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Title: A “Train-Track” Technique in Anatomic Reconstruction of SVC Bifurcation Complicated by Cardiac Tamponade: An Introspection

Abstract

This report describes a stenting technique used to anatomically reconstruct superior vena cava (SVC) bifurcation in a patient with benign SVC syndrome. After recanalizing the SVC bifurcation, we exchanged two 0.035-in. wires for two 0.018-in. wires, deployed the SVC stent over these two wires (“train-track” technique), and stented each innominate vein over one wire. However, our decisions to recanalize both innominate veins, use the “buddy-wire” technique for SVC dilation, and dilate the SVC to 16 mm before stent deployment likely contributed to SVC tear, which was managed by resuscitation, SVC stent placement, and pericardial drainage. Here, we describe the steps of the train-track technique, which can be adopted to reconstruct other bifurcations; we also discuss the controversial aspects of this case.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. L10, Cleveland Clinic, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Imaging Institute (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22645249
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology; Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE); http://www.springer-ny.com; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; DRAINAGE; PATIENTS; THERAPY; VASCULAR DISEASES; VEINS; WIRES

Citation Formats

Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel, E-mail: karuppk@ccf.org, Al-Natour, Mohammed, E-mail: mnatour85@msn.com, and Gurajala, Ram Kishore, E-mail: gurajar@ccf.org. A “Train-Track” Technique in Anatomic Reconstruction of SVC Bifurcation Complicated by Cardiac Tamponade: An Introspection. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/S00270-016-1528-6.
Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel, E-mail: karuppk@ccf.org, Al-Natour, Mohammed, E-mail: mnatour85@msn.com, & Gurajala, Ram Kishore, E-mail: gurajar@ccf.org. A “Train-Track” Technique in Anatomic Reconstruction of SVC Bifurcation Complicated by Cardiac Tamponade: An Introspection. United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-016-1528-6.
Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel, E-mail: karuppk@ccf.org, Al-Natour, Mohammed, E-mail: mnatour85@msn.com, and Gurajala, Ram Kishore, E-mail: gurajar@ccf.org. Sat . "A “Train-Track” Technique in Anatomic Reconstruction of SVC Bifurcation Complicated by Cardiac Tamponade: An Introspection". United States. doi:10.1007/S00270-016-1528-6.
@article{osti_22645249,
title = {A “Train-Track” Technique in Anatomic Reconstruction of SVC Bifurcation Complicated by Cardiac Tamponade: An Introspection},
author = {Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel, E-mail: karuppk@ccf.org and Al-Natour, Mohammed, E-mail: mnatour85@msn.com and Gurajala, Ram Kishore, E-mail: gurajar@ccf.org},
abstractNote = {This report describes a stenting technique used to anatomically reconstruct superior vena cava (SVC) bifurcation in a patient with benign SVC syndrome. After recanalizing the SVC bifurcation, we exchanged two 0.035-in. wires for two 0.018-in. wires, deployed the SVC stent over these two wires (“train-track” technique), and stented each innominate vein over one wire. However, our decisions to recanalize both innominate veins, use the “buddy-wire” technique for SVC dilation, and dilate the SVC to 16 mm before stent deployment likely contributed to SVC tear, which was managed by resuscitation, SVC stent placement, and pericardial drainage. Here, we describe the steps of the train-track technique, which can be adopted to reconstruct other bifurcations; we also discuss the controversial aspects of this case.},
doi = {10.1007/S00270-016-1528-6},
journal = {Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology},
number = 4,
volume = 40,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Stent placement is an accepted primary treatment for SVC syndrome. Balloon dilation is frequently performed prior to stent placement. Although various stent-related hemorrhagic complications have been reported, as well as reports of iatrogenic catheter and guidewire perforations, there has been only one previous report of balloon dilation-related SVC rupture. We report a second case, including the clinical scenario, in the hope that should this complication occur, it might be recognized quickly and treated successfully.
