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Title: Image Guided Planning for Prostate Carcinomas With Incorporation of Anti-3-[18F]FACBC (Fluciclovine) Positron Emission Tomography: Workflow and Initial Findings From a Randomized Trial

Abstract

Purpose: {sup 18}F-Fluciclovine (anti-1-amino-3-[{sup 18}F]fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) radiotracer that has demonstrated utility for detection of prostate cancer. Our goal is to report the initial results from a randomized controlled trial of the integration of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine PET-CT into treatment planning for defining prostate bed and lymph node target volumes. Methods and Materials: We report our initial findings from a cohort of 41 patients, of the first enrolled on a randomized controlled trial, who were randomized to the {sup 18}F-fluciclovine arm. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-fluciclovine PET-CT for the detection of metabolic abnormalities and high-resolution CT for treatment planning. The 2 datasets were registered first by use of a rigid registration. If soft tissue displacement was observable, the rigid registration was improved with a deformable registration. Each {sup 18}F-fluciclovine abnormality was segmented as a percentage of the maximum standard uptake value (SUV) within a small region of interest around the lesion. The percentage best describing the SUV falloff was integrated in planning by expanding standard target volumes with the PET abnormality. Results: In 21 of 55 abnormalities, a deformable registration was needed to map the {sup 18}F-fluciclovine activity into the simulation CT. Themore » most selected percentage was 50% of maximum SUV, although values ranging from 15% to 70% were used for specific patients, illustrating the need for a per-patient selection of a threshold SUV value. The inclusion of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine changed the planning volumes for 46 abnormalities (83%) of the total 55, with 28 (51%) located in the lymph nodes, 11 (20%) in the prostate bed, 10 (18%) in the prostate, and 6 (11%) in the seminal vesicles. Only 9 PET abnormalities were fully contained in the standard target volumes based on the CT-based segmentations and did not necessitate expansion. Conclusions: The use of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine in postprostatectomy radiation therapy planning was feasible and led to augmentation of the target volumes in the majority (30 of 41) of the patients studied.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)
  2. Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648798
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; EMISSION; FLUORINE 18; FLUORINE COMPOUNDS; LYMPH NODES; PATIENTS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; PROSTATE; RADIOTHERAPY; TRACER TECHNIQUES

Citation Formats

Schreibmann, Eduard, E-mail: eschre2@emory.edu, Schuster, David M., Rossi, Peter J., Shelton, Joseph, Cooper, Sherrie, and Jani, Ashesh B.. Image Guided Planning for Prostate Carcinomas With Incorporation of Anti-3-[18F]FACBC (Fluciclovine) Positron Emission Tomography: Workflow and Initial Findings From a Randomized Trial. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.04.023.
Schreibmann, Eduard, E-mail: eschre2@emory.edu, Schuster, David M., Rossi, Peter J., Shelton, Joseph, Cooper, Sherrie, & Jani, Ashesh B.. Image Guided Planning for Prostate Carcinomas With Incorporation of Anti-3-[18F]FACBC (Fluciclovine) Positron Emission Tomography: Workflow and Initial Findings From a Randomized Trial. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.04.023.
Schreibmann, Eduard, E-mail: eschre2@emory.edu, Schuster, David M., Rossi, Peter J., Shelton, Joseph, Cooper, Sherrie, and Jani, Ashesh B.. 2016. "Image Guided Planning for Prostate Carcinomas With Incorporation of Anti-3-[18F]FACBC (Fluciclovine) Positron Emission Tomography: Workflow and Initial Findings From a Randomized Trial". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.04.023.
