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Title: SU-F-T-149: Development of the Monte Carlo Simulation Platform Using Geant4 for Designing Heavy Ion Therapy Beam Nozzle

Abstract

Purpose: The significant issue of particle therapy such as proton and carbon ion was a accurate dose delivery from beam line to patient. For designing the complex delivery system, Monte Carlo simulation can be used for the simulation of various physical interaction in scatters and filters. In this report, we present the development of Monte Carlo simulation platform to help design the prototype of particle therapy nozzle and performed the Monte Carlo simulation using Geant4. Also we show the prototype design of particle therapy beam nozzle for Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project in Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science(KIRAMS) at Republic of Korea. Methods: We developed a simulation platform for particle therapy beam nozzle using Geant4. In this platform, the prototype nozzle design of Scanning system for carbon was simply designed. For comparison with theoretic beam optics, the beam profile on lateral distribution at isocenter is compared with Mont Carlo simulation result. From the result of this analysis, we can expected the beam spot property of KHIMA system and implement the spot size optimization for our spot scanning system. Results: For characteristics study of scanning system, various combination of the spot size from accerlator with ridge filtermore » and beam monitor was tested as simple design for KHIMA dose delivery system. Conclusion: In this report, we presented the part of simulation platform and the characteristics study. This study is now on-going in order to develop the simulation platform including the beam nozzle and the dose verification tool with treatment planning system. This will be presented as soon as it is become available.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642390
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; CARBON IONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DELIVERY; HEAVY ION ACCELERATORS; ION BEAMS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Shin, Jae-ik, Yoo, SeungHoon, Cho, Sungho, Ho Kim, Eun, Song, Yongkeun, and Jung, Won-Gyun. SU-F-T-149: Development of the Monte Carlo Simulation Platform Using Geant4 for Designing Heavy Ion Therapy Beam Nozzle. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956285.
Shin, Jae-ik, Yoo, SeungHoon, Cho, Sungho, Ho Kim, Eun, Song, Yongkeun, & Jung, Won-Gyun. SU-F-T-149: Development of the Monte Carlo Simulation Platform Using Geant4 for Designing Heavy Ion Therapy Beam Nozzle. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956285.
Shin, Jae-ik, Yoo, SeungHoon, Cho, Sungho, Ho Kim, Eun, Song, Yongkeun, and Jung, Won-Gyun. 2016. "SU-F-T-149: Development of the Monte Carlo Simulation Platform Using Geant4 for Designing Heavy Ion Therapy Beam Nozzle". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956285.
@article{osti_22642390,
title = {SU-F-T-149: Development of the Monte Carlo Simulation Platform Using Geant4 for Designing Heavy Ion Therapy Beam Nozzle},
author = {Shin, Jae-ik and Yoo, SeungHoon and Cho, Sungho and Ho Kim, Eun and Song, Yongkeun and Jung, Won-Gyun},
abstractNote = {Purpose: The significant issue of particle therapy such as proton and carbon ion was a accurate dose delivery from beam line to patient. For designing the complex delivery system, Monte Carlo simulation can be used for the simulation of various physical interaction in scatters and filters. In this report, we present the development of Monte Carlo simulation platform to help design the prototype of particle therapy nozzle and performed the Monte Carlo simulation using Geant4. Also we show the prototype design of particle therapy beam nozzle for Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project in Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science(KIRAMS) at Republic of Korea. Methods: We developed a simulation platform for particle therapy beam nozzle using Geant4. In this platform, the prototype nozzle design of Scanning system for carbon was simply designed. For comparison with theoretic beam optics, the beam profile on lateral distribution at isocenter is compared with Mont Carlo simulation result. From the result of this analysis, we can expected the beam spot property of KHIMA system and implement the spot size optimization for our spot scanning system. Results: For characteristics study of scanning system, various combination of the spot size from accerlator with ridge filter and beam monitor was tested as simple design for KHIMA dose delivery system. Conclusion: In this report, we presented the part of simulation platform and the characteristics study. This study is now on-going in order to develop the simulation platform including the beam nozzle and the dose verification tool with treatment planning system. This will be presented as soon as it is become available.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956285},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To monitor the secondary dose distribution originating from a water phantom during proton therapy of prostate cancer using scintillating fibers. Methods: The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit version 9.6.p02 was used to simulate prostate cancer proton therapy based treatments. Two cases were studied. In the first case, 8 × 8 = 64 equally spaced fibers inside three 4 × 4 × 2.54 cmm{sup 3} DuPont™ Delrin blocks were used to monitor the emission of secondary particles in the transverse (left and right) and distal regions relative to the beam direction. In the second case, a scintillating block with a thicknessmore » of 2.54 cm and equal vertical and longitudinal dimensions as the water phantom was used. Geometrical cuts were used to extract the energy deposited in each fiber and the scintillating block. Results: The transverse dose distributions from secondary particles in both cases agree within <5% and with a very good symmetry. The energy deposited not only gradually increases as one moves from the peripheral row fibers towards the center of the block (aligned with the center of the prostate) but also decreases as one goes from the frontal to distal region of the block. The ratio of the doses from the prostate to the ones in the middle two rows of fibers showed a linear relationship with a slope (−3.55±2.26) × 10−5 MeV per treatment Gy. The distal detectors recorded a very small energy deposited due to water attenuation. Conclusion: With a good calibration and the ability to define a good correlation between the dose to the external fibers and the prostate, such fibers can be used for real time dose verification to the target.« less
