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Title: SU-F-T-210: The Variable Virtual Source-To-Axis Distance Effect On A Compact Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System

Abstract

Purpose: We investigate the spot characteristic and dose profiles properties from a compact gantry proton therapy system. This compact design features a dedicated pencil beam scanning nozzle with the scanning magnet located upstream of the final 60 degree bending magnet. Due to the unique beam line design, uncertainty has been raised in the virtual source-to-axis distance (SAD). We investigate its potential clinical impact through measurements and simulation. Methods: A scintillator camera based detector was used to measure spot characteristics and position accuracy. An ion chamber array device was used to measure planar dose profile. Dose profile in-air simulation was performed using in-house built MATLAB program based on additional spot parameters directly from measurements. Spot characteristics such as position and in-air sigma values were used to general simulated 2D elliptical Gaussian spots. The virtual SAD distance changes in the longitudinal direction were also simulated. Planar dose profiles were generated by summation of simulated spots at the isocenter, 15 cm above the isocenter, and 15 cm below the isocenter for evaluation of potential clinical dosimetric impact. Results: We found that the virtual SAD varies depending on the spot location on the longitudinal axis. Measurements have shown that the variable SAD changes frommore » 7 to 12 meters from one end to the other end of the treatment field in the longitudinal direction. The simulation shows that the planer dose profiles differences between the fixed SAD and variable SAD are within 3% from the isocenter profile and the lateral penumbras are within 1 mm difference. Conclusion: Our measurements and simulations show that there are minimum effects on the spot characteristics and dose profiles for this up-stream scanning compact system proton system. Further treatment planning study is needed with the variable virtual SAD accounted for in the planning system to show minimum dosimetric impact.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648827
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; PLANNING; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Zhang, J, Li, X, and Ding, X. SU-F-T-210: The Variable Virtual Source-To-Axis Distance Effect On A Compact Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956348.
Zhang, J, Li, X, & Ding, X. SU-F-T-210: The Variable Virtual Source-To-Axis Distance Effect On A Compact Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956348.
Zhang, J, Li, X, and Ding, X. Wed . "SU-F-T-210: The Variable Virtual Source-To-Axis Distance Effect On A Compact Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956348.
@article{osti_22648827,
title = {SU-F-T-210: The Variable Virtual Source-To-Axis Distance Effect On A Compact Proton Pencil Beam Scanning System},
author = {Zhang, J and Li, X and Ding, X},
abstractNote = {Purpose: We investigate the spot characteristic and dose profiles properties from a compact gantry proton therapy system. This compact design features a dedicated pencil beam scanning nozzle with the scanning magnet located upstream of the final 60 degree bending magnet. Due to the unique beam line design, uncertainty has been raised in the virtual source-to-axis distance (SAD). We investigate its potential clinical impact through measurements and simulation. Methods: A scintillator camera based detector was used to measure spot characteristics and position accuracy. An ion chamber array device was used to measure planar dose profile. Dose profile in-air simulation was performed using in-house built MATLAB program based on additional spot parameters directly from measurements. Spot characteristics such as position and in-air sigma values were used to general simulated 2D elliptical Gaussian spots. The virtual SAD distance changes in the longitudinal direction were also simulated. Planar dose profiles were generated by summation of simulated spots at the isocenter, 15 cm above the isocenter, and 15 cm below the isocenter for evaluation of potential clinical dosimetric impact. Results: We found that the virtual SAD varies depending on the spot location on the longitudinal axis. Measurements have shown that the variable SAD changes from 7 to 12 meters from one end to the other end of the treatment field in the longitudinal direction. The simulation shows that the planer dose profiles differences between the fixed SAD and variable SAD are within 3% from the isocenter profile and the lateral penumbras are within 1 mm difference. Conclusion: Our measurements and simulations show that there are minimum effects on the spot characteristics and dose profiles for this up-stream scanning compact system proton system. Further treatment planning study is needed with the variable virtual SAD accounted for in the planning system to show minimum dosimetric impact.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956348},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. Anmore » in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie Grant from F.R.S.-FNRS. Liyong Lin is partially supported by Varian.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate mass density effects of CT conversion table and its variation in current treatment planning system of spot scanning proton beam using an IROC proton lung phantom for this study. Methods: A proton lung phantom study was acquired to Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC) Quality Assurance Center. Inside the lung phantom, GAF Chromic films and couples of thermal luminescent dosimeter (TLD) capsules embedded in specified PTV and adjacent structures to monitor delivered dosage and 3D dose distribution profiles. Various material such as cork (Lung), blue water (heart), Techron HPV (ribs) and organic material of balsa woodmore » and cork as dosimetry inserts within phantom of solid water (soft tissue). Relative stopping power (RLSP) values were provided. Our treatment planning system (TPS) doesn’t require SP instead relative density was converted relative to water. However lung phantom was irradiated by planning with density override and the results were compared with IROC measurements. The second attempt was conducted without density override and compared with IROC’s. Results: The higher passing rate of imaging and measurement results of the lung phantom irradiation met the criteria by IROC without density override. The film at coronal plane was found to be shift due to inclined cylinder insertion. The converted CT density worked as expected to correlate relative stopping power. Conclusion: The proton lung phantom provided by IROC is a useful tool to qualify our commissioned proton pencil beam delivery with TPS within reliable confidence. The relative mass stopping power ratios of materials were converted from the relative physical density relative to water and the results were satisfied.« less