@article{osti_22648798,
title = {Image Guided Planning for Prostate Carcinomas With Incorporation of Anti-3-[18F]FACBC (Fluciclovine) Positron Emission Tomography: Workflow and Initial Findings From a Randomized Trial},
author = {Schreibmann, Eduard, E-mail: eschre2@emory.edu and Schuster, David M. and Rossi, Peter J. and Shelton, Joseph and Cooper, Sherrie and Jani, Ashesh B.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: {sup 18}F-Fluciclovine (anti-1-amino-3-[{sup 18}F]fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) radiotracer that has demonstrated utility for detection of prostate cancer. Our goal is to report the initial results from a randomized controlled trial of the integration of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine PET-CT into treatment planning for defining prostate bed and lymph node target volumes. Methods and Materials: We report our initial findings from a cohort of 41 patients, of the first enrolled on a randomized controlled trial, who were randomized to the {sup 18}F-fluciclovine arm. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-fluciclovine PET-CT for the detection of metabolic abnormalities and high-resolution CT for treatment planning. The 2 datasets were registered first by use of a rigid registration. If soft tissue displacement was observable, the rigid registration was improved with a deformable registration. Each {sup 18}F-fluciclovine abnormality was segmented as a percentage of the maximum standard uptake value (SUV) within a small region of interest around the lesion. The percentage best describing the SUV falloff was integrated in planning by expanding standard target volumes with the PET abnormality. Results: In 21 of 55 abnormalities, a deformable registration was needed to map the {sup 18}F-fluciclovine activity into the simulation CT. The most selected percentage was 50% of maximum SUV, although values ranging from 15% to 70% were used for specific patients, illustrating the need for a per-patient selection of a threshold SUV value. The inclusion of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine changed the planning volumes for 46 abnormalities (83%) of the total 55, with 28 (51%) located in the lymph nodes, 11 (20%) in the prostate bed, 10 (18%) in the prostate, and 6 (11%) in the seminal vesicles. Only 9 PET abnormalities were fully contained in the standard target volumes based on the CT-based segmentations and did not necessitate expansion. Conclusions: The use of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine in postprostatectomy radiation therapy planning was feasible and led to augmentation of the target volumes in the majority (30 of 41) of the patients studied.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.04.023},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}
  • Purpose: To describe a more aggressive treatment technique allowing dose escalation to positive para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) in patients with cervical cancer, by means of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Here, we describe methods for simulation and planning of these treatments and provide objectives for target coverage as well as normal tissue sparing to guide treatment plan evaluation. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent simulation on a PET/CT scanner. Treatment plans were generated to deliver 60.0 Gy to the PET-positive PALN and 50.0 Gy to the PALN and pelvic lymph node beds. Treatment plans were optimizedmore » to deliver at least 95% of the prescribed doses to at least 95% of each target volume. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for normal structures. Results: The plans of 10 patients were reviewed. Target coverage goals were satisfied in all plans. Analysis of dose-volume histograms indicated that treatment plans involved irradiation of approximately 50% of the bowel volume to at least 25.0 Gy, with less than 10% receiving at least 50.0 Gy and less than 1% receiving at least 60.0. With regard to kidney sparing, approximately 50% of the kidney volume received at least 16.0 Gy, less than 5% received at least 50.0 Gy, and less than 1% received at least 60.0 Gy. Conclusions: We have provided treatment simulation and planning methods as well as guidelines for the evaluation of target coverage and normal tissue sparing that should facilitate the more aggressive treatment of cervical cancer.« less
  • Purpose: To compare dosimetric characteristics with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging–identified imaging tumor volume (gross tumor volume, GTV), prostate clinical target volume and planning target volume, and organs at risk (OARs) for 2 treatment techniques representing 2 arms of an institutional phase 3 randomized trial of hypofractionated external beam image guided highly targeted radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Group 1 (n=20) patients were treated before the trial inception with the standard dose prescription. Each patient had an additional treatment plan generated per the experimental arm. A total of 40 treatment plans were compared (20 plans for each technique). Group 2 (n=15)more » consists of patients currently accrued to the hypofractionated external beam image guided highly targeted radiation therapy trial. Plans were created as per the treatment arm, with additional plans for 5 of the group 2 experimental arm with a 3-mm expansion in the imaging GTV. Results: For all plans in both patient groups, planning target volume coverage ranged from 95% to 100%; GTV coverage of 89.3 Gy for the experimental treatment plans ranged from 95.2% to 99.8%. For both groups 1 and 2, the percent volumes of rectum/anus and bladder receiving 40 Gy, 65 Gy, and 80 Gy were smaller in the experimental plans than in the standard plans. The percent volume at 1 Gy per fraction and 1.625 Gy per fraction were compared between the standard and the experimental arms, and these were found to be equivalent. Conclusions: The dose per fraction to the OARs can be made equal even when giving a large simultaneous integrated boost to the GTV. The data suggest that a GTV margin may be added without significant dose effects on the OARs.« less