  • Successful repair by plastic surgery of nonhealing ulceration of the chest wall, induced by radiotherapy for breast cancer, is described. Reconstruction of the chest wali defect by pedicle flap coverage was carried out. Radiation injury extended through the entire thickness of the chest wall and osteoradionecrosis of the ribs was present. Reconstruction with thoracoabdominal tube was considered to be the best technique, so a 4- by 9-in. tube pedicle was constructed. The underlying donor wound of the pedicle was covered with a split- thickness skin graft. Healing was without incident, and approximates 3 weeks after formation, the inferior end ofmore » this tube pedicle was migrated to the left epigastrium as an intermediate step. Healing was uncomplicated, and the lateral attachment of the pedicle was partially severed. Three weeks later, resection of all avascular tissue along with portions of the fourth and fifth ribs was carried out. This created a full-thickness chest wall defect measuring 4 by 8 in., with the anterior surface of the pericardial sac exposed in the wound. The end of the abdominal tube pedicle was elevated from its bed, rotated into position, and sutured to the healthy margins of the chest wall defect. The exposed subcutaneous fat of the undersurface of the pedicle was placed in juxtaposition to the pericardium. A split-thickness skin graft was cut from the skin of the left thigh and draped over the pedicle flap donor wound. All sutured wounds healed per primum and the entire skin graft survived. The inferior inset of the tube pedicle was cut free and the pedicle flap was tailored into position 6 weeks later. The patient was discharged from the hospital in good condition and engaged in normal activities. An attempt was made to provide protection for the heart beneath the pedicle inset by introduction of diced homologous cartilage grafts, just beneath the skin of the pedicle flap. This healed with the formation of a thick fibrocartilaginous structure providing some protection for the pericardial contents beneath.« less
  • Persistent bleeding into the pericardial space in the early hours after cardiac operation not uncommonly results in cardiac tamponade. Single chamber tamponade also might be expected, since in this setting the pericardium frequently contains firm blood clots localized to the area of active bleeding. However, this complication has received very little attention in the surgical literature. We are therefore providing documentation that isolated right atrial tamponade can occur as a complication of cardiac operation and that there exists a potential for misdiagnosis and hence incorrect treatment of this condition. Right atrial tamponade may be recognized by a combination of lowmore » cardiac output, low blood pressure, prominent neck veins, right atrial pressure in excess of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and a poor response to plasma volume expansion. Findings on chest roentgenogram and gated wall motion scintigraphy may be highly suggestive. This review should serve to increase awareness of this complication and to provide some helpful diagnostic clues.« less
  • Four different interventions were examined in dogs with cardiac tamponade. Infusion of 216 to 288 ml saline solution into the pericardium reduced cardiac output from 3.5 +/- 0.3 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 liters/min as systemic vascular resistance increased from 4,110 +/- 281 to 6,370 +/- 424 dynes . s . cm-5. Left ventricular epicardial and endocardial blood flows were 178 +/- 13 and 220 +/- 12 ml/min per 100 g, respectively, and decreased to 72 +/- 14 and 78 +/- 11 ml/min per 100 g with tamponade. Reductions of 25 to 65% occurred in visceral and brain blood flows andmore » in a composite brain sample. Cardiac output during tamponade was significantly increased by isoproterenol, 0.5 microgram/kg per min intravenously; hydralazine, 40 mg intravenously; dextran infusion or combined hydralazine and dextran, but not by amrinone. Total systemic vascular resistance was reduced by all interventions. Left ventricular epicardial flow was increased by isoproterenol, hydralazine and the hydralazine-dextran combination. Endocardial flow was increased by amrinone and the combination of hydralazine and dextran. Right ventricular myocardial blood flow increased with all interventions except dextran. Kidney cortical and composite brain blood flows were increased by both dextran alone and by the hydralazine-dextran combinations. Blood flow to small intestine was increased by all interventions as was that to large intestine by all except amrinone and hydralazine. Liver blood flow response was variable. The most pronounced hemodynamic and tissue perfusion improvements during cardiac tamponade were effected by combined vasodilation-blood volume expansion with a hydralazine-dextran combination. Isoproterenol had as dramatic an effect but it was short-lived. Amrinone was the least effective intervention.« less
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