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Title: SU-F-T-159: Monte Carlo Simulation Studies of Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution for Polymer Gel Dosimeter and Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter in a Proton Beam

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this simulation study is to evaluate the proton detectability of gel dosimeters, and estimate the three-dimensional dose distribution of protons in the radiochromic gel and polymer gel dosimeter compared with the dose distribution in water. Methods: The commercial composition ratios of normoxic polymer gel and LCV micelle radiochromic gel were included in this simulation study. The densities of polymer and radiochromic gel were 1.024 and 1.005 g/cm3, respectively. The 50, 80 and 140 MeV proton beam energies were selected. The dose distributions of protons in the polymer and radiochromic gel were simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX 2.7.0, Los Alamos Laboratory). The water equivalent depth profiles and the dose distributions of two gel dosimeters were compared for the water. Results: In case of irradiating 50, 80 and 140 MeV proton beam to water phantom, the reference Bragg-peak depths are represented at 2.22, 5.18 and 13.98 cm, respectively. The difference in the water equivalent depth is represented to about 0.17 and 0.37 cm in the radiochromic gel and polymer gel dosimeter, respectively. The proton absorbed doses in the radiochromic gel dosimeter are calculated to 2.41, 3.92 and 6.90 Gy with increment of incident proton energies.more » In the polymer gel dosimeter, the absorbed doses are calculated to 2.37, 3.85 and 6.78 Gy with increment of incident proton energies. The relative absorbed dose in radiochromic gel (about 0.47 %) is similar to that of water than the relative absorbed dose of polymer gel (about 2.26 %). In evaluating the proton dose distribution, we found that the dose distribution of both gel dosimeters matched that of water in most cases. Conclusion: As the dosimetry device, the radiochromic gel dosimeter has the potential particle detectability and is feasible to use for quality assurance of proton beam therapy beam.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Korea Institute of Radiological Medical and Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Korea University, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642400
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABSORBED RADIATION DOSES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; DOSEMETERS; GELS; MEV RANGE 100-1000; MONTE CARLO METHOD; POLYMERS; PROTON BEAMS; QUALITY ASSURANCE; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; WATER

Citation Formats

Park, M, Kim, G, Jung, H, Park, S, Park, S, Ji, Y, and Yun, J. SU-F-T-159: Monte Carlo Simulation Studies of Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution for Polymer Gel Dosimeter and Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter in a Proton Beam. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956295.
Park, M, Kim, G, Jung, H, Park, S, Park, S, Ji, Y, & Yun, J. SU-F-T-159: Monte Carlo Simulation Studies of Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution for Polymer Gel Dosimeter and Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter in a Proton Beam. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956295.
Park, M, Kim, G, Jung, H, Park, S, Park, S, Ji, Y, and Yun, J. 2016. "SU-F-T-159: Monte Carlo Simulation Studies of Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution for Polymer Gel Dosimeter and Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter in a Proton Beam". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956295.
@article{osti_22642400,
title = {SU-F-T-159: Monte Carlo Simulation Studies of Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution for Polymer Gel Dosimeter and Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter in a Proton Beam},
author = {Park, M and Kim, G and Jung, H and Park, S and Park, S and Ji, Y and Yun, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The purpose of this simulation study is to evaluate the proton detectability of gel dosimeters, and estimate the three-dimensional dose distribution of protons in the radiochromic gel and polymer gel dosimeter compared with the dose distribution in water. Methods: The commercial composition ratios of normoxic polymer gel and LCV micelle radiochromic gel were included in this simulation study. The densities of polymer and radiochromic gel were 1.024 and 1.005 g/cm3, respectively. The 50, 80 and 140 MeV proton beam energies were selected. The dose distributions of protons in the polymer and radiochromic gel were simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX 2.7.0, Los Alamos Laboratory). The water equivalent depth profiles and the dose distributions of two gel dosimeters were compared for the water. Results: In case of irradiating 50, 80 and 140 MeV proton beam to water phantom, the reference Bragg-peak depths are represented at 2.22, 5.18 and 13.98 cm, respectively. The difference in the water equivalent depth is represented to about 0.17 and 0.37 cm in the radiochromic gel and polymer gel dosimeter, respectively. The proton absorbed doses in the radiochromic gel dosimeter are calculated to 2.41, 3.92 and 6.90 Gy with increment of incident proton energies. In the polymer gel dosimeter, the absorbed doses are calculated to 2.37, 3.85 and 6.78 Gy with increment of incident proton energies. The relative absorbed dose in radiochromic gel (about 0.47 %) is similar to that of water than the relative absorbed dose of polymer gel (about 2.26 %). In evaluating the proton dose distribution, we found that the dose distribution of both gel dosimeters matched that of water in most cases. Conclusion: As the dosimetry device, the radiochromic gel dosimeter has the potential particle detectability and is feasible to use for quality assurance of proton beam therapy beam.