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Title: SU-F-T-129: Impact of Radial Fluctuations in RBE for Therapeutic Proton Beams

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the off axis relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for actively scanned proton beams and determine if a constant radial RBE can be assumed. Methods: The PHITS Monte Carlo code paired with a microscopic analytical function was used to determine probability distribution functions of the lineal energy in 0.3µm diameter spheres throughout a water phantom. Twenty million primary protons were simulated for a 0.6cm diameter pencil beam. Beam energies corresponding to Bragg Peak depths of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300mm were used and evaluated transversely every millimeter and radially for annuli of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 4.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 and 25.0mm outer radius. The acquired probability distributions were reduced to dose-mean lineal energies and applied to the modified microdosimetric kinetic model, for human submandibular gland (HSG) cells, to calculate relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to 60Co beams at the 10% survival threshold. Results: RBE was generally seen to increase as distance from the central axis (CAX) increased. However, this increase was only seen in low dose regions and its overall effects on the transverse biological dose remains low. In the entrance region of the phantom (10mm depth), minimum and maximum calculated RBEs variedmore » between 15.22 and 18.88% for different energies. At the Bragg peak, this difference ranged from 3.15 to 26.77%. Despite these rather large variations the dose-weighted RBE and the CAX RBE varied by less than 0.14% at 10mm depth and less than 0.16% at the Bragg peak. Similarly small variations were found at all depths proximal of the Bragg peak. Conclusion: Although proton RBE does vary radially, its overall effect on biological dose is minimal and the use of a radially constant RBE in treatment planning for scanned proton beams would not produce large errors.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States)
  2. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642370
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BRAGG CURVE; COBALT 60; DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RBE