  • Purpose: Perirectal spacing, whereby biomaterials are placed between the prostate and rectum, shows promise in reducing rectal dose during prostate cancer radiation therapy. A prospective multicenter randomized controlled pivotal trial was performed to assess outcomes following absorbable spacer (SpaceOAR system) implantation. Methods and Materials: Overall, 222 patients with clinical stage T1 or T2 prostate cancer underwent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for treatment planning, followed with fiducial marker placement, and were randomized to receive spacer injection or no injection (control). Patients received postprocedure CT and MRI planning scans and underwent image guided intensity modulated radiation therapymore » (79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Spacer safety and impact on rectal irradiation, toxicity, and quality of life were assessed throughout 15 months. Results: Spacer application was rated as “easy” or “very easy” 98.7% of the time, with a 99% hydrogel placement success rate. Perirectal spaces were 12.6 ± 3.9 mm and 1.6 ± 2.0 mm in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There were no device-related adverse events, rectal perforations, serious bleeding, or infections within either group. Pre-to postspacer plans had a significant reduction in mean rectal V70 (12.4% to 3.3%, P<.0001). Overall acute rectal adverse event rates were similar between groups, with fewer spacer patients experiencing rectal pain (P=.02). A significant reduction in late (3-15 months) rectal toxicity severity in the spacer group was observed (P=.04), with a 2.0% and 7.0% late rectal toxicity incidence in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There was no late rectal toxicity greater than grade 1 in the spacer group. At 15 months 11.6% and 21.4% of spacer and control patients, respectively, experienced 10-point declines in bowel quality of life. MRI scans at 12 months verified spacer absorption. Conclusions: Spacer application was well tolerated. Increased perirectal space reduced rectal irradiation, reduced rectal toxicity severity, and decreased rates of patients experiencing declines in bowel quality of life. The spacer appears to be an effective tool, potentially enabling advanced prostate RT protocols.« less
  • Purpose: To identify an optimal margin about the gross target volume (GTV) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases, minimizing toxicity and local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases less than 4 cm in greatest dimension, no previous brain radiation therapy, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) above 70 were eligible for this institutional review board–approved trial. Individual lesions were randomized to 1- or 3- mm uniform expansion of the GTV defined on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting planning target volume (PTV) was treated to 24, 18, or 15 Gy marginal dose for maximum PTV diametersmore » less than 2, 2 to 2.9, and 3 to 3.9 cm, respectively, using a linear accelerator–based image-guided system. The primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR). Secondary endpoints included neurocognition Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test Parts A and B, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), radionecrosis (RN), need for salvage radiation therapy, distant failure (DF) in the brain, and overall survival (OS). Results: Between February 2010 and November 2012, 49 patients with 80 brain metastases were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median KPS was 90, and the predominant histologies were non–small cell lung cancer (25 patients) and melanoma (8). Fifty-five, 19, and 6 lesions were treated to 24, 18, and 15 Gy, respectively. The PTV/GTV ratio, volume receiving 12 Gy or more, and minimum dose to PTV were significantly higher in the 3-mm group (all P<.01), and GTV was similar (P=.76). At a median follow-up time of 32.2 months, 11 patients were alive, with median OS 10.6 months. LR was observed in only 3 lesions (2 in the 1 mm group, P=.51), with 6.7% LR 12 months after SRS. Biopsy-proven RN alone was observed in 6 lesions (5 in the 3-mm group, P=.10). The 12-month DF rate was 45.7%. Three months after SRS, no significant change in neurocognition or quality of life was observed. Conclusions: SRS was well tolerated, with low rates of LR and RN in both cohorts. However, given the higher potential risk of RN with a 3-mm margin, a 1-mm GTV expansion is more appropriate.« less
  • Purpose: To survey image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) practice patterns, as well as IGRT's impact on clinical workflow and planning treatment volumes (PTVs). Methods and Materials: A sample of 5979 treatment site–specific surveys was e-mailed to the membership of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), with questions pertaining to IGRT modality/frequency, PTV expansions, method of image verification, and perceived utility/value of IGRT. On-line image verification was defined as images obtained and reviewed by the physician before treatment. Off-line image verification was defined as images obtained before treatment and then reviewed by the physician before the next treatment. Results: Of 601 evaluablemore » responses, 95% reported IGRT capabilities other than portal imaging. The majority (92%) used volumetric imaging (cone-beam CT [CBCT] or megavoltage CT), with volumetric imaging being the most commonly used modality for all sites except breast. The majority of respondents obtained daily CBCTs for head and neck intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), lung 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or IMRT, anus or pelvis IMRT, prostate IMRT, and prostatic fossa IMRT. For all sites, on-line image verification was most frequently performed during the first few fractions only. No association was seen between IGRT frequency or CBCT utilization and clinical treatment volume to PTV expansions. Of the 208 academic radiation oncologists who reported working with residents, only 41% reported trainee involvement in IGRT verification processes. Conclusion: Consensus guidelines, further evidence-based approaches for PTV margin selection, and greater resident involvement are needed for standardized use of IGRT practices.« less