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Title: SU-F-T-259: GPR Tables for the Estimation of Mid-Plane Dose Using EPID

Abstract

Purpose: To develop a simple method for estimating the mid-plane dose (MPD) of a patient using Electronic Portal imaging Device (EPID). Methods: A Varian TrueBeam with aSi100 EPID was used in this study. The EPID images were acquired for a 30 cm × 30 cm homogeneous slab phantom and a 30 cm diameter 20 cm thick cylindrical phantom in the continuous dosimetry mode. The acquired EPID images in XIM format were imported into in-house MATLAB program for the data analysis. First, the dosimetric characteristics of EPID were studied for dose-response linearity, dose-rate dependence, and field size dependence. Next, the average pixels values of the EPID images were correlated with the MPD measured by an ionisation chamber for various thicknesses of the slab phantom (8 cm – 30 cm) and for various square field sizes (3×3 cm{sup 2} – 25×25 cm{sup 2} at the isocenter). Look-up tables called as GPR tables were then generated for both SSD and SAD setup by taking the ratio of MPD measured by the ionisation chamber and the corresponding EPID pixel values. The accuracy of the GPR tables was evaluated by varying the field size, phantom thickness, and wedge angles with the slab and cylindrical phantoms.more » Results: The dose response of EPID was linear from 20 MU to 300 MU. The EPID response for different dose rates from 40 MU/min to 600 MU/min was within ±1%. The difference in the doses from the GPR tables and the doses measured by the ionization chambers were within 2% for slab phantoms, and 3% for the cylindrical phantom for various field sizes, phantom thickness, and wedge angles. Conclusion: GPR tables are a ready reckoner for in-vivo dosimetry and it can be used to quickly estimate the MPD value from the EPID images with an accuracy of ±3% for common clinical treatment. project work funded by Union for International cancer control(UICC) under ICRETT fellowship.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Government Arignar Anna Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Institute, Kanchipuram, TAMILNADU (India)
  2. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648874
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; DOSE RATES; DOSIMETRY; IMAGES; IN VIVO; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSE; PHANTOMS; THICKNESS

Citation Formats

Annamalai, Gopiraj, and Watanabe, Yoichi. SU-F-T-259: GPR Tables for the Estimation of Mid-Plane Dose Using EPID. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956399.
Annamalai, Gopiraj, & Watanabe, Yoichi. SU-F-T-259: GPR Tables for the Estimation of Mid-Plane Dose Using EPID. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956399.
Annamalai, Gopiraj, and Watanabe, Yoichi. 2016. "SU-F-T-259: GPR Tables for the Estimation of Mid-Plane Dose Using EPID". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956399.
@article{osti_22648874,
title = {SU-F-T-259: GPR Tables for the Estimation of Mid-Plane Dose Using EPID},
author = {Annamalai, Gopiraj and Watanabe, Yoichi},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To develop a simple method for estimating the mid-plane dose (MPD) of a patient using Electronic Portal imaging Device (EPID). Methods: A Varian TrueBeam with aSi100 EPID was used in this study. The EPID images were acquired for a 30 cm × 30 cm homogeneous slab phantom and a 30 cm diameter 20 cm thick cylindrical phantom in the continuous dosimetry mode. The acquired EPID images in XIM format were imported into in-house MATLAB program for the data analysis. First, the dosimetric characteristics of EPID were studied for dose-response linearity, dose-rate dependence, and field size dependence. Next, the average pixels values of the EPID images were correlated with the MPD measured by an ionisation chamber for various thicknesses of the slab phantom (8 cm – 30 cm) and for various square field sizes (3×3 cm{sup 2} – 25×25 cm{sup 2} at the isocenter). Look-up tables called as GPR tables were then generated for both SSD and SAD setup by taking the ratio of MPD measured by the ionisation chamber and the corresponding EPID pixel values. The accuracy of the GPR tables was evaluated by varying the field size, phantom thickness, and wedge angles with the slab and cylindrical phantoms. Results: The dose response of EPID was linear from 20 MU to 300 MU. The EPID response for different dose rates from 40 MU/min to 600 MU/min was within ±1%. The difference in the doses from the GPR tables and the doses measured by the ionization chambers were within 2% for slab phantoms, and 3% for the cylindrical phantom for various field sizes, phantom thickness, and wedge angles. Conclusion: GPR tables are a ready reckoner for in-vivo dosimetry and it can be used to quickly estimate the MPD value from the EPID images with an accuracy of ±3% for common clinical treatment. project work funded by Union for International cancer control(UICC) under ICRETT fellowship.