skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams

Abstract

Purpose: Apertures or collimators are used to laterally shape proton beams in double scattering (DS) delivery and to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam (PB) delivery. However, aperture-scattered dose is not included in the current dose calculations of treatment planning system (TPS). The purpose of this study is to provide a method to correct the aperture-scattered dose based on an analytical model. Methods: A DS beam with a non-divergent aperture was delivered using a single-room proton machine. Dose profiles were measured with an ion-chamber scanning in water and a 2-D ion chamber matrix with solid-water buildup at various depths. The measured doses were considered as the sum of the non-contaminated dose and the aperture-scattered dose. The non-contaminated dose was calculated by TPS and subtracted from the measured dose. Aperture scattered-dose was modeled as a 1D Gaussian distribution. For 2-D fields, to calculate the scatter-dose from all the edges of aperture, a sum of weighted distance was used in the model based on the distance from calculation point to aperture edge. The gamma index was calculated between the measured and calculated dose with and without scatter correction. Results: For a beam with range of 23 cm and aperture size of 20more » cm, the contribution of the scatter horn was ∼8% of the total dose at 4 cm depth and diminished to 0 at 15 cm depth. The amplitude of scatter-dose decreased linearly with the depth increase. The 1D gamma index (2%/2 mm) between the calculated and measured profiles increased from 63% to 98% for 4 cm depth and from 83% to 98% at 13 cm depth. The 2D gamma index (2%/2 mm) at 4 cm depth has improved from 78% to 94%. Conclusion: Using the simple analytical method the discrepancy between the measured and calculated dose has significantly improved.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3]; ;  [4]; ;  [5]
  1. Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  2. Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  3. Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)
  4. Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  5. Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642383
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APERTURES; CORRECTIONS; GAUSS FUNCTION; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SCATTERING

Citation Formats

Sun, B, Liu, S, Zhang, T, Zhao, T, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Bradley, J, and Mutic, S. SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956278.
Sun, B, Liu, S, Zhang, T, Zhao, T, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Bradley, J, & Mutic, S. SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956278.
Sun, B, Liu, S, Zhang, T, Zhao, T, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Bradley, J, and Mutic, S. Wed . "SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956278.
@article{osti_22642383,
title = {SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams},
author = {Sun, B and Liu, S and Zhang, T and Zhao, T and Yang, D and Grantham, K and Goddu, S and Bradley, J and Mutic, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Apertures or collimators are used to laterally shape proton beams in double scattering (DS) delivery and to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam (PB) delivery. However, aperture-scattered dose is not included in the current dose calculations of treatment planning system (TPS). The purpose of this study is to provide a method to correct the aperture-scattered dose based on an analytical model. Methods: A DS beam with a non-divergent aperture was delivered using a single-room proton machine. Dose profiles were measured with an ion-chamber scanning in water and a 2-D ion chamber matrix with solid-water buildup at various depths. The measured doses were considered as the sum of the non-contaminated dose and the aperture-scattered dose. The non-contaminated dose was calculated by TPS and subtracted from the measured dose. Aperture scattered-dose was modeled as a 1D Gaussian distribution. For 2-D fields, to calculate the scatter-dose from all the edges of aperture, a sum of weighted distance was used in the model based on the distance from calculation point to aperture edge. The gamma index was calculated between the measured and calculated dose with and without scatter correction. Results: For a beam with range of 23 cm and aperture size of 20 cm, the contribution of the scatter horn was ∼8% of the total dose at 4 cm depth and diminished to 0 at 15 cm depth. The amplitude of scatter-dose decreased linearly with the depth increase. The 1D gamma index (2%/2 mm) between the calculated and measured profiles increased from 63% to 98% for 4 cm depth and from 83% to 98% at 13 cm depth. The 2D gamma index (2%/2 mm) at 4 cm depth has improved from 78% to 94%. Conclusion: Using the simple analytical method the discrepancy between the measured and calculated dose has significantly improved.