skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-T-205: Effectiveness of Robust Treatment Planning to Account for Inter- Fractional Variation in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head Neck Cancer

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefits of robust optimization in intensity modulated proton therapy(IMPT) treatment planning to account for inter-fractional variation for Head Neck Cancer(HNC). Methods: One patient with bilateral HNC previous treated at our institution was used in this study. Ten daily CBCTs were selected. The CT numbers of the CBCTs were corrected by mapping the CT numbers from simulation CT via Deformable Image Registration. The planning target volumes(PTVs) were defined by a 3mm expansion from clinical target volumes(CTVs). The prescription was 70Gy, 54Gy to CTV1, CTV2, and PTV1, PTV2 for robust optimized(RO) and conventionally optimized(CO) plans respectively. Both techniques were generated by RayStation with the same beam angles: two anterior oblique and two posterior oblique angles. The similar dose constraints were used to achieve 99% of CTV1 received 100% prescription dose while kept the hotspots less than 110% of the prescription. In order to evaluate the dosimetric result through the course of treatment, the contours were deformed from simulation CT to daily CBCTs, modified, and approved by a radiation oncologist. The initial plan on the simulation CT was re-replayed on the daily CBCTs followed the bony alignment. The target coverage was evaluated using the daily doses and themore » cumulative dose. Results: Eight of 10 daily deliveries with using RO plan achieved at least 95% prescription dose to CTV1 and CTV2, while still kept maximum hotspot less than 112% of prescription compared with only one of 10 for the CO plan to achieve the same standards. For the cumulative doses, the target coverage for both RO and CO plans was quite similar, which was due to the compensation of cold and hot spots. Conclusion: Robust optimization can be effectively applied to compensate for target dose deficit caused by inter-fractional target geometric variation in IMPT treatment planning.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648822
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COBALT; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; HEAD; NECK; NEOPLASMS; PLANNING; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SIMULATION; VARIATIONS

Citation Formats

Li, X, Zhang, J, Qin, A, Liang, J, Zhou, J, Yan, D, Chen, P, Krauss, D, and Ding, X. SU-F-T-205: Effectiveness of Robust Treatment Planning to Account for Inter- Fractional Variation in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head Neck Cancer. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956342.
Li, X, Zhang, J, Qin, A, Liang, J, Zhou, J, Yan, D, Chen, P, Krauss, D, & Ding, X. SU-F-T-205: Effectiveness of Robust Treatment Planning to Account for Inter- Fractional Variation in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head Neck Cancer. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956342.
Li, X, Zhang, J, Qin, A, Liang, J, Zhou, J, Yan, D, Chen, P, Krauss, D, and Ding, X. 2016. "SU-F-T-205: Effectiveness of Robust Treatment Planning to Account for Inter- Fractional Variation in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head Neck Cancer". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956342.
@article{osti_22648822,
title = {SU-F-T-205: Effectiveness of Robust Treatment Planning to Account for Inter- Fractional Variation in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head Neck Cancer},
author = {Li, X and Zhang, J and Qin, A and Liang, J and Zhou, J and Yan, D and Chen, P and Krauss, D and Ding, X},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefits of robust optimization in intensity modulated proton therapy(IMPT) treatment planning to account for inter-fractional variation for Head Neck Cancer(HNC). Methods: One patient with bilateral HNC previous treated at our institution was used in this study. Ten daily CBCTs were selected. The CT numbers of the CBCTs were corrected by mapping the CT numbers from simulation CT via Deformable Image Registration. The planning target volumes(PTVs) were defined by a 3mm expansion from clinical target volumes(CTVs). The prescription was 70Gy, 54Gy to CTV1, CTV2, and PTV1, PTV2 for robust optimized(RO) and conventionally optimized(CO) plans respectively. Both techniques were generated by RayStation with the same beam angles: two anterior oblique and two posterior oblique angles. The similar dose constraints were used to achieve 99% of CTV1 received 100% prescription dose while kept the hotspots less than 110% of the prescription. In order to evaluate the dosimetric result through the course of