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Title: SU-F-T-83: Infant Total Skin Electron Therapy Using Five Fields Technique

Abstract

Purpose: We were presented with a 9 month old boy with Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) involving the skin. The plan was to treat the entire skin using 6 MeV electrons with the infant under complete anesthesia. The purpose of this work is to commission the 6 MeV electron beam and to develop a technique that can be used to deliver total skin dose to infants with minimal patient immobilization. Methods: A baby mannequin phantom that mimics the child’s length was used to determine the best technique to treat the infant. The 76 cm long phantom was placed on the floor. The phantom was placed in four unique immobilization devices to simulate four different treatment positions (anterior, posterior, left lateral and right lateral). Radiochromic films were used to determine beam profile in both axial and radial directions, and percent depth dose (PDD). Absolute calibration of the machine output at 214 cm distance was measured using an Exradin A11 parallel-plate ion chamber. A 1.0 cm plexiglass scatter plate was inserted in the collimator. Mosfet dosimeters were used for dose verification for phantom and and patient. Results: At 214 cm source to surface distance (SSD) using gantry angle of + 20o frommore » vertical beam flatness is + 10% in the radial direction over a region of 70 cm and + 4% in the axial direction over 60 cm. A five field arrangement was determined to optimally deliver the desired dose with > 90% uniformity. The fifth field was used to boost the head vertex. Conclusion: It is possible to treat sedated infants with total skin dose using five positions. Four positions were enough to cover the body and the fifth position boosts the vertex of the head. All fractions can be reproduced accurately daily because of the patient’s stable immobilization.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. University of Kansas Hospital, Overland Park, KS (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642331
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BEAM PROFILES; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; ELECTRON BEAMS; INFANTS; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MEV RANGE 01-10; MYELOID LEUKEMIA; PATIENTS; PHANTOMS; RADIOTHERAPY; SKIN

