skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Calibration of CryojetHT and Cobra Plus Cryosystems used in X-ray diffraction studies

Abstract

CryoJetHT (Oxford Instruments) and Cobra Plus (Oxford Cryosystems) cryosystems, which are used for sample cooling in X-ray diffraction experiments, have been calibrated. It is shown that the real temperature in the vicinity of the sample differs significantly (the deviation is as high as 8–10 K at low temperatures) from the temperature recorded by authorized sensors of these systems. The calibration results are confirmed by measurements of the unit-cell parameters of GdFe{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} single crystal in the temperature range of its phase transition. It is shown that, to determine the real temperature of a sample, one must perform an independent calibration of cryosystems rather than rely on their ratings.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22645430
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Crystallography Reports; Journal Volume: 61; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; BORON OXIDES; GADOLINIUM COMPOUNDS; IRON COMPOUNDS; MONOCRYSTALS; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@crys.ras.ru, Verin, I. A., and Smirnova, E. S. Calibration of CryojetHT and Cobra Plus Cryosystems used in X-ray diffraction studies. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1134/S1063774516040052.
Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@crys.ras.ru, Verin, I. A., & Smirnova, E. S. Calibration of CryojetHT and Cobra Plus Cryosystems used in X-ray diffraction studies. United States. doi:10.1134/S1063774516040052.
Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@crys.ras.ru, Verin, I. A., and Smirnova, E. S. 2016. "Calibration of CryojetHT and Cobra Plus Cryosystems used in X-ray diffraction studies". United States. doi:10.1134/S1063774516040052.
@article{osti_22645430,
title = {Calibration of CryojetHT and Cobra Plus Cryosystems used in X-ray diffraction studies},
author = {Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@crys.ras.ru and Verin, I. A. and Smirnova, E. S.},
abstractNote = {CryoJetHT (Oxford Instruments) and Cobra Plus (Oxford Cryosystems) cryosystems, which are used for sample cooling in X-ray diffraction experiments, have been calibrated. It is shown that the real temperature in the vicinity of the sample differs significantly (the deviation is as high as 8–10 K at low temperatures) from the temperature recorded by authorized sensors of these systems. The calibration results are confirmed by measurements of the unit-cell parameters of GdFe{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} single crystal in the temperature range of its phase transition. It is shown that, to determine the real temperature of a sample, one must perform an independent calibration of cryosystems rather than rely on their ratings.},
doi = {10.1134/S1063774516040052},
journal = {Crystallography Reports},
number = 4,
volume = 61,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • Sorption studies were carried out to investigate removal of 2.4-dichlorophenol (2.4-DCP) from aqueous solution in a fluidized bed by two types of adsorbent mixtures: BC (Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate), and HBC (Hydroxyapatite plus Bamboo char plus Calcium sulphate); both manufactured in ball shape. The main material bamboo char was characterized by FTIR, DTA and SEM. The adsorption experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed circulation column. Adsorption, isotherms and kinetic studies were established under 180 min operating process time, at different initial 2.4-DCP solution concentrations ranging from 5–10 mg/L, and at different flow rates ranging from 0.25–0.75 L/min. Themore » data obtained fitted well for both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; indicating favorable condition of monolayer adsorption. The kinetics of both adsorbents complies with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. BC was proven a new effective composite and low cost adsorbent which can be applied in the field of wastewater treatment, and it can also play an important role in industry water treatment« less
  • We present recent results from hot spot investigations in imploding Al wire array z-pinches on the COBRA generator at Cornell University using x-ray diagnostics. Measurements of the temporal and spatial distribution of hot spots in stagnating plasmas by an x-ray streak-camera are included. Experiments show that hot spots have nanosecond lifetime and appear randomly along the array axis after plasma stagnation in secondary pinches in 8 mm diameter and during plasma stagnation in the arrays with 4 mm diameter.
  • Tests of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept will make use of the 27 MA Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to implode a cylindrical metal liner to compress and heat preheated, magnetized plasma contained within it. While most pulsed power machines produce much lower currents than the Z-machine, there are issues that can still be addressed on smaller scale facilities. Recent work on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) has made use of 10 mm long and 4 mm diameter metal liners having different wall thicknesses to study the initiation of plasma on the liner’s surface asmore » well as axial magnetic field compression [P.-A. Gourdain et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 083006 (2013)]. This report presents experimental results with non-imploding liners, investigating the impact the liner’s surface structure has on initiation and ablation. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and optical 12 frame camera imaging were used to observe and assess emission non-uniformities as they developed. Axial and side-on interferometry was used to determine the distribution of plasma near the liner surface, including the impact of non-uniformities during the plasma initiation and ablation phases of the experiments.« less
  • We present a kinetic simulation of the plasma formed by photoionization in the intense flux of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) light source. The model is based on the particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo approach. The photoelectric effect and ionization by electron collisions are included. The time evolution of the low density argon plasma is simulated during and after the EUV pulse and the ion-induced sputtering of the coating material of a normal incidence collector mirror is computed. The relation between the time and position at which the ions are created and their final energy is studied, revealing how the evolutionmore » and the properties of the sheath influence the amount of sputtered material. The influence of the gas pressure and the source intensity is studied, evaluating the behavior of Ar{sup +} and Ar{sup 2+} ions. A way to reduce the damage to the collector mirror is presented.« less