treatment, the contours were deformed from simulation CT to daily CBCTs, modified, and approved by a radiation oncologist. The initial plan on the simulation CT was re-replayed on the daily CBCTs followed the bony alignment. The target coverage was evaluated using the daily doses and the cumulative dose. Results: Eight of 10 daily deliveries with using RO plan achieved at least 95% prescription dose to CTV1 and CTV2, while still kept maximum hotspot less than 112% of prescription compared with only one of 10 for the CO plan to achieve the same standards. For the cumulative doses, the target coverage for both RO and CO plans was quite similar, which was due to the compensation of cold and hot spots. Conclusion: Robust optimization can be effectively applied to compensate for target dose deficit caused by inter-fractional target geometric variation in IMPT treatment planning.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956342},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is highly sensitive to uncertainties in beam range and patient setup. Conventionally, these uncertainties are dealt using geometrically expanded planning target volume (PTV). In this paper, the authors evaluated a robust optimization method that deals with the uncertainties directly during the spot weight optimization to ensure clinical target volume (CTV) coverage without using PTV. The authors compared the two methods for a population of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients. Methods: Two sets of IMPT plans were generated for 14 H and N cases, one being PTV-based conventionally optimized and the other CTV-basedmore » robustly optimized. For the PTV-based conventionally optimized plans, the uncertainties are accounted for by expanding CTV to PTV via margins and delivering the prescribed dose to PTV. For the CTV-based robustly optimized plans, spot weight optimization was guided to reduce the discrepancy in doses under extreme setup and range uncertainties directly, while delivering the prescribed dose to CTV rather than PTV. For each of these plans, the authors calculated dose distributions under various uncertainty settings. The root-mean-square dose (RMSD) for each voxel was computed and the area under the RMSD-volume histogram curves (AUC) was used to relatively compare plan robustness. Data derived from the dose volume histogram in the worst-case and nominal doses were used to evaluate the plan optimality. Then the plan evaluation metrics were averaged over the 14 cases and were compared with two-sided paired t tests. Results: CTV-based robust optimization led to more robust (i.e., smaller AUCs) plans for both targets and organs. Under the worst-case scenario and the nominal scenario, CTV-based robustly optimized plans showed better target coverage (i.e., greater D{sub 95%}), improved dose homogeneity (i.e., smaller D{sub 5%}- D{sub 95%}), and lower or equivalent dose to organs at risk. Conclusions: CTV-based robust optimization provided significantly more robust dose distributions to targets and organs than PTV-based conventional optimization in H and N using IMPT. Eliminating the use of PTV and planning directly based on CTV provided better or equivalent normal tissue sparing.« less
  • Purpose: The current practice of considering the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) planning is to use a generic RBE value of 1.1. However, RBE is indeed a variable depending on the dose per fraction, the linear energy transfer, tissue parameters, etc. In this study, we investigate the impact of using variable RBE based optimization (vRBE-OPT) on IMPT dose distributions compared by conventional fixed RBE based optimization (fRBE-OPT). Methods: Proton plans of three head and neck cancer patients were included for our study. In order to calculate variable RBE, tissue specific parameters were obtainedmore » from the literature and dose averaged LET values were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. Biological effects were calculated using the linear quadratic model and they were utilized in the variable RBE based optimization. We used a Polak-Ribiere conjugate gradient algorithm to solve the model. In fixed RBE based optimization, we used conventional physical dose optimization to optimize doses weighted by 1.1. IMPT plans for each patient were optimized by both methods (vRBE-OPT and fRBE-OPT). Both variable and fixed RBE weighted dose distributions were calculated for both methods and compared by dosimetric measures. Results: The variable RBE weighted dose distributions were more homogenous within the targets, compared with the fixed RBE weighted dose distributions for the plans created by vRBE-OPT. We observed that there were noticeable deviations between variable and fixed RBE weighted dose distributions if the plan were optimized by fRBE-OPT. For organs at risk sparing, dose distributions from both methods were comparable. Conclusion: Biological dose based optimization rather than conventional physical dose based optimization in IMPT planning may bring benefit in improved tumor control when evaluating biologically equivalent dose, without sacrificing OAR sparing, for head and neck cancer patients. The research is supported in part by National Institutes of Health Grant No. 2U19CA021239-35.« less
  • Radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies can have side effects that impede quality of life. Theoretically, proton therapy can reduce treatment-related morbidity by minimizing the dose to critical normal tissues. We evaluated the feasibility of spot-scanning proton therapy for head and neck malignancies and compared dosimetry between those plans and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Plans from 5 patients who had undergone IMRT for primary tumors of the head and neck were used for planning proton therapy. Both sets of plans were prepared using computed tomography (CT) scans with the goals of achieving 100% of the prescribed dose tomore » the clinical target volume (CTV) and 95% to the planning TV (PTV) while maximizing conformity to the PTV. Dose-volume histograms were generated and compared, as were conformity indexes (CIs) to the PTVs and mean doses to the organs at risk (OARs). Both modalities in all cases achieved 100% of the dose to the CTV and 95% to the PTV. Mean PTV CIs were comparable (0.371 IMRT, 0.374 protons, p = 0.953). Mean doses were significantly lower in the proton plans to the contralateral submandibular (638.7 cGy IMRT, 4.3 cGy protons, p = 0.002) and parotid (533.3 cGy IMRT, 48.5 cGy protons, p = 0.003) glands; oral cavity (1760.4 cGy IMRT, 458.9 cGy protons, p = 0.003); spinal cord (2112.4 cGy IMRT, 249.2 cGy protons, p = 0.002); and brainstem (1553.52 cGy IMRT, 166.2 cGy protons, p = 0.005). Proton plans also produced lower maximum doses to the spinal cord (3692.1 cGy IMRT, 2014.8 cGy protons, p = 0.034) and brainstem (3412.1 cGy IMRT, 1387.6 cGy protons, p = 0.005). Normal tissue V{sub 10}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 50} values were also significantly lower in the proton plans. We conclude that spot-scanning proton therapy can significantly reduce the integral dose to head and neck critical structures. Prospective studies are underway to determine if this reduced dose translates to improved quality of life.« less
  • Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)-driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTVmore » coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the inter fractional dose variation of a small-bowel displacement system (SBDS)-assisted intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: Four computed tomography (CT) scans were carried out in 10 patients who received radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. The initial CT was taken by use of the SBDS, before the beginning of radiotherapy, and 3 additional CT scans with the SBDS were done in subsequent weeks. IMRT was planned by use of the initial CT, and the subsequent images were fused with the initial CT set. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) changes of the targets (planning targetmore » volume [PTV] = clinical target volume [CTV] + 1.5 cm) and of the critical organs were evaluated after obtaining the volumes of each organ on 4 CT sets. Results: No significant differences were found in PTV volumes. Changes on the DVH of the CTVs were not significant, whereas DVH changes of the PTVs at 40% to 100% of the prescription dose level were significant (V{sub 90%}; 2nd week: p = 0.0091, 3rd week: p = 0.0029, 4th week: p = 0.0050). The changes in the small-bowel volume included in the treatment field were significant. These were 119.5 cm{sup 3} (range, 26.9-251.0 cm{sup 3}), 126 cm{sup 3} (range, 38.3-336 cm{sup 3}), 161.9 cm{sup 3} (range, 37.7-294.6 cm{sup 3}), and 149.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 38.6-277.8 cm{sup 3}) at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks, respectively, and were significantly correlated with the DVH change in the small bowel, which were significant at the 3rd (V{sub 80%}; p = 0.0230) and 4th (V{sub 80%}; p = 0.0263) weeks. The bladder-volume change correlated to the large volume change (>20%) of the small-bowel volume. Conclusions: Significant DVH differences for the small bowel can result because of interfractional position variations, whereas the DVH differences of the CTV were not significant. Strict bladder-filling control and an accurate margin for the PTV, as well as image-guided position verification, are important to achieve the goal of IMRT.« less