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Title: SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements

Abstract

Purpose: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. Methods: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2.25 mm2 and different lengths was developed and manufactured with rapid prototyping technique. The form of the 3D range-modulator was optimised for a spherical target volume with 5 cm diameter placed at 25 cm in a water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA package were carried out to evaluate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and simulate the resulting dose distribution. The fine and complicated contour form of the 3D range-modulator was taken into account by a specially programmed user routine. Additionally FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To verify the simulation results dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with a 400.41 MeV 12C beam. Results: The high resolution measurements show thatmore » the 3D range-modulator is capable of producing homogeneous 3D conformal dose distributions, simultaneously reducing significantly irradiation time. Measured dose is in very good agreement with the previously conducted FLUKA simulations, where slight differences were traced back to minor manufacturing deviations from the perfect optimised form. Conclusion: Combined with the advantages of very short treatment time the 3D range-modulator could be an alternative to treat small to medium sized tumours (e.g. lung metastasis) with the same conformity as full raster-scanning treatment. Further simulations and measurements of more complex cases will be conducted to investigate the full potential of the 3D range-modulator.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4]
  1. University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)
  2. Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)
  3. GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)
  4. (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642425
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; CARBON 12; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; MEV RANGE 100-1000; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PARTICLE BEAMS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION

Citation Formats

Simeonov, Y, Penchev, P, Ringbaek, T Printz, Brons, S, Weber, U, Zink, K, and University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg. SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956321.
Simeonov, Y, Penchev, P, Ringbaek, T Printz, Brons, S, Weber, U, Zink, K, & University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg. SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956321.
Simeonov, Y, Penchev, P, Ringbaek, T Printz, Brons, S, Weber, U, Zink, K, and University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg. 2016. "SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956321.
@article{osti_22642425,
title = {SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements},
author = {Simeonov, Y and Penchev, P and Ringbaek, T Printz and Brons, S and Weber, U and Zink, K and University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. Methods: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2.25 mm2 and different lengths was developed and manufactured with rapid prototyping technique. The form of the 3D range-modulator was optimised for a spherical target volume with 5 cm diameter placed at 25 cm in a water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA package were carried out to evaluate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and simulate the resulting dose distribution. The fine and complicated contour form of the 3D range-modulator was taken into account by a specially programmed user routine. Additionally FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To verify the simulation results dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with a 400.41 MeV 12C beam. Results: The high resolution measurements show that the 3D range-modulator is capable of producing homogeneous 3D conformal dose distributions, simultaneously reducing significantly irradiation time. Measured dose is in very good agreement with the previously conducted FLUKA simulations, where slight differences were traced back to minor manufacturing deviations from the perfect optimised form. Conclusion: Combined with the advantages of very short treatment time the 3D range-modulator could be an alternative to treat small to medium sized tumours (e.g. lung metastasis) with the same conformity as full raster-scanning treatment. Further simulations and measurements of more complex cases will be conducted to investigate the full potential of the 3D range-modulator.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956321},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To simulate secondary neutron radiation-fields produced at different positions during phantom irradiation inside a scanning proton therapy gantry treatment room. Further, to identify origin, energy distribution and angular emission as function of proton beam energy. Methods: GEANT4 and FLUKA Monte-Carlo codes were used to model the relevant parts of the treatment room in a gantry-equipped pencil beam scanning proton therapy facility including walls, floor, metallic gantry-components, patient table and the homogeneous PMMA target. The proton beams were modeled based on experimental beam ranges in water and spot shapes in air. Neutron energy spectra were simulated at 0°, 45°, 90°more » and 135° relative to the beam axis at 2m distance from isocenter, as well as 11×11 cm2 fields for 75MeV, 140MeV, 200MeV and for 118MeV with 5cm PMMA range-shifter. The total neutron energy distribution was recorded for these four positions and proton energies. Additionally, the room-components generating secondary neutrons in the room and their contributions to the total spectrum were identified and quantified. Results: FLUKA and GEANT4 simulated neutron spectra showed good general agreement in the whole energy range of 10{sup −}9 to 10{sup 2} MeV. Comparison of measured spectra with the simulated contributions of the various room components helped to limit the complexity of the room model, by identifying the dominant contributions to the secondary neutron spectrum. The iron of the bending magnet and counterweight were identified as sources of secondary evaporation-neutrons, which were lacking in simplified room models. Conclusion: Thorough Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed to complement Bonner-sphere spectrometry measurements of secondary neutrons in a clinical proton therapy treatment room. Such calculations helped disentangling the origin of secondary neutrons and their dominant contributions to measured spectra, besides providing a useful validation of widely used Monte-Carlo packages in comparison to experimental data. Cluster of Excellence of the German Research Foundation (DFG) “Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)”.« less