Citation Formats

Saleh, H, Howlin, T, and Massey, V. SU-F-T-83: Infant Total Skin Electron Therapy Using Five Fields Technique. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956219.
Saleh, H, Howlin, T, & Massey, V. SU-F-T-83: Infant Total Skin Electron Therapy Using Five Fields Technique. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956219.
Saleh, H, Howlin, T, and Massey, V. 2016. "SU-F-T-83: Infant Total Skin Electron Therapy Using Five Fields Technique". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956219.
@article{osti_22642331,
title = {SU-F-T-83: Infant Total Skin Electron Therapy Using Five Fields Technique},
author = {Saleh, H and Howlin, T and Massey, V},
abstractNote = {Purpose: We were presented with a 9 month old boy with Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) involving the skin. The plan was to treat the entire skin using 6 MeV electrons with the infant under complete anesthesia. The purpose of this work is to commission the 6 MeV electron beam and to develop a technique that can be used to deliver total skin dose to infants with minimal patient immobilization. Methods: A baby mannequin phantom that mimics the child’s length was used to determine the best technique to treat the infant. The 76 cm long phantom was placed on the floor. The phantom was placed in four unique immobilization devices to simulate four different treatment positions (anterior, posterior, left lateral and right lateral). Radiochromic films were used to determine beam profile in both axial and radial directions, and percent depth dose (PDD). Absolute calibration of the machine output at 214 cm distance was measured using an Exradin A11 parallel-plate ion chamber. A 1.0 cm plexiglass scatter plate was inserted in the collimator. Mosfet dosimeters were used for dose verification for phantom and and patient. Results: At 214 cm source to surface distance (SSD) using gantry angle of + 20o from vertical beam flatness is + 10% in the radial direction over a region of 70 cm and + 4% in the axial direction over 60 cm. A five field arrangement was determined to optimally deliver the desired dose with > 90% uniformity. The fifth field was used to boost the head vertex. Conclusion: It is possible to treat sedated infants with total skin dose using five positions. Four positions were enough to cover the body and the fifth position boosts the vertex of the head. All fractions can be reproduced accurately daily because of the patient’s stable immobilization.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956219},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To report our experience with rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and to examine response by disease stage and race. Methods and Materials: We reviewed our outcomes for 68 CTCL patients who received RTSEI (≥30 Gy) from 2000 to 2013. Primary outcomes were complete clinical response (CCR), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Using log–rank tests and Cox proportional hazards, OS and RFS were compared across tumor stages at time of RTSEI with further racial subgroup analysis. Results: Median age at diagnosis and at time of radiation was 52 and 56 years, respectively.more » Median follow-up was 5.1 years, 49% were African American, and 49% were female. At time of treatment, 18, 37, and 13 patients were T stage 2, 3, and 4, respectively. At 6 weeks after RTSEI, overall CCR was 82% (88%, 83%, and 69% for T2, T3, and T4, respectively). Median RFS was 11 months for all patients and 14, 10, and 12 months for stage T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Tumor stage was not associated with RFS or CCR. Maintenance therapy after RTSEI was associated with improved RFS in both crude and multivariable analysis, controlling for T stage. Median OS was 76 months (91 and 59 months for T3 and T4, respectively). With the exception of improved OS in African Americans compared with whites at stage T2, race was not associated with CCR, RFS, or OS. Conclusions: These results represent the largest RTSEI clinical outcomes study in the modern era using a dual-field rotational technique. Our observed response rates match or improve upon the standard set by previous outcome studies using conventional TSEI techniques, despite a large percentage of advanced CTCL lesions in our cohort. We found that clinical response after RTSEI did not seem to be affected by T stage or race.« less
  • Mycosis fungoides is a cutaneous lymphoma that accounts for 2–3% of all lymphomas. Several clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of TSEBT (Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy) in patients with mycosis fungoides. It is important to develop this technique and make it available to a larger number of patients in Mexico. Because large fields for electron TSEBT are required in order to cover the entire body of the patient, beam characterization at conventional treatment distances is not sufficient and a calibration distance of 500cm or higher is required. Materials and methods: Calibration of radiochromic Gafchromic® EBT2 film (RCF) for electronsmore » was performed in a solid water phantom (Scanditronix Wellhöfer) at a depth of 1.4cm and a Source Axis Distance (SAD) of 100cm. A polynomial fit was applied to the calibration curve, in order to obtain the equation relating dose response with optical density. The spatial distribution is obtained in terms of percentage of the dose, placing 3×3cm samples of RCF on the acrylic screen, which is placed in front of the patient in order to obtain maximum absorbed dose on the skin, covering an area of 200×100cm{sup 2}. The Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curve was obtained placing RCF samples at depths of 0, 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9cm in the solid water phantom, irradiated with an ELEKTA SINERGY Linear Accelerator electron beam, with an energy of 6 MeV, at a Source Skin Distance (SSD) of 500cm, with 1000MU = 100Gy, with a cone of 40×40cm and gantry angle of 90°. The RCFs were scanned on a flatbed scanner (EPSON EXPRESSION 10000 XL) and the images were processed with the ImageJ program using a region of interest (ROI) of 1×1cm{sup 2}. Results: The relative spatial dose distribution and the percentage depth dose for a SSD of 500±0.5cm, over an area of 200×100cm{sup 2} was obtained, resulting to an effective maximum dose depth (Z{sub ref}) for electrons of 1.4±0.05cm. Using the same experimental data, horizontal and vertical beam profiles were also graphed, showing a horizontal symmetry of ±035%, horizontal flatness of ±3.62%, vertical symmetry of ±2.1% and vertical flatness of ±14.2%. Conclusions: The electron beam was characterized and the data obtained were useful to determine the spatial dose distribution to a SSD of 500±0.5cm, in an area of 200×100cm{sup 2}. Dose profiles were obtained both horizontally and vertically, thus allowing to assess electron beam symmetry and flatness. PDD analysis up to a depth of 9±0.05cm, has made possible to establish the depth of electron penetration, assuring an only skin irradiation treatment.« less
  • Purpose: Rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) is used in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Due to inter-film uniformity variations the dosimetry measurement of a large electron beam of a very low energy is challenging. This work provides a method to improve the accuracy of flatness and symmetry for a very large treatment field of low electron energy used in dual beam RTSEI. Methods: RTSEI is delivered by dual angles field a gantry of ±20 degrees of 270 to cover the upper and the lower halves of the patient body with acceptable beam uniformity. The field size is inmore » the order of 230cm in vertical height and 120 cm in horizontal width and beam energy is a degraded 6 MeV (6 mm of PMMA spoiler). We utilized parallel plate chambers, Gafchromic films and OSLDs as a measuring devices for absolute dose, B-Factor, stationary and rotational percent depth dose and beam uniformity. To reduce inter-film dosimetric variation we introduced a new specific correction method to analyze beam uniformity. This correction method uses some image processing techniques combining film value before and after radiation dose to compensate the inter-variation dose response differences among films. Results: Stationary and rotational depth of dose demonstrated that the Rp is 2 cm for rotational and the maximum dose is shifted toward the surface (3mm). The dosimetry for the phantom showed that dose uniformity reduced to 3.01% for the vertical flatness and 2.35% for horizontal flatness after correction thus achieving better flatness and uniformity. The absolute dose readings of calibrated films after our correction matched with the readings from OSLD. Conclusion: The proposed correction method for Gafchromic films will be a useful tool to correct inter-film dosimetric variation for the future clinical film dosimetry verification in very large fields, allowing the optimizations of other parameters.« less
  • Comparison of dosimetry measured in a noncylindrical Rando-Alderson phantom by two-field, four-field, and six-field total-skin electron-beam therapy (TSEBT) techniques with our dual-field rotational (DFR) technique reveals a superior dosimetry for the latter. Our technique of dual-field rotational DFR-TSEBT is described in detail, and its advantages and indications for the primary management of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) are discussed.
  • Purpose: This study presents a novel technique in which a uniform radiation dose to the whole body, soles, and scalp vertex can be achieved in one electron beam treatment fraction. Methods: The patient was treated at a machine with a home-made rotating board. The patients were treated in two groups in the prone and supine positions by leaning onto an inner rotational board in the prone and supine positions. Each group can further be separated into two subgroups using tilting and rotational positions for treatment. Results: One of the beams was directed 15.5 deg. upward and 15.5 deg. downward frommore » the horizontal axis to provide a field size of as large as 200 cm in height and 140 cm in width. An incline angle of 31.5 deg. anteriorly (forward) or posteriorly (backward) of the outer frame at an angle rotated 60 deg. clockwise or counterclockwise to the inner frame was found to be most appropriate. The output for the rotating board total skin electron therapy (RB-TSET) was 0.046 cGy/MU at ISD of 350 cm. The beam characteristics of the RB-TSET depth dose curves were R{sub 50}=2.48 cm, d{sub max}=0.7 cm, E{sub 0}=5.78 MeV, and R{sub p}=3.4 cm. Conclusions: The RB-TSET technique presented in this study is able to deliver a uniform radiation dose to the patient's skin surface, the scalp vertex, and soles of the feet all at one time, eliminating the trouble of having to further irradiate these two regions separately when using the Stanford six field technique.« less