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956399},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • A commercial amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been studied to investigate its potential in the field of pretreatment verifications of step and shoot, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 6 MV photon beams. The EPID was calibrated to measure absolute exit dose in a water-equivalent phantom at patient level, following an experimental approach, which does not require sophisticated calculation algorithms. The procedure presented was specifically intended to replace the time-consuming in-phantom film dosimetry. The dosimetric response was characterized on the central axis in terms of stability, linearity, and pulse repetition frequency dependence. The a-Si EPID demonstrated a goodmore » linearity with dose (within 2% from 1 monitor unit), which represent a prerequisite for the application in IMRT. A series of measurements, in which phantom thickness, air gap between the phantom and the EPID, field size and position of measurement of dose in the phantom (entrance or exit) varied, was performed to find the optimal calibration conditions, for which the field size dependence is minimized. In these conditions (20 cm phantom thickness, 56 cm air gap, exit dose measured at the isocenter), the introduction of a filter for the low-energy scattered radiation allowed us to define a universal calibration factor, independent of field size. The off-axis extension of the dose calibration was performed by applying a radial correction for the beam profile, distorted due to the standard flood field calibration of the device. For the acquisition of IMRT fields, it was necessary to employ home-made software and a specific procedure. This method was applied for the measurement of the dose distributions for 15 clinical IMRT fields. The agreement between the dose distributions, quantified by the gamma index, was found, on average, in 97.6% and 98.3% of the analyzed points for EPID versus TPS and for EPID versus FILM, respectively, thus suggesting a great potential of this EPID for IMRT dosimetric applications.« less
  • Treatment verification is a prerequisite for the verification of complex treatments, checking both the treatment planning process and the actual beam delivery. Pretreatment verification can detect errors introduced by the treatment planning system (TPS) or differences between planned and delivered dose distributions. In a previous paper we described the reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) dose distributions in homogeneous phantoms using an in-house developed model based on the beams delivered by the linear accelerator measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and a dose calculation engine using the Monte Carlo code XVMC. The aim of the present study ismore » to extend the method to situations in which tissue inhomogeneities are present and to make a comparison with the dose distributions calculated by the TPS. Dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms, calculated using the fast-Fourier transform convolution (FFTC) and multigrid superposition (MGS) algorithms present in the TPS, were verified using the EPID-based dose reconstruction method and compared to film and ionization chamber measurements. Differences between dose distributions were evaluated using the {gamma}-evaluation method (3%/3 mm) and expressed as a mean {gamma} and the percentage of points with {gamma}>1 (P{sub {gamma}}{sub >1}). For rectangular inhomogeneous phantoms containing a low-density region, the differences between film and reconstructed dose distributions were smaller than 3%. In low-density regions there was an overestimation of the planned dose using the FFTC and MGS algorithms of the TPS up to 20% and 8%, respectively, for a 10 MV photon beam and a 3x3 cm{sup 2} field. For lower energies and larger fields (6 MV, 5x5 cm{sup 2}), these differences reduced to 6% and 3%, respectively. Dose reconstruction performed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom for a 3-D conformal and an IMRT plan, showed good agreement between film data and reconstructed dose values (P{sub {gamma}}{sub >1}<6%). The algorithms of the TPS underestimated the dose in the low-dose regions outside the treatment field, due to an implementation error of the jaws and multileaf collimator of the linac in the TPS. The FFTC algorithm of the TPS showed differences up to 6% or 6 mm at the interface between lung and breast. Two intensity-modulated radiation therapy head and neck plans, reconstructed in a commercial phantom having a bone-equivalent insert and an air cavity, showed good agreement between film measurement, reconstructed and planned dose distributions using the FFTC and MGS algorithm, except in the bone-equivalent regions where both TPS algorithms underestimated the dose with 4%. Absolute dose verification was performed at the isocenter where both planned and reconstructed dose were within 2% of the measured dose. Reproducibility for the EPID measurements was assessed and found to be of negligible influence on the reconstructed dose distribution. Our 3-D dose verification approach is based on the actual dose measured with an EPID in combination with a Monte Carlo dose engine, and therefore independent of a TPS. Because dose values are reconstructed in 3-D, isodose surfaces and dose-volume histograms can be used to detect dose differences in target volume and normal tissues. Using our method, the combined planning and treatment delivery process is verified, offering an easy to use tool for the verification of complex treatments.« less