  • Purpose: Aim of this study was to optimize the magnetic field strengths of two quadrupole magnets in a particle therapy facility in order to obtain a beam quality suitable for spot beam scanning. Methods: The particle transport through an ion-optic system of a particle therapy facility consisting of the beam tube, two quadrupole magnets and a beam monitor system was calculated with the help of Matlab by using matrices that solve the equation of motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field and field-free region, respectively. The magnetic field strengths were optimized in order to obtain a circular andmore » thin beam spot at the iso-center of the therapy facility. These optimized field strengths were subsequently transferred to the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA and the transport of 80 MeV/u C12-ions through this ion-optic system was calculated by using a user-routine to implement magnetic fields. The fluence along the beam-axis and at the iso-center was evaluated. Results: The magnetic field strengths could be optimized by using Matlab and transferred to the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA. The implementation via a user-routine was successful. Analyzing the fluence-pattern along the beam-axis the characteristic focusing and de-focusing effects of the quadrupole magnets could be reproduced. Furthermore the beam spot at the iso-center was circular and significantly thinner compared to an unfocused beam. Conclusion: In this study a Matlab tool was developed to optimize magnetic field strengths for an ion-optic system consisting of two quadrupole magnets as part of a particle therapy facility. These magnetic field strengths could subsequently be transferred to and implemented in the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA to simulate the particle transport through this optimized ion-optic system.« less
  • Purpose: Accurate and fast dose calculation is a prerequisite of precision radiation therapy in modern photon and particle therapy. While Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation provides high dosimetric accuracy, the drastically increased computational time hinders its routine use. Deterministic dose calculation methods are fast, but problematic in the presence of tissue density inhomogeneity. We leverage the useful features of deterministic methods and MC to develop a hybrid dose calculation platform with autonomous utilization of MC and deterministic calculation depending on the local geometry, for optimal accuracy and speed. Methods: Our platform utilizes a Geant4 based “localized Monte Carlo” (LMC) methodmore » that isolates MC dose calculations only to volumes that have potential for dosimetric inaccuracy. In our approach, additional structures are created encompassing heterogeneous volumes. Deterministic methods calculate dose and energy fluence up to the volume surfaces, where the energy fluence distribution is sampled into discrete histories and transported using MC. Histories exiting the volume are converted back into energy fluence, and transported deterministically. By matching boundary conditions at both interfaces, deterministic dose calculation account for dose perturbations “downstream” of localized heterogeneities. Hybrid dose calculation was performed for water and anthropomorphic phantoms. Results: We achieved <1% agreement between deterministic and MC calculations in the water benchmark for photon and proton beams, and dose differences of 2%–15% could be observed in heterogeneous phantoms. The saving in computational time (a factor ∼4–7 compared to a full Monte Carlo dose calculation) was found to be approximately proportional to the volume of the heterogeneous region. Conclusion: Our hybrid dose calculation approach takes advantage of the computational efficiency of deterministic method and accuracy of MC, providing a practical tool for high performance dose calculation in modern RT. The approach is generalizable to all modalities where heterogeneities play a large role, notably particle therapy.« less
  • There is an increasing interest in the use of inhomogeneity corrections for lung, air, and bone in radiotherapy treatment planning. Traditionally, corrections based on physical density have been used. Modern algorithms use the electron density derived from CT images. Small fields are used in both conformal radiotherapy and IMRT, however, their beam characteristics in inhomogeneous media have not been extensively studied. This work compares traditional and modern treatment planning algorithms to Monte Carlo simulations in and near low-density inhomogeneities. Field sizes ranging from 0.5 cm to 5 cm in diameter are projected onto a phantom containing inhomogeneities and depth dosemore » curves are compared. Comparisons of the Dose Perturbation Factors (DPF) are presented as functions of density and field size. Dose Correction Factors (DCF), which scale the algorithms to the Monte Carlo data, are compared for each algorithm. Physical scaling algorithms such as Batho and Equivalent Pathlength (EPL) predict an increase in dose for small fields passing through lung tissue, where Monte Carlo simulations show a sharp dose drop. The physical model-based collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm correctly predicts the dose drop, but does not accurately predict the magnitude. Because the model-based algorithms do not correctly account for the change in backscatter, the dose drop predicted by CCC occurs farther downstream compared to that predicted by the Monte Carlo simulations. Beyond the tissue inhomogeneity all of the algorithms studied predict dose distributions in close agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Dose-volume relationships are important in understanding the effects of radiation to the lung. The dose within the lung is affected by a complex function of beam energy, lung tissue density, and field size. Dose algorithms vary in their abilities to correctly predict the dose to the lung tissue. A thorough analysis of the effects of density, and field size on dose to the lung and how modern dose calculation algorithms compare to Monte Carlo data is presented in this research project. This work can be used as a basis to further refine an algorithm's accuracy in low-density media or to correct prior dosimetric results.« less
  • Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is being performed by using an array of narrow rectangular x-ray beams (typical beam sizes 25 {mu}mx1 cm), positioned close to each other (typically 200 {mu}m separation), to irradiate a target tissue. The ratio of peak-to-valley doses (PVDR's) in the composite dose distribution has been found to be strongly correlated with the normal tissue tolerance and the therapeutic effect of MRT. In this work a Monte Carlo (MC) study of the depth- and lateral-dose profiles in water for single x-ray microbeams of different shapes and energies has been performed with the MC code PENELOPE. The contributionsmore » to the dose deposition from different interaction types have been determined at different distances from the center of the microbeam. The dependence of the peak dose, in a water phantom, on the microbeam field size used in the preclinical trials, has been demonstrated. Composite dose distributions for an array of microbeams were obtained using superposition algorithms and PVDR's were determined and compared with literature results obtained with other Monte Carlo codes. The dependence of the PVDR's on microbeam width, x-ray energy used, and on the separation between adjacent microbeams has been studied in detail.« less