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Title: IDEAL-CRT: A Phase 1/2 Trial of Isotoxic Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II/III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Abstract

Purpose: To report toxicity and early survival data for IDEAL-CRT, a trial of dose-escalated concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients received tumor doses of 63 to 73 Gy in 30 once-daily fractions over 6 weeks with 2 concurrent cycles of cisplatin and vinorelbine. They were assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to esophageal dose. In group 1, tumor doses were determined by an experimental constraint on maximum esophageal dose, which was escalated following a 6 + 6 design from 65 Gy through 68 Gy to 71 Gy, allowing an esophageal maximum tolerated dose to be determined from early and late toxicities. Tumor doses for group 2 patients were determined by other tissue constraints, often lung. Overall survival, progression-free survival, tumor response, and toxicity were evaluated for both groups combined. Results: Eight centers recruited 84 patients: 13, 12, and 10, respectively, in the 65-Gy, 68-Gy, and 71-Gy cohorts of group 1; and 49 in group 2. The mean prescribed tumor dose was 67.7 Gy. Five grade 3 esophagitis and 3 grade 3 pneumonitis events were observed across both groups. After 1 fatal esophageal perforation in the 71-Gy cohort, 68 Gy was declared the esophageal maximum tolerated dose. With a median follow-up of 35 months, median overallmore » survival was 36.9 months, and overall survival and progression-free survival were 87.8% and 72.0%, respectively, at 1 year and 68.0% and 48.5% at 2 years. Conclusions: IDEAL-CRT achieved significant treatment intensification with acceptable toxicity and promising survival. The isotoxic design allowed the esophageal maximum tolerated dose to be identified from relatively few patients.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [1];  [9];  [2];  [5]; ; ;  [3];  [10];  [8];  [2];  [10] more »; « less
  1. Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS Trust, King's College London, London (United Kingdom)
  2. Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, London (United Kingdom)
  3. Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Bebington (United Kingdom)
  4. Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  5. Poole Hospital, Poole (United Kingdom)
  6. North Wales Cancer Centre, Rhyl (United Kingdom)
  7. Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  8. Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom)
  9. Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guilford (United Kingdom)
  10. Mount Vernon Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22648755
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CHEMOTHERAPY; COMBINED THERAPY; ESOPHAGUS; GY RANGE 10-100; LUNGS; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Landau, David B., E-mail: david.landau@kcl.ac.uk, Hughes, Laura, Baker, Angela, Bates, Andrew T., Bayne, Michael C., Counsell, Nicholas, Garcia-Alonso, Angel, Harden, Susan V., Hicks, Jonathan D., Hughes, Simon R., Illsley, Marianne C., Khan, Iftekhar, Laurence, Virginia, Malik, Zafar, Mayles, Helen, Mayles, William Philip M., Miles, Elizabeth, Mohammed, Nazia, Ngai, Yenting, Parsons, Emma, and and others. IDEAL-CRT: A Phase 1/2 Trial of Isotoxic Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II/III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.03.031.
Landau, David B., E-mail: david.landau@kcl.ac.uk, Hughes, Laura, Baker, Angela, Bates, Andrew T., Bayne, Michael C., Counsell, Nicholas, Garcia-Alonso, Angel, Harden, Susan V., Hicks, Jonathan D., Hughes, Simon R., Illsley, Marianne C., Khan, Iftekhar, Laurence, Virginia, Malik, Zafar, Mayles, Helen, Mayles, William Philip M., Miles, Elizabeth, Mohammed, Nazia, Ngai, Yenting, Parsons, Emma, & and others. IDEAL-CRT: A Phase 1/2 Trial of Isotoxic Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II/III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.03.031.
Landau, David B., E-mail: david.landau@kcl.ac.uk, Hughes, Laura, Baker, Angela, Bates, Andrew T., Bayne, Michael C., Counsell, Nicholas, Garcia-Alonso, Angel, Harden, Susan V., Hicks, Jonathan D., Hughes, Simon R., Illsley, Marianne C., Khan, Iftekhar, Laurence, Virginia, Malik, Zafar, Mayles, Helen, Mayles, William Philip M., Miles, Elizabeth, Mohammed, Nazia, Ngai, Yenting, Parsons, Emma, and and others. 2016. "IDEAL-CRT: A Phase 1/2 Trial of Isotoxic Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II/III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.03.031.
