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Title: SU-F-T-72: Experimental Determination of the Positionuncertainties for ROOS Ionization Chambers in Clinical Electron Beams

Abstract

Purpose: National and international dosimetry protocols assume a position accuracy for ionization chambers of less than 0.2mm. To follow this precept the manufacturer PTW-Freiburg introduced a positioning assistance system (TRUFIX) for their particular ion chambers. Aim of this study is an experimental investigation of the positioning uncertainties for ROOS-type ionization chambers. Methods: For all measurements a linear accelerator Elekta Synergie was used. The experiments were performed in a water-phantom. To collimate the electron beam a 10×10cm{sup 2} applicator was installed. All measured depth dose curves were normalized to their maximum. In all cases the TRUFIX system was applied for chamber positioning. For the first measurement series, to determine the positioning reproducibility of a ROOS chamber, one person placed the chamber three times in a 6 MeV electron beam. The mean value of this three measurements was the reference for further six random persons who repeated this procedure. The results were compared for different depths (R{sub 50}, z{sub ref} and R{sub p}). To investigate the impact of different individual chambers of the same type 10 different ROOS chambers were placed by the same person in a 6, 12 and 18MeV electron beam and the measured reference depths z{sub ref} were compared.more » Results: The absolute positioning reproducibility is less than 0.1mm for the same person. The positioning uncertainties are increasing up to +/−0.3mm if different persons perform the chamber’s positioning within the water phantom. The comparison of the 10 different ROOS chambers resulted in reference depths z{sub ref} with deviations in the range of +/−0.45mm for all energies. Conclusion: The position accuracy of 0.2mm can be fulfilled with the TRUFIX system. The comparison of the 10 different ROOS ionization chambers showed noticeable deviations in the determined reference depth. The impact of a positioning uncertainty of about 0.3–0.4mm on the total perturbation correction will be considered.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ;  [1];  [3]
  1. Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen - University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany)
  2. (Germany)
  3. University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22642320
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACCURACY; CORRECTIONS; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; DOSIMETRY; ELECTRON BEAMS; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; PERTURBATION THEORY; PHANTOMS; POSITIONING

