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Title: SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams

Abstract

Purpose: Apertures or collimators are used to laterally shape proton beams in double scattering (DS) delivery and to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam (PB) delivery. However, aperture-scattered dose is not included in the current dose calculations of treatment planning system (TPS). The purpose of this study is to provide a method to correct the aperture-scattered dose based on an analytical model. Methods: A DS beam with a non-divergent aperture was delivered using a single-room proton machine. Dose profiles were measured with an ion-chamber scanning in water and a 2-D ion chamber matrix with solid-water buildup at various depths. The measured doses were considered as the sum of the non-contaminated dose and the aperture-scattered dose. The non-contaminated dose was calculated by TPS and subtracted from the measured dose. Aperture scattered-dose was modeled as a 1D Gaussian distribution. For 2-D fields, to calculate the scatter-dose from all the edges of aperture, a sum of weighted distance was used in the model based on the distance from calculation point to aperture edge. The gamma index was calculated between the measured and calculated dose with and without scatter correction. Results: For a beam with range of 23 cm and aperture size of 20more » cm, the contribution of the scatter horn was ∼8% of the total dose at 4 cm depth and diminished to 0 at 15 cm depth. The amplitude of scatter-dose decreased linearly with the depth increase. The 1D gamma index (2%/2 mm) between the calculated and measured profiles increased from 63% to 98% for 4 cm depth and from 83% to 98% at 13 cm depth. The 2D gamma index (2%/2 mm) at 4 cm depth has improved from 78% to 94%. Conclusion: Using the simple analytical method the discrepancy between the measured and calculated dose has significantly improved.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3]; ;  [4]; ;  [5]
  1. Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  2. Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  3. Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)
  4. Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)
  5. Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642383
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APERTURES; CORRECTIONS; GAUSS FUNCTION; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SCATTERING

Citation Formats

Sun, B, Liu, S, Zhang, T, Zhao, T, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Bradley, J, and Mutic, S. SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956278.
Sun, B, Liu, S, Zhang, T, Zhao, T, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Bradley, J, & Mutic, S. SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956278.
Sun, B, Liu, S, Zhang, T, Zhao, T, Yang, D, Grantham, K, Goddu, S, Bradley, J, and Mutic, S. 2016. "SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956278.
@article{osti_22642383,
title = {SU-F-T-142: An Analytical Model to Correct the Aperture Scattered Dose in Clinical Proton Beams},
author = {Sun, B and Liu, S and Zhang, T and Zhao, T and Yang, D and Grantham, K and Goddu, S and Bradley, J and Mutic, S},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Apertures or collimators are used to laterally shape proton beams in double scattering (DS) delivery and to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam (PB) delivery. However, aperture-scattered dose is not included in the current dose calculations of treatment planning system (TPS). The purpose of this study is to provide a method to correct the aperture-scattered dose based on an analytical model. Methods: A DS beam with a non-divergent aperture was delivered using a single-room proton machine. Dose profiles were measured with an ion-chamber scanning in water and a 2-D ion chamber matrix with solid-water buildup at various depths. The measured doses were considered as the sum of the non-contaminated dose and the aperture-scattered dose. The non-contaminated dose was calculated by TPS and subtracted from the measured dose. Aperture scattered-dose was modeled as a 1D Gaussian distribution. For 2-D fields, to calculate the scatter-dose from all the edges of aperture, a sum of weighted distance was used in the model based on the distance from calculation point to aperture edge. The gamma index was calculated between the measured and calculated dose with and without scatter correction. Results: For a beam with range of 23 cm and aperture size of 20 cm, the contribution of the scatter horn was ∼8% of the total dose at 4 cm depth and diminished to 0 at 15 cm depth. The amplitude of scatter-dose decreased linearly with the depth increase. The 1D gamma index (2%/2 mm) between the calculated and measured profiles increased from 63% to 98% for 4 cm depth and from 83% to 98% at 13 cm depth. The 2D gamma index (2%/2 mm) at 4 cm depth has improved from 78% to 94%. Conclusion: Using the simple analytical method the discrepancy between the measured and calculated dose has significantly improved.