  • Purpose: Eclipse proton Monte Carlo AcurosPT 13.7 was commissioned and experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in water. Topas 1.3 was used to isolate the cause of differences in output and penumbra between simulation and experiment. Methods: The spot profiles were measured in air at five locations using Lynx. PTW-34070 Bragg peak chamber (Freiburg, Germany) was used to collect the relative integral Bragg peak for 15 proton energies from 100 MeV to 225 MeV. The phase space parameters (σx, σθ, ρxθ) number of protons per MU, energy spread and calculated mean energy provided by AcurosPT were identically implementedmore » into Topas. The absolute dose, profiles and field size factors measured using ionization chamber arrays were compared with both AcurosPT and Topas. Results: The beam spot size, σx, and the angular spread, σθ, in air were both energy-dependent: in particular, the spot size in air at isocentre ranged from 2.8 to 5.3 mm, and the angular spread ranged from 2.7 mrad to 6 mrad. The number of protons per MU increased from ∼9E7 at 100 MeV to ∼1.5E8 at 225 MeV. Both AcurosPT and TOPAS agree with experiment within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference for scenarios including central axis depth dose and profiles at two depths in multi-spot square fields, from 40 to 200 mm, for all the investigated single-energy and multi-energy beams, indicating clinically acceptable source model and radiation transport algorithm in water. Conclusion: By comparing measured data and TOPAS simulation using the same source model, the AcurosPT 13.7 was validated in water within 2 mm penumbra difference or 3% dose difference. Benchmarks versus an independent Monte Carlo code are recommended to study the agreement in output, filed size factors and penumbra differences. This project is partially supported by the Varian grant under the master agreement between University of Pennsylvania and Varian.« less
  • Purpose: To characterize the dose distributions of Cyberknife and intensity-modulated-proton-therapy (IMPT). Methods: A total of 20 patients previously treated with Cyberknife were selected. The original planning-target-volume (PTV) was used in the ‘IMPT-ideal’ plan assuming a comparable image-guidance with Cyberknife. A 3mm expansion was made to create the proton-PTV for the ‘IMPT-3mm’ plan representing the current proton-therapy where a margin of 3mm is used to account for the inferior image-guidance. The proton range uncertainty was taken-care in beam-design by adding the proximal- and distal-margins (3%water-equivalent-depth+1mm) for both proton plans. The IMPT plans were generated to meet the same target coverage asmore » the Cyberknife-plans. The plan quality of IMPT-ideal and IMPT-3mm were compared to the Cyberknife-plan. To characterize plan quality, we defined the ratio(R) of volumes encompassed by the selected isodose surfaces for Cyberknife and IMPT plans (VCK/VIMPT). Comparisons were made for both Cyberknife versus IMPT-ideal and Cyberknife versusIMPT-3mm to further discuss the impact of setup error margins used in proton therapy and the correlation with target size and location. Results: IMPT-ideal plans yield comparable plan quality as CK plans and slightly better OAR sparing while the IMPT-3mm plan results in a higher dose to the OARs, especially for centralized tumors. Comparing to the IMPT-ideal plans, a slightly larger 80% (Ravg=1.05) dose cloud and significantly larger 50% (Ravg=1.3) and 20% (Ravg=1.60) dose clouds are seen in CK plans. However, the 3mm expansion results in a larger high and medium dose clouds in IMPT-3mm plans (Ravg=0.65 for 80%-isodose; Ravg=0.93 for 50%-isodose). The trend increases with the size of the target and the distance from the brainstem to the center of target. Conclusion: Cyberknife is more preferable for treating centralized targets and proton therapy is advantageous for the large and peripheral targets. Advanced image guidance would improve the efficacy of proton therapy for intracranial treatments.« less
  • Purpose: To compare the beam data for proton spot scanning beams for the first two Varian ProBeam sites in the US at the Maryland Proton Treatment Center (MPTC) and Scripps Proton Therapy Center (Scripps). To investigate how well beams can be matched between rooms. Method: Beam data were acquired with independent dosimetry systems and compared for two sites. Integrated depth dose curves (IDDs) were acquired with large volume PTW Bragg peak chambers in a 3D water tank for pencil beams at both sites. Spot profiles were acquired at different distances from the isocenter at a gantry angle of 0 degreesmore » as well as function of gantry angle. Results: IDDs for the two Varian ProBeam proton sites are similar, except in the plateau region were the Scripps data is on average 4.5% higher relative to each other, but only 1.5% relative to the maximum at the Bragg Peak. This increase in the plateau region decrease as energy increase and for energies larger than 180 MeV there is no marked difference. Range in water coincide for all energies within 0.5mm. The sigma of the spot profiles in air are within 10% of each other at isocenter. This difference increase as the detector distance from the isocenter is increased. Conclusion: Beam data of the Varian ProBeam proton spot scanning beams for two sites are very well matched. Differences will not be clinically relevant.« less