Citation Formats

Voigts-Rhetz, P von, Zink, K, University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg, Pretzsch, T, Czarnecki, D, and Vorwerk, H. SU-F-T-72: Experimental Determination of the Positionuncertainties for ROOS Ionization Chambers in Clinical Electron Beams. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4956208.
Voigts-Rhetz, P von, Zink, K, University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg, Pretzsch, T, Czarnecki, D, & Vorwerk, H. SU-F-T-72: Experimental Determination of the Positionuncertainties for ROOS Ionization Chambers in Clinical Electron Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956208.
Voigts-Rhetz, P von, Zink, K, University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg, Pretzsch, T, Czarnecki, D, and Vorwerk, H. 2016. "SU-F-T-72: Experimental Determination of the Positionuncertainties for ROOS Ionization Chambers in Clinical Electron Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4956208.
@article{osti_22642320,
title = {SU-F-T-72: Experimental Determination of the Positionuncertainties for ROOS Ionization Chambers in Clinical Electron Beams},
author = {Voigts-Rhetz, P von and Zink, K and University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg and Pretzsch, T and Czarnecki, D and Vorwerk, H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: National and international dosimetry protocols assume a position accuracy for ionization chambers of less than 0.2mm. To follow this precept the manufacturer PTW-Freiburg introduced a positioning assistance system (TRUFIX) for their particular ion chambers. Aim of this study is an experimental investigation of the positioning uncertainties for ROOS-type ionization chambers. Methods: For all measurements a linear accelerator Elekta Synergie was used. The experiments were performed in a water-phantom. To collimate the electron beam a 10×10cm{sup 2} applicator was installed. All measured depth dose curves were normalized to their maximum. In all cases the TRUFIX system was applied for chamber positioning. For the first measurement series, to determine the positioning reproducibility of a ROOS chamber, one person placed the chamber three times in a 6 MeV electron beam. The mean value of this three measurements was the reference for further six random persons who repeated this procedure. The results were compared for different depths (R{sub 50}, z{sub ref} and R{sub p}). To investigate the impact of different individual chambers of the same type 10 different ROOS chambers were placed by the same person in a 6, 12 and 18MeV electron beam and the measured reference depths z{sub ref} were compared. Results: The absolute positioning reproducibility is less than 0.1mm for the same person. The positioning uncertainties are increasing up to +/−0.3mm if different persons perform the chamber’s positioning within the water phantom. The comparison of the 10 different ROOS chambers resulted in reference depths z{sub ref} with deviations in the range of +/−0.45mm for all energies. Conclusion: The position accuracy of 0.2mm can be fulfilled with the TRUFIX system. The comparison of the 10 different ROOS ionization chambers showed noticeable deviations in the determined reference depth. The impact of a positioning uncertainty of about 0.3–0.4mm on the total perturbation correction will be considered.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4956208},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To investigate recommendations for reference dosimetry of electron beams and gradient effects for the NE2571 chamber and to provide beam quality conversion factors using Monte Carlo simulations of the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers. Methods: The EGSnrc code system is used to calculate the absorbed dose-to-water and the dose to the gas in fully modeled ion chambers as a function of depth in water. Electron beams are modeled using realistic accelerator simulations as well as beams modeled as collimated point sources from realistic electron beam spectra or monoenergetic electrons. Beam quality conversion factors are calculated with ratios ofmore » the doses to water and to the air in the ion chamber in electron beams and a cobalt-60 reference field. The overall ion chamber correction factor is studied using calculations of water-to-air stopping power ratios. Results: The use of an effective point of measurement shift of 1.55 mm from the front face of the PTW Roos chamber, which places the point of measurement inside the chamber cavity, minimizes the difference betweenR{sub 50}, the beam quality specifier, calculated from chamber simulations compared to that obtained using depth-dose calculations in water. A similar shift minimizes the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth to the practical range and reduces the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors at the reference depth as a function of R{sub 50}. Similarly, an upstream shift of 0.34 r{sub cav} allows a more accurate determination of R{sub 50} from NE2571 chamber calculations and reduces the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth. The determination of the gradient correction using a shift of 0.22 r{sub cav} optimizes the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors if all beams investigated are considered. However, if only clinical beams are considered, a good fit to results for beam quality conversion factors is obtained without explicitly correcting for gradient effects. The inadequacy of R{sub 50} to uniquely specify beam quality for the accurate selection of k{sub Q} factors is discussed. Systematic uncertainties in beam quality conversion factors are analyzed for the NE2571 chamber and amount to between 0.4% and 1.2% depending on assumptions used. Conclusions: The calculated beam quality conversion factors for the PTW Roos chamber obtained here are in good agreement with literature data. These results characterize the use of an NE2571 ion chamber for reference dosimetry of electron beams even in low-energy beams.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate recommendations for reference dosimetry of electron beams and gradient effects for the NE2571 chamber and to provide beam quality conversion factors using Monte Carlo simulations of the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers. Methods: The EGSnrc code system is used to calculate the absorbed dose-to-water and the dose to the gas in fully modeled ion chambers as a function of depth in water. Electron beams are modeled using realistic accelerator simulations as well as beams modeled as collimated point sources from realistic electron beam spectra or monoenergetic electrons. Beam quality conversion factors are calculated with ratios ofmore » the doses to water and to the air in the ion chamber in electron beams and a cobalt-60 reference field. The overall ion chamber correction factor is studied using calculations of water-to-air stopping power ratios. Results: The use of an effective point of measurement shift of 1.55 mm from the front face of the PTW Roos chamber, which places the point of measurement inside the chamber cavity, minimizes the difference betweenR{sub 50}, the beam quality specifier, calculated from chamber simulations compared to that obtained using depth-dose calculations in water. A similar shift minimizes the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth to the practical range and reduces the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors at the reference depth as a function of R{sub 50}. Similarly, an upstream shift of 0.34 r{sub cav} allows a more accurate determination of R{sub 50} from NE2571 chamber calculations and reduces the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth. The determination of the gradient correction using a shift of 0.22 r{sub cav} optimizes the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors if all beams investigated are considered. However, if only clinical beams are considered, a good fit to results for beam quality conversion factors is obtained without explicitly correcting for gradient effects. The inadequacy of R{sub 50} to uniquely specify beam quality for the accurate selection of k{sub Q} factors is discussed. Systematic uncertainties in beam quality conversion factors are analyzed for the NE2571 chamber and amount to between 0.4% and 1.2% depending on assumptions used. Conclusions: The calculated beam quality conversion factors for the PTW Roos chamber obtained here are in good agreement with literature data. These results characterize the use of an NE2571 ion chamber for reference dosimetry of electron beams even in low-energy beams.« less
  • Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 codemore » of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.« less
  • Purpose: IAEA TRS-398 notes that cylindrical ionization chambers are preferred for reference proton dosimetry. If a cylindrical ionization chamber is used in a phantom to measure the dose as a function of depth, the effective point of measurement (EPOM) must be taken into account. IAEA TRS-398 recommends a displacement of 0.75 times the inner cavity radius (0.75R) for heavy ion beams. Theoretical models by Palmans and by Bhullar and Watchman confirmed this value. However, the experimental results vary from author to author. The purpose of this study is to accurately measure the displacement and explain the past experimental discrepancies. Methods:more » In this work, we measured the EPOM of cylindrical ionization chambers with high accuracy by comparing the Bragg-peak position obtained with cylindrical ionization chambers (PTW 30013, PTW 31016) to that obtained using a plane-parallel ionization chamber (PTW 34045). Results: The EPOMs of PTW 30013 and 31016 were shifted by 0.92 ± 0.07 R with R = 3.05 mm and 0.90 ± 0.14 R with R = 1.45 mm, respectively, from the reference point toward the source. Conclusions: The EPOMs obtained were greater than the value of 0.75R proposed by the IAEA TRS-398 and the analytical results.« less
  • The isodoses for the ultrahard x radiation of the 15.5Mev betatron in the "side elevated" bodylike water phantom were measured by means of an ionization chamber with the pendulum angle 90, 60, and 30 degrees, and a pendulum axis depth 5, 10, and 15 cm, and the results were compared on the "lying" phantom. The isodoses were set down and discussed, the dependence of the dosage maximum of the pendulum axis depth was plotted in curves, and the valid factors for these trial conditions for the three pendulum angles to measure the tumor dose communicated. Here also the dose onmore » the tumor from the x-ray value, filter, and depth dose factor can be ascertained in a relatively simple way. (auth)« less