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956278},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: In the authors’ proton therapy system, the patient-specific aperture can be attached to the nozzle of spot scanning beams to shape an irradiation field and reduce lateral fall-off. The authors herein verified this system for clinical application. Methods: The authors prepared four types of patient-specific aperture systems equipped with an energy absorber to irradiate shallow regions less than 4 g/cm{sup 2}. The aperture was made of 3-cm-thick brass and the maximum water equivalent penetration to be used with this system was estimated to be 15 g/cm{sup 2}. The authors measured in-air lateral profiles at the isocenter plane and integralmore » depth doses with the energy absorber. All input data were obtained by the Monte Carlo calculation, and its parameters were tuned to reproduce measurements. The fluence of single spots in water was modeled as a triple Gaussian function and the dose distribution was calculated using a fluence dose model. The authors compared in-air and in-water lateral profiles and depth doses between calculations and measurements for various apertures of square, half, and U-shaped fields. The absolute doses and dose distributions with the aperture were then validated by patient-specific quality assurance. Measured data were obtained by various chambers and a 2D ion chamber detector array. Results: The patient-specific aperture reduced the penumbra from 30% to 70%, for example, from 34.0 to 23.6 mm and 18.8 to 5.6 mm. The calculated field width for square-shaped apertures agreed with measurements within 1 mm. Regarding patient-specific aperture plans, calculated and measured doses agreed within −0.06% ± 0.63% (mean ± SD) and 97.1% points passed the 2%-dose/2 mm-distance criteria of the γ-index on average. Conclusions: The patient-specific aperture system improved dose distributions, particularly in shallow-region plans.« less
  • Purpose: Microdosimetric measurements were performed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, to assess the dose equivalent external to passively delivered proton fields for various clinical treatment scenarios. Methods and Materials: Treatment fields evaluated included a prostate cancer field, cranial and spinal medulloblastoma fields, ocular melanoma field, and a field for an intracranial stereotactic treatment. Measurements were completed with patient-specific configurations of clinically relevant treatment settings using a silicon-on-insulator microdosimeter placed on the surface of and at various depths within a homogeneous Lucite phantom. The dose equivalent and average quality factor were assessed as a function of both lateral displacement frommore » the treatment field edge and distance downstream of the beam's distal edge. Results: Dose-equivalent value range was 8.3-0.3 mSv/Gy (2.5-60-cm lateral displacement) for a typical prostate cancer field, 10.8-0.58 mSv/Gy (2.5-40-cm lateral displacement) for the cranial medulloblastoma field, 2.5-0.58 mSv/Gy (5-20-cm lateral displacement) for the spinal medulloblastoma field, and 0.5-0.08 mSv/Gy (2.5-10-cm lateral displacement) for the ocular melanoma field. Measurements of external field dose equivalent for the stereotactic field case showed differences as high as 50% depending on the modality of beam collimation. Average quality factors derived from this work ranged from 2-7, with the value dependent on the position within the phantom in relation to the primary beam. Conclusions: This work provides a valuable and clinically relevant comparison of the external field dose equivalents for various passively scattered proton treatment fields.« less
  • The dose delivered outside of the primary field to non-target tissues is of concern in all types of radiotherapy. For a given radiation type, this dose is dependent upon the delivery technique. Proton beams may be spread laterally to cover the target volume using scattering foils or magnetic scanning. Although scattered beams always use apertures or multi-leaf collimators to limit the radiation to normal tissues, scanning beams may or may not use them. A direct comparison of out-of-field dose for different proton delivery techniques has been thwarted because no institution had, as of April 2008, used multiple delivery techniques andmore » comparisons have had to make extrapolations from measurements or calculations made using different field sizes, ranges, modulations, collimator-to-skin distances, and collimator materials. In this study, the Monte Carlo program MCNPX was used