@article{osti_22648755,
title = {IDEAL-CRT: A Phase 1/2 Trial of Isotoxic Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Stage II/III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer},
author = {Landau, David B., E-mail: david.landau@kcl.ac.uk and Hughes, Laura and Baker, Angela and Bates, Andrew T. and Bayne, Michael C. and Counsell, Nicholas and Garcia-Alonso, Angel and Harden, Susan V. and Hicks, Jonathan D. and Hughes, Simon R. and Illsley, Marianne C. and Khan, Iftekhar and Laurence, Virginia and Malik, Zafar and Mayles, Helen and Mayles, William Philip M. and Miles, Elizabeth and Mohammed, Nazia and Ngai, Yenting and Parsons, Emma and and others},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To report toxicity and early survival data for IDEAL-CRT, a trial of dose-escalated concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients received tumor doses of 63 to 73 Gy in 30 once-daily fractions over 6 weeks with 2 concurrent cycles of cisplatin and vinorelbine. They were assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to esophageal dose. In group 1, tumor doses were determined by an experimental constraint on maximum esophageal dose, which was escalated following a 6 + 6 design from 65 Gy through 68 Gy to 71 Gy, allowing an esophageal maximum tolerated dose to be determined from early and late toxicities. Tumor doses for group 2 patients were determined by other tissue constraints, often lung. Overall survival, progression-free survival, tumor response, and toxicity were evaluated for both groups combined. Results: Eight centers recruited 84 patients: 13, 12, and 10, respectively, in the 65-Gy, 68-Gy, and 71-Gy cohorts of group 1; and 49 in group 2. The mean prescribed tumor dose was 67.7 Gy. Five grade 3 esophagitis and 3 grade 3 pneumonitis events were observed across both groups. After 1 fatal esophageal perforation in the 71-Gy cohort, 68 Gy was declared the esophageal maximum tolerated dose. With a median follow-up of 35 months, median overall survival was 36.9 months, and overall survival and progression-free survival were 87.8% and 72.0%, respectively, at 1 year and 68.0% and 48.5% at 2 years. Conclusions: IDEAL-CRT achieved significant treatment intensification with acceptable toxicity and promising survival. The isotoxic design allowed the esophageal maximum tolerated dose to be identified from relatively few patients.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2016.03.031},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 95,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}
  • Purpose: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 30105 tested two different concurrent chemoradiotherapy platforms with high-dose (74 Gy) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after two cycles of induction chemotherapy for Stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to determine if either could achieve a primary endpoint of >18-month median survival. Final results of 30105 demonstrated that induction carboplatin and gemcitabine and concurrent gemcitabine 3D-CRT was not feasible because of treatment-related toxicity. However, induction and concurrent carboplatin/paclitaxel with 74 Gy 3D-CRT had a median survival of 24 months, and is the basis for the experimental arm in CALGB 30610/RTOG 0617/N0628. Wemore » conducted a secondary analysis of all patients to determine predictors of treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Methods and Materials: Patient, tumor, and treatment-related variables were analyzed to determine their relation with treatment-related pulmonary toxicity. Results: Older age, higher N stage, larger planning target volume (PTV)1, smaller total lung volume/PTV1 ratio, larger V20, and larger mean lung dose were associated with increasing pulmonary toxicity on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that V20 and nodal stage as well as treatment with concurrent gemcitabine were associated with treatment-related toxicity. A high-risk group comprising patients with N3 disease and V20 >38% was associated with 80% of Grades 3-5 pulmonary toxicity cases. Conclusions: Elevated V20 and N3 disease status are important predictors of treatment related pulmonary toxicity in patients treated with high-dose 3D-CRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Further studies may use these metrics in considering patients for these treatments.« less