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956295},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the three-dimensional dose distributions in the polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter, and to identify the detectability of both gel dosimeters by comparing with the water phantom in case of irradiating the proton particles. Methods: The normoxic polymer gel and the LCV micelle radiochromic gel were used in this study. The densities of polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter were 1.024 and 1.005 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. The dose distributions of protons in the polymer and radiochromic gel were simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX, Los Alamos National Laboratory). Themore » shape of phantom irradiated by proton particles was a hexahedron with the dimension of 12.4 × 12.4 × 15.0 cm{sup 3}. The energies of proton beam were 50, 80, and 140 MeV energies were directed to top of the surface of phantom. The cross-sectional view of proton dose distribution in both gel dosimeters was estimated with the water phantom and evaluated by the gamma evaluation method. In addition, the absorbed dose(Gy) was also calculated for evaluating the proton detectability. Results: The evaluation results show that dose distributions in both gel dosimeters at intermediated section and Bragg-peak region are similar with that of the water phantom. At entrance section, however, inconsistencies of dose distribution are represented, compared with water. The relative absorbed doses in radiochromic and polymer gel dosimeter were represented to be 0.47 % and 2.26 % difference, respectively. These results show that the radiochromic gel dosimeter was better matched than the water phantom in the absorbed dose evaluation. Conclusion: The polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter show similar characteristics in dose distributions for the proton beams at intermediate section and Bragg-peak region. Moreover the calculated absorbed dose in both gel dosimeters represents similar tendency by comparing with that in water phantom.« less
  • Purpose: To estimate the three dimensional dose distributions in a polymer gel and a radiochromic gel by comparing with the virtual water phantom exposed to proton beams by applying Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: The polymer gel dosimeter is the compositeness material of gelatin, methacrylic acid, hydroquinone, tetrakis, and distilled water. The radiochromic gel is PRESAGE product. The densities of polymer and radiochromic gel were 1.040 and 1.0005 g/cm3, respectively. The shape of water phantom was a hexahedron with the size of 13 × 13 × 15 cm3. The proton beam energies of 72 and 116 MeV were used in themore » simulation. Proton beam was directed to the top of the phantom with Z-axis and the shape of beam was quadrangle with 10 × 10 cm2 dimension. The Percent depth dose and the dose distribution were evaluated for estimating the dose distribution of proton particle in two gel dosimeters, and compared with the virtual water phantom. Results: The Bragg-peak for proton particles in two gel dosimeters was similar to the virtual water phantom. Bragg-peak regions of polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom were represented in the identical region (4.3 cm) for 72 MeV proton beam. For 116 MeV proton beam, the Bragg-peak regions of polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom were represented in 9.9, 9.9 and 9.7 cm, respectively. The dose distribution of proton particles in polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom was approximately identical in the case of 72 and 116 MeV energies. The errors for the simulation were under 10%. Conclusion: This work indicates the evaluation of three dimensional dose distributions by exposing proton particles to polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeter by comparing with the water phantom. The polymer gel and the radiochromic gel dosimeter show similar dose distributions for the proton beams.« less
  • Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters are particularly useful for verifying the commissioning of treatment planning and delivery systems, especially with the ever-increasing implementation of complex and conformal radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. However, currently available 3D dosimeters require extensive experience to prepare and analyze, and are subject to large measurement uncertainties. This work aims to provide a more readily implementable 3D dosimeter with the development and characterization of a radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. Methods: A film stack dosimeter was developed using Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT2 films. The dosimeter consists of 22 films separated bymore » 1 mm-thick spacers. A Virtual Water™ phantom was created that maintains the radial film alignment within a maximum uncertainty of 0.3 mm. The film stack dosimeter was characterized using simulations and measurements of 6 MV fields. The absorbed-dose energy dependence and orientation dependence of the film stack dosimeter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The water equivalence of the dosimeter was determined by comparing percentage-depth-dose (PDD) profiles measured with the film stack dosimeter and simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Film stack dosimeter measurements were verified with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) microcube measurements. The film stack dosimeter was also used to verify the delivery of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) procedure. Results: The absorbed-dose energy response of EBT2 film differs less than 1.5% between the calibration and film stack dosimeter geometries for a 6 MV spectrum. Over a series of beam angles ranging from normal incidence to parallel incidence, the overall variation in the response of the film stack dosimeter is within a range of 2.5%. Relative to the response to a normally incident beam, the film stack dosimeter exhibits a 1% under-response when the beam axis is parallel to the film planes. Measured and simulated PDD profiles agree within a root-mean-square difference of 1.3%. In-field film stack dosimeter and TLD measurements agree within 5%, and measurements in the field penumbra agree within 0.5 mm. Film stack dosimeter and TLD measurements have expanded (k = 2) overall measurement uncertainties of 6.