Using selected energies, the EBT3 radiochromic film was used for dose measurements in slab-shaped inhomogeneous phantoms and a breast phantom with surface curvature. The measured and calculated doses were analyzed using a gamma criterion of 3%/3 mm. Results: The calculated and measured doses varied by <3% for 116 of the 120 points, and <5% for the 4×4 cm{sup 2} field at 110 cm SSD at 9–18 MeV. The gamma analysis comparing the 105 pairs of in-water isodoses passed by >98.1%. The planar doses measured from films placed at 0.5 cm below a lung/tissue layer (12 MeV) and 1.0 cm below a bone/air layer (15 MeV) showed excellent agreement with calculations, with gamma passing by 99.9% and 98.5%, respectively. At the breast-tissue interface, the gamma passing rate is >98.8% at 12–18 MeV. The film results directly validated the accuracy of MU calculation and spatial dose distribution in presence of tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature - situations challenging for simpler pencil-beam algorithms. Conclusion: The electron Monte Carlo algorithm in RayStation v4.0 is fully validated for clinical use for the Elekta Agility™ machine. The comprehensive validation included small fields, complex fields, oblique beams, extended distance, tissue inhomogeneity and surface curvature.« less
  • Though the overwhelming majority of natural processes occur far from the equilibrium, general theoretical approaches to non-equilibrium phase transitions remain scarce. Recent breakthroughs introduced a description of open dissipative systems in terms of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics enabling the identification of a class of non-equilibrium phase transitions associated with the loss of combined parity (reflection) and time-reversal symmetries. Here we report that the time evolution of a single classical spin (e.g. monodomain ferromagnet) governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation in the absence of magnetic anisotropy terms is described by a Mobius transformation in complex stereographic coordinates. We identify the parity-time symmetry-breaking phasemore » transition occurring in spin-transfer torque-driven linear spin systems as a transition between hyperbolic and loxodromic classes of Mobius transformations, with the critical point of the transition corresponding to the parabolic transformation. However, this establishes the understanding of non-equilibrium phase transitions as topological transitions in configuration space.« less