skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-F-T-81: Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation

Abstract

Purpose: Treating nose skin with an electron beam is of a substantial challenge due to uneven nose surfaces and tissue heterogeneity, and consequently could have a great uncertainty of dose accuracy on the target. This work explored the method using Monte Carlo (MC)-based energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), which would be delivered with a photon MLC in a standard medical linac (Artiste). Methods: The traditional treatment on the nose skin involves the usage of a bolus, often with a single energy electron beam. This work avoided using the bolus, and utilized mixed energies of electron beams. An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. A clinical case of the nose skin, which was previously treated with a single 9 MeV electron beam, was replanned with the MERT method. The resultant dose distributions were compared with the plan previously clinically used. The dose volume histogram of the MERT plan is calculated to examine the coverage of the planningmore » target volume (PTV) and critical structure doses. Results: The target coverage and conformality in the MERT plan are improved as compared to the conventional plan. The MERT can provide more sufficient target coverage and less normal tissue dose underneath the nose skin. Conclusion: Compared to the conventional treatment technique, using MERT for the nose skin treatment has shown the dosimetric advantages in the PTV coverage and conformality. In addition, this technique eliminates the necessity of the cutout and bolus, which makes the treatment more efficient and accurate.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642329
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANIMAL TISSUES; ELECTRON BEAMS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MEV RANGE 01-10; MEV RANGE 10-100; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NOSE; PHASE SPACE; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SKIN