  • A simplified method of verifying intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields using a Varian aS500 amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is demonstrated. Unlike previous approaches, it does not involve time consuming or complicated analytical processing of the data. The central axis pixel response of the EPID, as well as the profile characteristics obtained from images acquired with a 6 MV photon beam, was examined as a function of field size. Ion chamber measurements at various depths in a water phantom were then collected and it was found that at a specific depth d{sub ref}, the dose response andmore » profile characteristics closely matched the results of the EPID analysis. The only manipulation required to be performed on the EPID images was the multiplication of a matrix of off axis ratio values to remove the effect of the flood field calibration. Similarly, d{sub ref} was found for 18 MV. Planar dose maps at d{sub ref} in a water phantom for a bar pattern, a strip pattern, and 14 clinical IMRT fields from two patient cases each being from a separate anatomical region, i.e., head and neck as well as the pelvis, for both energies were generated by the Pinnacle planning system (V7.4). EPID images of these fields were acquired and converted to planar dose maps and compared directly with the Pinnacle planar dose maps. Radiographic film dosimetry and a MapCHECK dosimetry device (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) were used as an independent verification of the dose distribution. Gamma analysis of the EPID, film, and Pinnacle planar dose maps generated for the clinical IMRT fields showed that approximately 97% of all points passed using a 3% dose/3mm DTA tolerance test. Based on the range of fields studied, the author's results appear to justify using this approach as a method to verify dose distributions calculated on a treatment planning system, including complex intensity modulated fields.« less
  • Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are high resolution systems that produce electronic dose maps with minimal time required for equipment setup, and therefore potentially present a time-saving alternative for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) pretreatment verification. A modified commercial EPID was investigated operated with an opaque sheet blocking the optical signal produced in the phosphor layer as a precursor to a switched mode dual dosimetry-imaging EPID system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this system for direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification. Methods: A Varian amorphous silicon EPID was modifiedmore » by placing an opaque sheet between the Gd{sub 2}S{sub 2}O:Tb phosphor layer and the photodiode array to block the optical photons. The EPID was thus converted to a direct-detecting system (dEPID), in which the high energy radiation deposits energy directly in the photodiode array. The copper build-up was replaced with d{sub max} solid water. Sixty-one IMRT beams of varying complexity were delivered to the EPID, to EDR2 dosimetric film and to a 2D ion chamber array (MapCheck). EPID data was compared to film and MapCheck data using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm pass criteria. Results: The fraction of points that passed the gamma test was on average 98.1% and 98.6%, for the EPID versus film and EPID versus MapCheck comparisons, respectively. In the case of comparison with film, the majority of observed discrepancies were associated with problems related to film sensitivity or processing. Conclusions: The very close agreement between EPID and both film and MapCheck data demonstrates that the modified EPID is suitable for direct dose to water measurement for pretreatment IMRT verification. These results suggest a reconfigured EPID could be an efficient and accurate dosimeter. Alternatively, optical switching methods could be developed to produce a dual-mode EPID with both dosimetry and imaging capabilities.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of transit dose, measured with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), in verifying actual dose delivery to patients. Methods: Plans of 5 patients with lung cancer, who received IMRT treatment, were examined using homogeneous solid water phantom and inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom. To simulate error in patient positioning, the anthropomorphic phantom was displaced from 5 mm to 10 mm in the inferior to superior (IS), superior to inferior (SI), left to right (LR), and right to left (RL) directions. The transit dose distribution was measured with EPID and was compared to the planed dose using gammamore » index. Results: Although the average passing rate based on gamma index (GI) with a 3% dose and a 3 mm distance-to-dose agreement tolerance limit was 94.34 % for the transit dose with homogeneous phantom, it was reduced to 84.63 % for the transit dose with inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom. The Result also shows that the setup error of 5mm (10mm) in IS, SI, LR and SI direction can Result in the decrease in values of GI passing rates by 1.3% (3.0%), 2.2% (4.3%), 5.9% (10.9%), and 8.9% (16.3%), respectively. Conclusion: Our feasibility study suggests that the transit dose-based quality assurance may provide information regarding accuracy of dose delivery as well as patient positioning.« less