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Film stack dosimeter measurements of an IMRT dose distribution have 98% agreement with the treatment planning system dose calculation, using gamma criteria of 3% and 2 mm. Conclusions: The film stack dosimeter is capable of high-resolution, low-uncertainty 3D dose measurements, and can be readily incorporated into an existing film dosimetry program.« less
  • Purpose: To measure depth dose curves for a 67.5 ± 0.1 MeV proton beam for benchmarking and validation of Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: Depth dose curves were measured in 2 beam lines. Protons in the raw beam line traversed a Ta scattering foil, 0.1016 or 0.381 mm thick, a secondary emission monitor comprised of thin Al foils, and a thin Kapton exit window. The beam energy and peak width and the composition and density of material traversed by the beam were known with sufficient accuracy to permit benchmark quality measurements. Diodes for charged particle dosimetry from two different manufacturers weremore » used to scan the depth dose curves with 0.003 mm depth reproducibility in a water tank placed 300 mm from the exit window. Depth in water was determined with an uncertainty of 0.15 mm, including the uncertainty in the water equivalent depth of the sensitive volume of the detector. Parallel-plate chambers were used to verify the accuracy of the shape of the Bragg peak and the peak-to-plateau ratio measured with the diodes. The uncertainty in the measured peak-to-plateau ratio was 4%. Depth dose curves were also measured with a diode for a Bragg curve and treatment beam spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) on the beam line used for eye treatment. The measurements were compared to Monte Carlo simulation done with GEANT4 using TOPAS. Results: The 80% dose at the distal side of the Bragg peak for the thinner foil was at 37.47 ± 0.11 mm (average of measurement with diodes from two different manufacturers), compared to the simulated value of 37.20 mm. The 80% dose for the thicker foil was at 35.08 ± 0.15 mm, compared to the simulated value of 34.90 mm. The measured peak-to-plateau ratio was within one standard deviation experimental uncertainty of the simulated result for the thinnest foil and two standard deviations for the thickest foil. It was necessary to include the collimation in the simulation, which had a more pronounced effect on the peak-to-plateau ratio for the thicker foil. The treatment beam, being unfocussed, had a broader Bragg peak than the raw beam. A 1.3 ± 0.1 MeV FWHM peak width in the energy distribution was used in the simulation to match the Bragg peak width. An additional 1.3–2.24 mm of water in the water column was required over the nominal values to match the measured depth penetration. Conclusions: The proton Bragg curve measured for the 0.1016 mm thick Ta foil provided the most accurate benchmark, having a low contribution of proton scatter from upstream of the water tank. The accuracy was 0.15% in measured beam energy and 0.3% in measured depth penetration at the Bragg peak. The depth of the distal edge of the Bragg peak in the simulation fell short of measurement, suggesting that the mean ionization potential of water is 2–5 eV higher than the 78 eV used in the stopping power calculation for the simulation. The eye treatment beam line depth dose curves provide validation of Monte Carlo simulation of a Bragg curve and SOBP with 4%/2 mm accuracy.« less
  • Recently, Monte Carlo (MC) calculation method has reported as the most accurate method of predicting dose distributions in radiotherapy. The MC code system (especially DOSXYZnrc) has been used to investigate the different voxel (volume elements) sizes effect on the accuracy of dose distributions. To investigate this effect on dosimetry parameters, calculations were made with three different voxel sizes. The effects were investigated with dose distribution calculations for seven voxel sizes: 1 × 1 × 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 × 1 × 0.5 cm{sup 3}, and 1 × 1 × 0.8 cm{sup 3}. The 1 × 10{sup 9} histories were simulated in order tomore » get statistical uncertainties of 2%. This simulation takes about 9-10 hours to complete. Measurements are made with field sizes 10 × 10 cm2 for the 6 MV photon beams with Gaussian intensity distribution FWHM 0.1 cm and SSD 100.1 cm. MC simulated and measured dose distributions in a water phantom. The output of this simulation i.e. the percent depth dose and dose profile in d{sub max} from the three sets of calculations are presented and comparisons are made with the experiment data from TTSH (Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore) in 0-5 cm depth. Dose that scored in voxels is a volume averaged estimate of the dose at the center of a voxel. The results in this study show that the difference between Monte Carlo simulation and experiment data depend on the voxel size both for percent depth dose (PDD) and profile dose. PDD scan on Z axis (depth) of water phantom, the big difference obtain in the voxel size 1 × 1 × 0.8 cm{sup 3} about 17%. In this study, the profile dose focused on high gradient dose area. Profile dose scan on Y axis and the big difference get in the voxel size 1 × 1 × 0.1 cm{sup 3} about 12%. This study demonstrated that the arrange voxel in Monte Carlo simulation becomes important.« less