Citation Formats

Butkus, M, and Palmer, T. SU-F-T-129: Impact of Radial Fluctuations in RBE for Therapeutic Proton Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956265.
Butkus, M, & Palmer, T. SU-F-T-129: Impact of Radial Fluctuations in RBE for Therapeutic Proton Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956265.
Butkus, M, and Palmer, T. 2016. "SU-F-T-129: Impact of Radial Fluctuations in RBE for Therapeutic Proton Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956265.
@article{osti_22642370,
title = {SU-F-T-129: Impact of Radial Fluctuations in RBE for Therapeutic Proton Beams},
author = {Butkus, M and Palmer, T},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate the off axis relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for actively scanned proton beams and determine if a constant radial RBE can be assumed. Methods: The PHITS Monte Carlo code paired with a microscopic analytical function was used to determine probability distribution functions of the lineal energy in 0.3µm diameter spheres throughout a water phantom. Twenty million primary protons were simulated for a 0.6cm diameter pencil beam. Beam energies corresponding to Bragg Peak depths of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300mm were used and evaluated transversely every millimeter and radially for annuli of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 4.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 and 25.0mm outer radius. The acquired probability distributions were reduced to dose-mean lineal energies and applied to the modified microdosimetric kinetic model, for human submandibular gland (HSG) cells, to calculate relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to 60Co beams at the 10% survival threshold. Results: RBE was generally seen to increase as distance from the central axis (CAX) increased. However, this increase was only seen in low dose regions and its overall effects on the transverse biological dose remains low. In the entrance region of the phantom (10mm depth), minimum and maximum calculated RBEs varied between 15.22 and 18.88% for different energies. At the Bragg peak, this difference ranged from 3.15 to 26.77%. Despite these rather large variations the dose-weighted RBE and the CAX RBE varied by less than 0.14% at 10mm depth and less than 0.16% at the Bragg peak. Similarly small variations were found at all depths proximal of the Bragg peak. Conclusion: Although proton RBE does vary radially, its overall effect on biological dose is minimal and the use of a radially constant RBE in treatment planning for scanned proton beams would not produce large errors.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956265},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Treatment planning in proton therapy uses a generic value for the relative biological efficiency (RBE) of 1.1 throughout the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) generated. In this article, we report on the variation of the RBE with depth in the SOBP of the 76- and 201-MeV proton beams used for treatment at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods and Materials: The RBE (relative to {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays) of the two modulated proton beams at three positions in the SOBP was determined in two human tumor cells using as endpoints clonogenic cell survival and the incidence of DNAmore » double-strand breaks (DSBs) as measured by pulse-field gel electrophoresis without and with enzymatic treatment to reveal clustered lesions. Results: The RBE for induced cell killing by the 76-MeV beam increased with depth in the SOBP. However for the 201-MeV protons, it was close to that for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and did not vary significantly. The incidence of DSBs and clustered lesions was higher for protons than for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays, but did not depend on the proton energy or the position in the SOBP. Conclusions: Until now, little attention has been paid to the variation of RBE with depth in the SOBP as a function of the nominal energy of the primary proton beam and the molecular nature of the DNA damage. The RBE increase in the 76-MeV SOBP implies that the tumor tissues at the distal end receives a higher biologically equivalent dose than at the proximal end, despite a homogeneous physical dose. This is not the case for the 201-MeV energy beam. The precise determination of the effects of incident beam energy, modulation, and depth in tissues on the linear energy transfer-RBE relationship is essential for treatment planning.« less
  • Many new techniques for delivering radiation therapy are being developed for the treatment of cancer. One of these, proton therapy, is becoming increasingly popular because of the precise way in which protons deliver dose to the tumor volume. In order to achieve this level of precision, extensive treatment planning needs to be carried out to determine the optimum beam energies, energy spread (which determines the width of the spread-out Bragg peak), and angles for each patient's treatment. Due to the level of precision required and advancements in computer technology, there is increasing interest in the use of Monte Carlo calculationsmore » for treatment planning in proton therapy. However, in order to achieve optimum simulation times, nonelastic nuclear interactions between protons and the target nucleus within the patient's internal structure are often not accounted for or are simulated using less accurate models such as analytical or ray tracing. These interactions produce high LET particles such as neutrons, alpha particles, and recoil protons, which affect the dose distribution and biological effectiveness of the beam. This situation has prompted an investigation of the importance of nonelastic products on depth dose distributions within various materials including water, A-150 tissue equivalent plastic, ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) muscle, ICRP bone, and ICRP adipose. This investigation was conducted utilizing the GEANT4.5.2 Monte Carlo hadron transport toolkit.« less
  • Purpose: Microdosimetric measurements were performed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, to assess the dose equivalent external to passively delivered proton fields for various clinical treatment scenarios. Methods and Materials: Treatment fields evaluated included a prostate cancer field, cranial and spinal medulloblastoma fields, ocular melanoma field, and a field for an intracranial stereotactic treatment. Measurements were completed with patient-specific configurations of clinically relevant treatment settings using a silicon-on-insulator microdosimeter placed on the surface of and at various depths within a homogeneous Lucite phantom. The dose equivalent and average quality factor were assessed as a function of both lateral displacement frommore » the treatment field edge and distance downstream of the beam's distal edge. Results: Dose-equivalent value range was 8.3-0.3 mSv/Gy (2.5-60-cm lateral displacement) for a typical prostate cancer field, 10.8-0.58 mSv/Gy (2.5-40-cm lateral displacement) for the cranial medulloblastoma field, 2.5-0.58 mSv/Gy (5-20-cm lateral displacement) for the spinal medulloblastoma field, and 0.5-0.08 mSv/Gy (2.5-10-cm lateral displacement) for the ocular melanoma field. Measurements of external field dose equivalent for the stereotactic field case showed differences as high as 50% depending on the modality of beam collimation. Average quality factors derived from this work ranged from 2-7, with the value dependent on the position within the phantom in relation to the primary beam. Conclusions: This work provides a valuable and clinically relevant comparison of the external field dose equivalents for various passively scattered proton treatment fields.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the effect of charged particle tracking step size limit in the determination of the LET spectrum of therapeutic proton beams using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The LET spectra at different depths in a water phantom from a 79.7 MeV spot-scanning proton beam were calculated using Geant4. Five different tracking step limits 0.5 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.05 mm, 0.01 mm and 1 μm were adopted. The field size was set to 10×10 cm{sup 2} on the isocenter plane. A 40×40×6 cm{sup 3} water phantom was modelled as the irradiation target. The voxel size was set to 1×1×0.5 mm{supmore » 3} to obtain high resolution results. The LET spectra were scored ranging from 0.01 keV/μm to 10{sup 4}keV/μm in the logarithm scale. In addition, the proton energy spectra at different depths were also scored. Results: The LET spectra calculated using different step size limits were compared at four depths along the Bragg curve. At any depths, the spread of the LET spectra increases with the decrease of step size limit. In the dose buildup region (z = 1.9 cm) and in the region proximal to the Bragg peak (z = 3.95 cm), the frequency mean LET does not vary with decreasing step size limit. At Bragg peak (z = 4.75 cm) and in the distal edge (z = 4.85 cm), frequency mean LET decreases with decreasing step size limit. The energy spectrum at any specified depths does not vary with the step size limit. Conclusion: The calculated LET has a spectral distribution rather than a single value at any depths along the Bragg curve and the spread of the computed spectrum depends on the tracking step limit. Incorporating the LET spectrum distribution into the robust IMPT optimization plan may provide more accurate biological dose distribution than using the dose- or fluence-averaged LET. NIH Program Project Grant P01CA021239.« less
  • Purpose: To characterize the response of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors (OSLDs) exposed to therapeutic proton beams of differing beam quality. Methods: We prepared Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSLDs from the same material as commercially available nanoDot dosimeters (Landauer, Inc). We irradiated the OSLDs in modulated proton beams of varying quality, as defined by the residual range. An absorbed dose to water of 0.2 Gy was delivered to all OSLDs with the residual range values varying from 0.5 to 23.5 cm (average LET in water from ∼0.5 to 2.5 keV/µm). To investigate the beam quality dependence of differentmore » emission bands within the OSL spectrum, we performed OSLD readouts using both continuous-wave stimulation (CW-OSL) and pulsed stimulation (P-OSL) with two sets of optical filters (Hoya U-340 and Kopp 5113). For all readout modes, the relative absorbed dose sensitivity ( S{sub rel}) for each beam quality was calculated using OSLDs irradiated in a 6 MV photon beam as a reference. Results: We found that the relative absorbed dose sensitivity was highly dependent on both readout mode and integration time of the OSL signal. For CW-OSL signals containing only the blue emission band, S{sub rel} was between 0.85 and 0.94 for 1 s readouts and between 0.82 and 0.93 for 10 s readouts. Similarly, for P-OSL readouts containing only the blue emission band S{sub rel} ranged from 0.86 to 0.91, and 0.82 to 0.93 for 1 s and 10 s readouts, respectively. For OSLD signals containing only the UV emission band, S{sub rel} ranged from 1.00 to 1.46, and 0.97 to 1.30 for P-OSL readouts of 1 s and 10 s, respectively. Conclusion: For measurements of absorbed dose using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C OSLDs in therapeutic proton beams, dependence on beam quality was smallest for readout protocols that selected the blue emission band with small integration times. DA Granville received financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.« less