  • Purpose: To construct a dose monitoring system based on an endorectal balloon coupled to thin scintillating fibers to study the dose delivered to the rectum during prostate cancer proton therapy Methods: The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit version 9.6p02 was used to simulate prostate cancer proton therapy treatments of an endorectal balloon (for immobilization of a 2.9 cm diameter prostate gland) and a set of 34 scintillating fibers symmetrically placed around the balloon and perpendicular to the proton beam direction (for dosimetry measurements) Results: A linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered was observed within <2%, a property thatmore » makes them good candidates for real time dosimetry. Results obtained show that the closest fiber recorded about 1/3 of the dose to the target with a 1/r{sup 2} decrease in the dose distribution as one goes toward the frontal and distal top fibers. Very low dose was recorded by the bottom fibers (about 45 times comparatively), which is a clear indication that the overall volume of the rectal wall that is exposed to a higher dose is relatively minimized. Further analysis indicated a simple scaling relationship between the dose to the prostate and the dose to the top fibers (a linear fit gave a slope of −0.07±0.07 MeV per treatment Gy) Conclusion: Thin (1 mm × 1 mm × 100 cm) long scintillating fibers were found to be ideal for real time in-vivo dose measurement to the rectum for prostate cancer proton therapy. The linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered makes them good candidates of dosimeters. With thorough calibration and the ability to define a good correlation between the dose to the target and the dose to the fibers, such dosimeters can be used for real time dose verification to the target.« less
  • Purpose: The motivation of this study was to find and eliminate the cause of errors in dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET) calculations from therapeutic protons in small targets, such as biological cell layers, calculated using the GEANT 4 Monte Carlo code. Furthermore, the purpose was also to provide a recommendation to select an appropriate LET quantity from GEANT 4 simulations to correlate with biological effectiveness of therapeutic protons. Methods: The authors developed a particle tracking step based strategy to calculate the average LET quantities (track-averaged LET, LET{sub t} and dose-averaged LET, LET{sub d}) using GEANT 4 for different tracking stepmore » size limits. A step size limit refers to the maximally allowable tracking step length. The authors investigated how the tracking step size limit influenced the calculated LET{sub t} and LET{sub d} of protons with six different step limits ranging from 1 to 500 μm in a water phantom irradiated by a 79.7-MeV clinical proton beam. In addition, the authors analyzed the detailed stochastic energy deposition information including fluence spectra and dose spectra of the energy-deposition-per-step of protons. As a reference, the authors also calculated the averaged LET and analyzed the LET spectra combining the Monte Carlo method and the deterministic method. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations were performed to illustrate the impact of different LET calculation methods on the RBE-weighted dose. Results: Simulation results showed that the step limit effect was small for LET{sub t} but significant for LET{sub d}. This resulted from differences in the energy-deposition-per-step between the fluence spectra and dose spectra at different depths in the phantom. Using the Monte Carlo particle tracking method in GEANT 4 can result in incorrect LET{sub d} calculation results in the dose plateau region for small step limits. The erroneous LET{sub d} results can be attributed to the algorithm to determine fluctuations in energy deposition along the tracking step in GEANT 4. The incorrect LET{sub d} values lead to substantial differences in the calculated RBE. Conclusions: When the GEANT 4 particle tracking method is used to calculate the average LET values within targets with a small step limit, such as smaller than 500 μm, the authors recommend the use of LET{sub t} in the dose plateau region and LET{sub d} around the Bragg peak. For a large step limit, i.e., 500 μm, LET{sub d} is recommended along the whole Bragg curve. The transition point depends on beam parameters and can be found by determining the location where the gradient of the ratio of LET{sub d} and LET{sub t} becomes positive.« less
  • The anode pulse of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled with a scintillator is used for pulse shape discrimination (PSD) analysis. We have developed a novel emulation technique for the PMT anode pulse based on optical photon transport and a PMT response function. The photon transport was calculated using Geant4 Monte Carlo code and the response function with a BC408 organic scintillator. The obtained percentage RMS value of the difference between the measured and simulated pulse with suitable scintillation properties using GSO:Ce (0.4, 1.0, 1.5 mol%), LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and BGO scintillators were 2.41%, 2.58%, 2.16%, 2.01%, and 3.32%, respectively. The proposedmore » technique demonstrates high reproducibility of the measured pulse and can be applied to simulation studies of various radiation measurements.« less
  • Purpose: Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is considered to be the most accurate method for calculation of absorbed dose and fundamental physical quantities related to biological effects in carbon ion therapy. Its long computation time impedes clinical and research applications. We have developed an MC package, goCMC, on parallel processing platforms, aiming at achieving accurate and efficient simulations for carbon therapy. Methods: goCMC was developed under OpenCL framework. It supported transport simulation in voxelized geometry with kinetic energy up to 450 MeV/u. Class II condensed history algorithm was employed for charged particle transport with stopping power computed via Bethe-Bloch equation. Secondarymore » electrons were not transported with their energy locally deposited. Energy straggling and multiple scattering were modeled. Production of secondary charged particles from nuclear interactions was implemented based on cross section and yield data from Geant4. They were transported via the condensed history scheme. goCMC supported scoring various quantities of interest e.g. physical dose, particle fluence, spectrum, linear energy transfer, and positron emitting nuclei. Results: goCMC has been benchmarked against Geant4 with different phantoms and beam energies. For 100 MeV/u, 250 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u beams impinging to a water phantom, range difference was 0.03 mm, 0.20 mm and 0.53 mm, and mean dose difference was 0.47%, 0.72% and 0.79%, respectively. goCMC can run on various computing devices. Depending on the beam energy and voxel size, it took 20∼100 seconds to simulate 10{sup 7} carbons on an AMD Radeon GPU card. The corresponding CPU time for Geant4 with the same setup was 60∼100 hours. Conclusion: We have developed an OpenCL-based cross-platform carbon MC simulation package, goCMC. Its accuracy, efficiency and portability make goCMC attractive for research and clinical applications in carbon therapy.« less