Citation Formats

Jin, L, Fan, J, Eldib, A, Price, R, and Ma, C. SU-F-T-81: Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956217.
Jin, L, Fan, J, Eldib, A, Price, R, & Ma, C. SU-F-T-81: Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956217.
Jin, L, Fan, J, Eldib, A, Price, R, and Ma, C. 2016. "SU-F-T-81: Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956217.
@article{osti_22642329,
title = {SU-F-T-81: Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation},
author = {Jin, L and Fan, J and Eldib, A and Price, R and Ma, C},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Treating nose skin with an electron beam is of a substantial challenge due to uneven nose surfaces and tissue heterogeneity, and consequently could have a great uncertainty of dose accuracy on the target. This work explored the method using Monte Carlo (MC)-based energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), which would be delivered with a photon MLC in a standard medical linac (Artiste). Methods: The traditional treatment on the nose skin involves the usage of a bolus, often with a single energy electron beam. This work avoided using the bolus, and utilized mixed energies of electron beams. An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. A clinical case of the nose skin, which was previously treated with a single 9 MeV electron beam, was replanned with the MERT method. The resultant dose distributions were compared with the plan previously clinically used. The dose volume histogram of the MERT plan is calculated to examine the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) and critical structure doses. Results: The target coverage and conformality in the MERT plan are improved as compared to the conventional plan. The MERT can provide more sufficient target coverage and less normal tissue dose underneath the nose skin. Conclusion: Compared to the conventional treatment technique, using MERT for the nose skin treatment has shown the dosimetric advantages in the PTV coverage and conformality. In addition, this technique eliminates the necessity of the cutout and bolus, which makes the treatment more efficient and accurate.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956217},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: Uneven nose surfaces and air cavities underneath and the use of bolus present complexity and dose uncertainty when using a single electron energy beam to plan treatments of nose skin with a pencil beam-based planning system. This work demonstrates more accurate dose calculation and more optimal planning using energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) delivered with a pMLC. Methods: An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reducemore » the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. Our previous work demonstrates good agreement in percentage depth dose and off-axis dose between calculations and film measurement for various field sizes. A MERT plan was generated for treating the nose skin using a patient geometry and a dose volume histogram (DVH) was obtained. The work also shows the comparison of 2D dose distributions between a clinically used conventional single electron energy plan and the MERT plan. Results: The MERT plan resulted in improved target dose coverage as compared to the conventional plan, which demonstrated a target dose deficit at the field edge. The conventional plan showed higher dose normal tissue irradiation underneath the nose skin while the MERT plan resulted in improved conformity and thus reduces normal tissue dose. Conclusion: This preliminary work illustrates that MC-based MERT planning is a promising technique in treating nose skin, not only providing more accurate dose calculation, but also offering an improved target dose coverage and conformity. In addition, this technique may eliminate the necessity of bolus, which often produces dose delivery uncertainty due to the air gaps that may exist between the bolus and skin.« less
  • Energy modulated electron therapy (EMET) based on Monte Carlo dose calculation is a promising technique that enhances the treatment planning and delivery of superficially located tumors. This study investigated the application of EMET using a novel few-leaf electron collimator (FLEC) in head and neck and breast sites in comparison with three-dimensional conventional radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. Treatment planning was performed for two parotid cases and one breast case. Four plans were compared for each case: 3D-CRT, IMRT, 3D-CRT in conjunction with EMET (EMET-CRT), and IMRT in conjunction with EMET (EMET-IMRT), all of which weremore » performed and calculated with Monte Carlo techniques. For all patients, dose volume histograms (DVHs) were obtained for all organs of interest and the DVHs were used as a means of comparing the plans. Homogeneity and conformity of dose distributions were calculated, as well as a sparing index that compares the effect of the low isodose lines. In addition, the whole-body dose equivalent (WBDE) was estimated for each plan. Adding EMET delivered with the FLEC to 3D-CRT improves sparing of normal tissues. For the two head and neck cases, the mean dose to the contralateral parotid and brain stem was reduced relative to IMRT by 43% and 84%, and by 57% and 71%, respectively. Improved normal tissue sparing was quantified as an increase in sparing index of 47% and 30% for the head and neck and the breast cases, respectively. Adding EMET to either 3D-CRT or IMRT results in preservation of target conformity and dose homogeneity. When adding EMET to the treatment plan, the WBDE was reduced by between 6% and 19% for 3D-CRT and by between 21% and 33% for IMRT, while WBDE for EMET-CRT was reduced by up to 72% when compared with IMRT. FLEC offers a practical means of delivering modulated electron therapy. Although adding EMET delivered using the FLEC results in perturbation of target conformity when compared to IMRT, it significantly improves normal tissue sparing while offering enhanced target conformity to the 3D-CRT planning. The addition of EMET systematically leads to a reduction in WBDE especially when compared with IMRT.« less
  • Dependences of mucosal dose in the oral or nasal cavity on the beam energy, beam angle, multibeam configuration, and mucosal thickness were studied for small photon fields using Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc-based code), which were validated by measurements. Cylindrical mucosa phantoms (mucosal thickness = 1, 2, and 3 mm) with and without the bone and air inhomogeneities were irradiated by the 6- and 18-MV photon beams (field size = 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2}) with gantry angles equal to 0 Degree-Sign , 90 Degree-Sign , and 180 Degree-Sign , and multibeam configurations using 2, 4, and 8 photon beams inmore » different orientations around the phantom. Doses along the central beam axis in the mucosal tissue were calculated. The mucosal surface doses were found to decrease slightly (1% for the 6-MV photon beam and 3% for the 18-MV beam) with an increase of mucosal thickness from 1-3 mm, when the beam angle is 0 Degree-Sign . The variation of mucosal surface dose with its thickness became insignificant when the beam angle was changed to 180 Degree-Sign , but the dose at the bone-mucosa interface was found to increase (28% for the 6-MV photon beam and 20% for the 18-MV beam) with the mucosal thickness. For different multibeam configurations, the dependence of mucosal dose on its thickness became insignificant when the number of photon beams around the mucosal tissue was increased. The mucosal dose with bone was varied with the beam energy, beam angle, multibeam configuration and mucosal thickness for a small segmental photon field. These dosimetric variations are important to consider improving the treatment strategy, so the mucosal complications in head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be minimized.« less
  • Purpose: To formulate uncertainty-based stopping criteria for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and intensity-modulated arc therapy patient dose distributions and evaluate their influence on MC simulation times and dose characteristics. Methods and Materials: For each structure of interest, stopping criteria were formulated as follows: {sigma}{sub rel} {<=}{sigma}{sub rel,tol} or D{sigma}{sub rel} {<=}D{sub lim}{sigma}{sub rel,tol} within {>=}95% of the voxels, where {sigma}{sub rel} represents the relative statistical uncertainty on the estimated dose, D. The tolerated uncertainty ({sigma}{sub rel,tol}) was 2%. The dose limit (D{sub lim}) equaled the planning target volume (PTV) prescription dose or a dose value related tomore » the organ at risk (OAR) planning constraints. An intensity-modulated radiotherapy-lung, intensity-modulated radiotherapy-ethmoid sinus, and intensity-modulated arc therapy-rectum patient case were studied. The PTV-stopping criteria-based calculations were compared with the PTV+OAR-stopping criteria-based calculations. Results: The MC dose distributions complied with the PTV-stopping criteria after 14% (lung), 21% (ethmoid), and 12% (rectum) of the simulation times of a 100 million histories reference calculation, and increased to 29%, 44%, and 51%, respectively, by the addition of the OAR-stopping criteria. Dose-volume histograms corresponding to the PTV-stopping criteria, PTV+OAR-stopping criteria, and reference dose calculations were indiscernible. The median local dose differences between the PTV-stopping criteria and the reference calculations amounted to 1.4% (lung), 2.1% (ethmoid), and 2.5% (rectum). Conclusions: For the patient cases studied, the MC calculations using PTV-stopping criteria only allowed accurate treatment plan evaluation. The proposed stopping criteria provided a flexible tool to assist MC patient dose calculations. The structures of interest and appropriate values of {sigma}{sub rel,tol} and D{sub lim} should be selected for each patient individually according to the clinical treatment planning goals.« less
  • Purpose: This study investigated the dose enhancement due to addition of nanoparticles with different types and concentrations in skin radiotherapy using kilovoltage photon beams. Methods: An inhomogeneous water phantom (15×15×10 cm{sup 3}) having the skin target layer (0.5–5 mm), added with different concentrations (3–40 mg/ml) of nanoparticles (Au, Pt, I, Ag and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was irradiated by the 105 and 220 kVp photon beams produced by a Gulmay D3225 Orthovoltage unit. The circular cone of 5-cm diameter and source-to-surface distance of 20 cm were used. Doses in the skin target layer with and without adding the nanoparticles were calculatedmore » using Monte Carlo simulation (the EGSnrc code) through the macroscopic approach. Dose enhancement ratio (DER), defined as the ratio of dose at the target with nanoparticle addition to the dose without addition, was calculated for each type and concentration of nanoparticle in different target thickness. Results: For Au nanoparticle, DER dependence on target thickness for the 220 kVp photon beams was not significant. However, DER for Au nanoparticle was found decreasing with an increase of target thickness when the nanoparticle concentration was increased from 18 to 40 mg/ml using the 105 kVp photon beams. For nanoparticle concentration of 40 mg/ml, DER variation with target thickness was not significant for the 220 kVp photon beams, but DEF was found decreasing with the target thickness when lower energy of photon beam (105 kVp) was used. DEF was found increasing with an increase of nanoparticle concentration. The higher the DEF increasing rate, the higher the atomic number of the nanoparticle except I and Ag for the same target thickness. Conclusion: It is concluded that nanoparticle addition can result in dose enhancement in kilovoltage skin radiotherapy. Moreover, the DER is related to the photon beam energy, target thickness, atomic number and concentration of nanoparticles.« less