to simulate the dose deposited outside of the primary field for scattered/collimated (STC), scanned/collimated (SNC), and scanned/uncollimated (SNU) beams that have the same field size and penetration depth within a simulated patient. The out-of-field doses ranged from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -7} of the prescribed dose. The ratio of STC to SNU dose varied from 2 to 420 depending upon the depth and distance off-axis while the SNC to SNU dose varied from 1.2 to 140. As the out-of-field doses are very small for all beam delivery techniques, decisions regarding which technique is appropriate for a given patient or facility should be based upon the magnitude of the out-of-field dose per unit prescribed dose and other issues rather than the ratio of doses for the different beam delivery techniques.« less
  • Purpose: We developed and evaluated a correction strategy for prostate rotations using direct adaptation of segments in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Method and Materials: Implanted fiducials (four gold markers) were used to determine interfractional translations, rotations, and dilations of the prostate. We used hybrid imaging: The markers were automatically detected in two pretreatment planar X-ray projections; their actual position in three-dimensional space was reconstructed from these images at first. The structure set comprising prostate, seminal vesicles, and adjacent rectum wall was transformed accordingly in 6 degrees of freedom. Shapes of IMRT segments were geometrically adapted in a class solution forward-planning approach,more » derived within seconds on-site and treated immediately. Intrafractional movements were followed in MV electronic portal images captured on the fly. Results: In 31 of 39 patients, for 833 of 1013 fractions (supine, flat couch, knee support, comfortably full bladder, empty rectum, no intraprostatic marker migrations >2 mm of more than one marker), the online aperture adaptation allowed safe reduction of margins clinical target volume-planning target volume (prostate) down to 5 mm when only interfractional corrections were applied: Dominant L-R rotations were found to be 5.3 Degree-Sign (mean of means), standard deviation of means {+-}4.9 Degree-Sign , maximum at 30.7 Degree-Sign . Three-dimensional vector translations relative to skin markings were 9.3 {+-} 4.4 mm (maximum, 23.6 mm). Intrafractional movements in 7.7 {+-} 1.5 min (maximum, 15.1 min) between kV imaging and last beam's electronic portal images showed further L-R rotations of 2.5 Degree-Sign {+-} 2.3 Degree-Sign (maximum, 26.9 Degree-Sign ), and three-dimensional vector translations of 3.0 {+-}3.7 mm (maximum, 10.2 mm). Addressing intrafractional errors could further reduce margins to 3 mm. Conclusion: We demonstrated the clinical feasibility of an online adaptive image-guided, intensity-modulated prostate protocol on a standard linear accelerator to correct 6 degrees of freedom of internal organ motion, allowing safe and straightforward implementation of margin reduction and dose escalation.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the impact of approximations in current analytical dose calculation methods (ADCs) on tumor control probability (TCP) in proton therapy. Methods: Dose distributions planned with ADC were compared with delivered dose distributions as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. A total of 50 patients were investigated in this analysis with 10 patients per site for 5 treatment sites (head and neck, lung, breast, prostate, liver). Differences were evaluated using dosimetric indices based on a dose-volume histogram analysis, a γ-index analysis, and estimations of TCP. Results: We found that ADC overestimated the target doses on average by 1% to 2%more » for all patients considered. The mean dose, D95, D50, and D02 (the dose value covering 95%, 50% and 2% of the target volume, respectively) were predicted within 5% of the delivered dose. The γ-index passing rate for target volumes was above 96% for a 3%/3 mm criterion. Differences in TCP were up to 2%, 2.5%, 6%, 6.5%, and 11% for liver and breast, prostate, head and neck, and lung patients, respectively. Differences in normal tissue complication probabilities for bladder and anterior rectum of prostate patients were less than 3%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that current dose calculation algorithms lead to underdosage of the target by as much as 5%, resulting in differences in TCP of up to 11%. To ensure full target coverage, advanced dose calculation methods like Monte Carlo simulations may be necessary in proton therapy. Monte Carlo simulations may also be required to avoid biases resulting from systematic discrepancies in calculated dose distributions for clinical trials comparing proton therapy with conventional radiation therapy.« less