  • Purpose: To prospectively investigate the efficacy and toxicity of accelerated hypofractionated thoracic radiation therapy (HypoTRT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy in the treatment of limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), with the hypothesis that both high radiation dose and short radiation time are important in this setting. Methods and Materials: Patients with previously untreated LS-SCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, and adequate organ function were eligible. HypoTRT of 55 Gy at 2.5 Gy per fraction over 30 days was given on the first day of the second or third cycle of chemotherapy. An etoposide/cisplatin regimen was given to 4 tomore » 6 cycles. Patients who had a good response to initial treatment were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. The primary endpoint was the 2-year progression-free survival rate. Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled from July 2007 through February 2012 (median age, 58 years; 86% male). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 49.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.3%-62.7%). Median survival time was 28.5 months (95% CI 9.0-48.0 months); the 2-year overall survival rate was 58.2% (95% CI 44.5%-71.9%). The 2-year local control rate was 76.4% (95% CI 63.7%-89.1%). The severe hematologic toxicities (grade 3 or 4) were leukopenia (32%), neutropenia (25%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Acute esophagitis and pneumonitis of grade ≥3 occurred in 25% and 10% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-eight patients (64%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusion: Our study showed that HypoTRT of 55 Gy at 2.5 Gy per fraction daily concurrently with etoposide/cisplatin chemotherapy has favorable survival and acceptable toxicity. This radiation schedule deserves further investigation in LS-SCLC.« less
  • Purpose: The aim of this prospective multi-institutional phase 2 study was to investigate disease control, survival outcomes, and toxicity after thoracic three-dimensional radiation therapy (3D-RT) with concurrent chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were 18 to 80 years of age, had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score ≥70%, and newly diagnosed stage IV NSCLC with limited metastatic disease (defined as involving ≤3 organs). Patients received platinum-doublet chemotherapy with concurrent irradiation to the primary tumor. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and acute toxicity. Results: From May 2008 to May 2012, 198more » eligible patients were enrolled from 7 cancer centers. Most patients died with distant metastasis; only 10% died with isolated primary recurrence. Median OS time was 13.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.7-14.3); OS rates were 53.5% at 1 year, 15.8% at 2 years, and 9.2% at 3 years. Median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 9.0 months (95% CI: 7.7-10.3); corresponding PFS rates were 30.8%, 8.2%, and 6.1%. The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year local (primary tumor) control rates were 78.8%, 57.7%, and 55.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that delivery of ≥63 Gy to the primary tumor (P=.014), having a primary tumor volume <134 cm{sup 3} (P=.008), and having a stable or higher KPS score after treatment (P=.01) were independent predictors of better OS. The most common severe (grades 3-4) acute toxicities were hematologic: leukopenia (37.9%), thrombocytopenia (10.1%), and anemia (6.9%). No patients experienced grade 4 or 5 radiation-related toxicity; 2.5% had acute grade 3 pneumonitis, and 6.6% had acute grade 3 radiation esophagitis. Conclusions: Thoracic 3D-RT to the primary tumor with concurrent chemotherapy led to satisfactory survival outcomes with acceptable toxicity. Radiation dose, primary tumor volume, and PFS after treatment all predicted survival in these patients with limited-metastasis NSCLC.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of RTOG 97-12 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods: Sixty-four patients received four cycles of cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} i.v.) and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. Days 1-3) (PE), with concurrent thoracic RT starting on Day 1. Thoracic RT was given during the first two cycles with 1.8 Gy/fraction daily to the clinical target volume, followed by thoracic RT to the gross tumor volume b.i.d. for the last 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 treatment days (totalmore » dose 50.4, 54.0, 57.6, 61.2, or 64.8 Gy, respectively). The MTD was based on the dose that produced Grades 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity (mainly esophagitis and pneumonitis) in greater than 50% of patients. Results: After the first 8 patients were enrolled in Arm 1, administration of etoposide was changed from 120 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 2 and 3 of each cycle to 240 mg/m{sup 2} p.o. for patient convenience as outpatients. Total thoracic RT doses from 50.4 Gy to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks given with PE were well tolerated. Three of the first 5 patients in the 64.8 Gy arm developed Grade 3 acute esophagitis; the MTD was determined to be 61.2 Gy. Fifty-four (87%) of the 62 evaluable patients achieved a complete (68%) or partial (19%) tumor response. The 18-month survival was 25% for patients receiving 50.4 Gy and 82% for those receiving 61.2 Gy. Conclusions: The MTD for this accelerated thoracic RT regimen with concurrent PE was 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV)more » on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538/Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30610).« less