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956278},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Purpose: In proton-therapy, pencil beam scanning (PBS) dosimetry presents a real challenge due to the small size of the beam (about 3 to 8 mm in FWHM), the pulsed high dose rate (up to 100 Gy/s) and the proton energy variation (about 30 MeV to 250 MeV). In the framework of French INSERM DEDIPRO project, a specifically dedicated single crystal diamond dosimeter (SCDDo) was developed with the objective of obtaining accurate measurements of the dose distribution in PBS modality. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations with MCNPX were performed. A small proton beam of 5 mm in FWHM was simulated as wellmore » as diamond devices with various size, thickness and holder composition. The calculated doses-to-diamond were compared with the doses-to-water in order to reduce the perturbation effects. Monte-Carlo simulations lead to an optimized SCDDo design for small proton beams dosimetry. Following the optimized design, SCDDos were mounted in water-equivalent holders with electrical connection adapted to standard electrometer. First, SCDDos performances (stability, repeatability, signal-to-background ratio…) were evaluated with conventional photon beams. Then, characterizations (dose linearity, dose rate dependence…) with wide proton beams were performed at proton-therapy center (IC-CPO) from Curie Institute (France) with the passive proton delivery technique, in order to confirm dosimetric requirements. Finally, depth-dose distributions were measured in a water tank, for native and modulated Bragg Peaks with the collimator of 12 cm, and compared to a commercial PPC05 parallel-plate ionization chamber reference detector. Lateral-dose profiles were also measured with the collimator of 5 mm, and compared to a commercial SFD diode. Results: The results show that SCDDo design does not disturb the dose distributions. Conclusion: The experimental dose distributions with the SCDDo are in good agreement with the commercial detectors and no energy dependence was observed with this device configuration.« less
  • Purpose: The Gaussian model for the lateral profiles in air is crucial for an accurate treatment planning system. The field size dependence of dose and the lateral beam profiles of scanning proton and carbon ion beams are due mainly to particles undergoing multiple Coulomb scattering in the beam line components and secondary particles produced by nuclear interactions in the target, both of which depend upon the energy and species of the beam. In this work, lateral profile shape parameters were fitted to measurements of field size dependence dose at the center of field size in air. Methods: Previous studies havemore » employed empirical fits to measured profile data to significantly reduce the QA time required for measurements. From this approach to derive the weight and sigma of lateral profiles in air, empirical model formulations were simulated for three selected energies for both proton and carbon beams. Results: The 20%–80% lateral penumbras predicted by the double model for proton and single model for carbon with the error functions agreed with the measurements within 1 mm. The standard deviation between measured and fitted field size dependence of dose for empirical model in air has a maximum accuracy of 0.74% for proton with double Gaussian, and of 0.57% for carbon with single Gaussian. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the double Gaussian model of lateral beam profiles is significantly better than the single Gaussian model for proton while a single Gaussian model is sufficient for carbon. The empirical equation may be used to double check the separately obtained model that is currently used by the planning system. The empirical model in air for dose of spot scanning proton and carbon ion beams cannot be directly used for irregular shaped patient fields, but can be to provide reference values for clinical use and quality assurance.« less
  • Purpose: To estimate the clinical relevance of approximations made in analytical dose calculation methods (ADCs) used for treatment planning on tumor coverage and tumor control probability (TCP) in proton therapy. Methods: We compared dose distributions planned with ADC to delivered dose distributions (as determined by TOPAS Monte Carlo (MC) simulations). We investigated 10 patients per site for 5 treatment sites (head-and-neck, lung, breast, prostate, liver). We evaluated differences between the two dose distributions analyzing dosimetric indices based on the dose-volume-histograms, the γ-index and the TCP. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was estimated for the bladder and anterior rectum formore » the prostate patients. Results: We find that the target doses are overestimated by the ADC by 1–2% on average for all patients considered. All dosimetric indices (the mean dose, D95, D50 and D02, the dose values covering 95%, 50% and 2% of the target volume, respectively) are predicted within 5% of the delivered dose. A γ-index with a 3%/3mm criteria had a passing rate for target volumes above 96% for all patients. The TCP predicted by the two algorithms was up to 2%, 2.5%, 6%, 6.5%, and 11% for liver and breast, prostate, head-and-neck and lung patients, respectively. Differences in NTCP for anterior-rectum and bladder for prostate patients were less than 3%. Conclusion: We show that ADC provide adequate dose distributions for most patients, however, they can Result in underdosage of the target by as much as 5%. The TCP was found to be up to 11% lower than predicted. Advanced dose-calculation methods like MC simulations may be necessary in proton therapy to ensure target coverage for heterogeneous patient geometries, in clinical trials comparing proton therapy to conventional radiotherapy to avoid biases due to systematic discrepancies in calculated dose distributions, and, if tighter range margins are considered. Fully funded by NIH grants.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the differences in dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd) maps calculated in water by means of different strategies found in the literature in proton therapy Monte Carlo simulations and to compare their values with dose-mean lineal energy microdosimetry calculations. Methods: The Geant4 toolkit (version 9.6.2) was used. Dose and LETd maps in water were scored for primary protons with cylindrical voxels defined around the beam axis. Three LETd calculation methods were implemented. First, the LETd values were computed by calculating the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) associated to each single step weighted by the energy deposition (including delta-rays)more » along the step. Second, the LETd was obtained for each voxel by computing the LET along all the steps simulated for each proton track within the voxel, weighted by the energy deposition of those steps. Third, the LETd was scored as the quotient between the second momentum of the LET distribution, calculated per proton track, over the first momentum. These calculations were made with various voxel thicknesses (0.2 – 2.0 mm) for a 160 MeV proton beamlet and spread-out Bragg Peaks (SOBP). The dose-mean lineal energy was calculated in a uniformly-irradiated water sphere, 0.005 mm radius. Results: The value of the LETd changed systematically with the voxel thickness due to delta-ray emission and the enlargement of the LET distribution spread, especially at shallow depths. Differences of up to a factor 1.8 were found at the depth of maximum dose, leading to similar differences at the central and distal depths of the SOBPs. The third LETd calculation method gave better agreement with microdosimetry calculations around the Bragg Peak. Conclusion: Significant differences were found between LETd map Monte Carlo calculations due to both the calculation strategy and the voxel thickness used. This could have a significant impact in radiobiologically-optimized proton therapy treatments.« less
  • Purpose: To commission and investigate the accuracy of an output (cGy/MU) prediction model for a compact passively scattered proton therapy system. Methods: A previously published output prediction model (Sahoo et al, Med Phys, 35, 5088–5097, 2008) was commissioned for our Mevion S250 proton therapy system. This model is a correction-based model that multiplies correction factors (d/MUwnc=ROFxSOBPF xRSFxSOBPOCFxOCRxFSFxISF). These factors accounted for changes in output due to options (12 large, 5 deep, and 7 small), modulation width M, range R, off-center, off-axis, field-size, and off-isocenter. In this study, the model was modified to ROFxSOBPFxRSFxOCRxFSFxISF-OCFxGACF by merging SOBPOCF and ISF for simplicitymore » and introducing a gantry angle correction factor (GACF). To commission the model, outputs over 1,000 data points were taken at the time of the system commissioning. The output was predicted by interpolation (1D for SOBPF, FSF, and GACF; 2D for RSF and OCR) with inverse-square calculation (ISF-OCR). The outputs of 273 combinations of R and M covering total 24 options were measured to test the model. To minimize fluence perturbation, scattered dose from range compensator and patient was not considered. The percent differences between the predicted (P) and measured (M) outputs were calculated to test the prediction accuracy ([P-M]/Mx100%). Results: GACF was required because of up to 3.5% output variation dependence on the gantry angle. A 2D interpolation was required for OCR because the dose distribution was not radially symmetric especially for the deep options. The average percent differences were −0.03±0.98% (mean±SD) and the differences of all the measurements fell within ±3%. Conclusion: It is concluded that the model can be clinically used for the compact passively scattered proton therapy system. However, great care should be taken when the field-size is less than 5×5 cm{sup 2} where a direct output measurement is required due to substantial output change by irregular block shape.« less